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Chapter 12 Recovery and Rebirth: The Age of the Renaissance
Terms in this set (48)
This word means rebirth. Many people who lived in Italy between 1350 and 1550 believed that they had witnessed a rebirth of antiquity or Greco-Roman civilization, marking a new age. To them, the thousand or so years between the end of the Roman Empire and their own era constituted a middle period ("The Middle Ages"), characterizes by darkness of its classical culture. Although contemporary scholars do not believe that the Renaissance represents a sudden or dramatic cultural break within the Middle Ages, as this man argued— there was, after all, much continuity in economic, political, and social life— the Renaissance can still be viewed as a distinct period of European history that manifested itself first in Italy then spread to the rest of Europe. Italy in this time was largely an urban society. This time was an age of recovery from the calamitous fourteenth century, a time for the slow process of recuperating from the effects of the Black Death, political disorder and economic recession. This recovery was accompanied by a rediscovery of Classical antiquity.
The Swiss historian and art critic... created the modern concept of the Renaissance in his celebrated book "The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy", published in 1860. He portrayed Italy in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries as the birthplace of the modern world (he Italians were "the firstborn among the sons of modern Europe") and saw the revival of antiquity, the "perfecting of the individual," and secularism ("worldliness of the Italians") as its distinguishing features. He exaggerated the individuality and secularism of the Renaissance and failed to recognize the depths of its religious sentiment; nevertheless, he established the framework for all modern interpretations of the period. Although contemporary scholars do not believe that the Renaissance represents a sudden or dramatic cultural break within the Middle Ages, as this man argued— there was, after all, much continuity in economic, political, and social life— the Renaissance can still be viewed as a distinct period of European history that manifested itself first in Italy then spread to the rest of Europe.
Leon Battista Alberti
He was a fifteenth century Florentine architect. He said "Men can do all things if they will." A high regard for human dignity and worth and a realization of individual potentiality created a new social idea of the well-rounded personality or universal person— l'uomo universale— who was capable of achievements in many areas of life.
As early as the thirteenth century, a number of North German coastal towns had formed a commercial and military associate known as the Hansa or... By 1500 more than worthy cities belonged to the... which had established settlements and commercial bases in many cities in England and Northern Europe including the chief towns of Norway, Denmark and Britain. For almost two hundred years this group had a monopoly on Northern European trade in timber, fish, grain, metals, honey, and wines. It's southern outlet in Flanders, the port city of Bruges, became the economic crossroads of Europe in the fourteenth century, serving as the meeting place between these merchants and the Flanders Fleet of Venice. In the fifteenth century, however, silting of the port caused Bruges to enter a slow decline. So did the... which was increasingly unstable to compete with the developing larger territorial states. Overall trade recovered dramatically from the economic contraction of the fourteenth century. The Italians and especially the Venetians, despite new restrictive pressures on their eastern Mediterranean trade from the Ottoman Turks, continued to maintain a wealthy commercial empire. Not until the sixteenth century, when transatlantic discoveries gave new importance to the states along the ocean, did the petty Italian city-states begins to suffer from the competitive advantages of the ever growing and more powerful national territorial states.
House of Medici
The city of Florence regained its preeminence in banking in the fifteenth century, due primarily to this family. This family had expanded from cloth production into commerce, real estate, and banking. In it's best days (in the fifteenth century ), the... was the greatest bank in Europe, with branches in Venice, Milan, Rome, Avignon, Bruges, London, and Lyons. Moreover the family has controlling interests in industrial enterprises for wool, silk, and the mining of alum, used in the dyeing of textiles. Except for a brief period, the Medici were also the principal bankers for the papacy, a position that produced big profits and influence at the papal court. Despite its great success in the early And middle part of the fifteenth century, this bank suffered a rather sudden decline at the end of the century due to poor leadership and a series of bad loans, especially in collectible loans to rulers. In 1494, when the French expelled this family from Florence and confiscated their property, the family's financial edifice collapsed.
Castiglione's Book of the Courtier
By 1500, certain ideals came to be expected if the aristocrat. These were best expressed in... by the Italian Baldassare Castiglione. First published in 1528, this man's work soon became popular throughout Europe and remained a fundamental handbook for European aristocrats for centuries. In it... described the three basic attributes of the perfect courtier. First, nobles shout possess fundament native endowments, such as impeccable character, grace, talents and noble birth. The perfect courtier must also cultivate certain achievements. Primarily, he should participate military and bodily exercises, because the principal profession of a courtier was bearing arms. But unlike the medieval knight, who had been required only to have military skill, the Renaissance courtier was also expected to have a Classical education and to adorn his life with arts by playing a musical instrument, drawing, and painting. In... hands, the Renaissance ideal of the well-developed personality became a social ideal if the aristocracy. Finally, the aristocrat was expected to follow a certain standard of conduct. Nobles were to make a good impression; while being modest, they should not hide their accomplishments but show hem with grace. The aim of the perfect noble, then, was to serve his prince in an effective and honest way. Nobles would adhere to these principles for hundreds of years while they continued to dominate European life socially and politically.
To fight battles, city states came to rely on mercenary soldiers, whose leaders, called..., sold the services of their bands to the highest bidder. These mercenaries wreaked havoc on the country side, living by blackmail and looting when they were not actively engaged in battles many were foreigners who flocked to Italy during the periods of truce of the Hundred Years' War.
Northern Italy was divided between the duchy of Milan and the republic of Venice. After the death of the last Visconti ruler of Milan in 1447,..., of of the leading condotierri of the time, turned on his Milanese employers, conquered the city, and became its new duke. Both the Visconti and... rulers worked to crest a highly centralized territorial state. They were especially successful in devising systems of taxation that generated enormous revenues for the government.
Cosimo de Medici
The republic of Florence dominated the region of Tuscany. By the beginning of the fifteenth century, Florence was governed by a small merchant oligarchy that manipulated the apparently republican government. In 1534,... took control of thesis oligarchy. Although this wealthy family maintained republican forms of government for appearances' sake, it ran the government from behind the scenes. Through lavish patronage and careful courting of political allies,... (1434-1464), and later his grandson Lorenzo the Magnificent (1469-1492), were successful in dominating the city at a time when Florence was the center of the cultural Renaissance. This man was the de facto ruler of Florence, became the patron of the Florentine Platonic Academy and commissioned a translation of Plato's dialogues by Marsilio Ficino, one of the academy's leaders.
The Papal States
These places lay in central Italy. Although these lands were nominally under the political control of the popes, papal residence in Avignon and the Great Schism has enabled individual cities and territories, such as Urbino, Bologna, and Ferrara, to become independent of papal authority. The Renaissance popes it the fifteenth century directed much of their energy toward reestablishing their control over the...
Perhaps the most famous of the Renaissance ruling women was... (1474-1539), daughter of the duke of Ferrara, who married Francesco Gonzaga, marquis of Mantua. Their court was another important center of art and learning in the Renaissance. Educated at the brilliant court of Ferrara,... was known for her intelligence and political wisdom. Called the "First Lady of the world," she attracted artists and intellectuals to the Mantuan court and was responsible for amassing one of the finest libraries in all of Italy. Her numerous letters to friends, family, princes and artist all over Europe reveal her political acumen as well as her good sense of humor. Both before and after the death of her husband she effectively ruled mantis and won a reputation as a clever negotiator. Many Italian and European rulers at the beginning of the sixteenth century regarded... as an important political figure. After... husband was taken prisoner by the Venetians in 1509, she refused to accept the condition for his release—namely, that her son Federico be kept as a hostage by the Venetians or the Holy Roman Emperor. This person wrote to both the emperor and her husband, refusing to do as they asked.
Peace of Lodi and Balance of Power
The fragmented world of the Italian territorial states gave rise to a political practice that was later used on a larger scale by competing European states. This was the concept of a... designed to prevent the aggrandizement of any one state at the expense of the others. This system was especially evident after 1454 when the Italian states signed the..., which ended almost a half century war and inaugurated a relatively peaceful forty year era in Italy. An alliance system (Milan, Florence, and Naples versus Venice and the papacy) was then created that led to a workable balance of power within Italy. It failed however to establish lasting cooperation among the major powers or a common foreign policy.
1527 Sack of Rome
The French and Spanish competed to dominate Italy. After 1510, the war was continued by a new generation of rulers, Francis I of France and Charles I of Spain. His war was part of a long struggle for power throughout Europe between Valois and Habsburg dynasties. Italy was only a pawn for the two great powers, a convenient arena for fighting battles. The terrible... in April... by there armies of the Spanish kind Charles I brought a temporary end to he Italian wars. Thereafter, the Spaniards dominates Italy. In April..., the Spanish-imperial army of Charles V went berserk while attacking Rome and have the capital of Catholicism a fearful and bloody sacking.
Machiavelli's The Prince
After being exiled this man was forced to give politics, the great love of his life and reflected on political power and wrote books including this one. In this book this mans major concerns were the acquisition and expansion of political power as the means to restore and maintain order in his time. Late medieval political theorists believed that a ruler was justified in exercising political power only if it contributed to the common good of the people he served. The ethical side of a princes activity- how a ruler ought to behave based on Christian moral principles- was the focus of many late medieval treaties on politics. This man disagreed with this approach and considered his approach far more realistic than that of his medieval forebears. In his view, a princes attitude toward power must be based on an understanding of human nature, which he perceived as basically self centered. He believed political activity could not be restricted by moral considerations. The prince acts on behalf of the state and for the sake of the state must be willing to let his conscience sleep. His man found a good example in the new Italian ruler in CeAre Borgia, the son of Pope Alexander VI, who used ruthless measures to achieve his goal of carving out a new state in central Italy. All of these ideas were written in his book.
In Florence, the humanist movement took a new direction at the beginning of the fifteenth century when it became closely tied to Florentine civic spirit and pride, giving rise to what one modern scholar has labeled... This idea reflected the values of the urban society of the Italian Renaissance. Humanists came to believe their study of the humanities should be put to the service of the state. It was no accident that humanists serves the state as chancellors, councilors, and advisors.
Fourteenth century humanists such as... had described the intellectual life as one of solitude. This man has long been regarded as the father of the Italian Renaissance humanism. One of his literary masterpieces was The Ascent of Mount Ventoux, a colorful description of his attempt to climb a mountain in Provence in southern France and survey the world from its top. This mans primary interest is in presenting an allegory of his own souls struggle to achieve a higher spiritual state.
Leonardo Bruni's "The New Cicero"
The Classical Roman..., who was both a statesman and an intellectual, became the model of intellectuals. This man (1370-1444), a humanist, Florentine patriot, and chancellor of the city, wrote a biography of the Classical Roman... titled..., in which he waxed enthusiastic about the fusion of political action and literary creation from... life. From the author's time on, the Classical Roman served as an inspiration for the Renaissance ideal that it was the duty of an intellectual to live an active life for one's state. An individual only "grows to maturity- both intellectually and morally- through participation" in the life of the state. The author was one of the first Italian humanists to gain a thorough knowledge of Greek and became an enthusiastic pupil of the Byzantine scholar Manuel Chrysoloras, who taught in Florence from 1396-1400.
By the fifteenth century, a consciousness of being humanists emerged. This was especially evident in the career of... (1407-1457). This man was brought up in Rome and educated and both Latin and Greek. Eventually, he achieved his chief ambition of becoming a papal secretary. This man's major work The Elegances of the Latin Language was an effort to purify Medieval Latin and restore Latin to its proper position over the vernacular. The treatise examined the proper use of Classical Latin and created a new literary standard. Early humanists had tended to take as Classical models any author (including Christians) who had written before the seventh century C.E. This man identified different stages in the development of the Latin language and accepted only the Latin of the last century of the Roman Republic and the first century empire.
Marsilio Ficino and Neoplatonism
Cosimo de' Medici, the de facto ruler of Florence, became the patron of the Florentine Platonic Academy and commissioned a translation of Plato's dialogues by... (1433-1499), one of the academy's leaders. This man dedicated his life to the translation of Plato and the explosion of the Platonic philosophy known as... In two major works, This man undertook the synthesis of Christianity and Platonism into a single system. His... was based on two primary ideas, the... hierarchy of substances, or great chain of being, from the lowest form of physical matter (plants) to the purest spirit (God), in which humans occupied a central or middle position. They were the link between the material world (through the body) and the spiritual world (through the soul), and their highest duty was to ascend toward that union with God that was the true end of human existence. This man's theory of spiritual or Platonic love maintained that just as all people are bound together in their common humanity by love, so too are all parts of the universe held together by bonds of sympathetic love.
This was a another product of he Florentine intellectual environment of the late fifteenth century. At the request of Cosimo de Medici, Ficino translated into Latin a Greek work titled Corpus Hermeticum. The Hermetic manuscripts contained two kinds of writings. One type stressed the occult sciences, with an emphasis on astrology, alchemy and magic. The other focused on theological and philosophical beliefs and speculations. Some Hermetic writings espoused pantheism, serif divinity embodies in the heavenly bodies as well as in earthly objects. For renaissance intellectuals, the Hermetic revival offered a new view of humankind. They believed that human beings had been created as divine beings endowed with divine creative power but has freely chosen to enter the material world (nature). Humans could recover their dignity, however, though a regenerative experience or purification of the soul.
Pico Della Mirandola's Oration
In Italy, the most prominent magi in the late fifteenth century were Ficino and his friend and pupil,... (1463-1494). This man produced one of the most famous pieces of writing of the Renaissance, the... this man combed diligently through the works of many philosophers of different backgrounds for the common "nuggets of universal truth" that he believed were all part of God's revelation to humanity. In the... this man offered a ringing statement of unlimited human potential : "To him it is granted to have whatever he chooses, to be whatever he wills." Like Ficino, this man took an avid interest in Hermetic philosophy, accepting it as the "science of the Divine," which "embraces the deepest contemplation of the most secret things, and at last the knowledge of all nature."
At the core of the academic training Vittorino offered were the... The Renaissance view of the liberal arts was most strongly influenced by a treatise on education called Concerning character by Pietro Paolo Vergerio (1370-1444). This work stressed the importance of... as the key to true freedom, enabling individuals to reach their full potential. According to Vergerio, "We call those studies.. which are worthy of a free man; those studies by which we attain and practice virtue and wisdom; that education which calls forth, trains, and develops those highest gifts of body and mind which ennoble men." The... included history, moral philosophy, eloquence (rhetoric), letters (grammar and logic), poetry, mathematics, astronomy, and music. The purpose of... education was this to produce individuals who followed a path of virtue and wisdom and possessed the rhetorical skills with which to persuade others to do the same. Following the Greek precept of a sound mind in a sound body, Vittorinos school at Mantua also stressed physical education. Pupils were taught the skills of javelin throwing, archery, and dancing and encouraged to run, wrestle, hunt, and swim.
The high point of the Renaissance historiography was achieved at the beginning of the sixteenth century in the works of... (1483-1540). He has been called by some Renaissance scholars the greatest historian between Tacitus in the first century and Voltaire and Gibbon in the eighteenth century. His History of Italy and History of Florence represent the beginning of "modern analytical historiography." To... the purpose of writing history was to teach lessons, but he was so impressed by the complexity of historical events that he felt those lessons were not always obvious. From his extensive background in government and diplomatic affairs, he developed the skills that enabled him to analyze political situations precisely and critically. Emphasizing political and military history, his works relied heavily on personal examples and documentary sources.
The development of printing from moveable type was a gradual process that culminated between 1445 and 1450;... of Mainz played an important role in bringing the process to completion. ... Bible, completed in 1455 or 1;56, was the first true book in the West produced from moveable type.
Leonardo da Vinci and other Italians maintained that it was Giotto in the fourteenth century who began the imitation of nature. But what Giotto has begun was not taken up again until the work of... (1401-1428) in Florence. ... cycle of frescoes in the Brancacci Chapel has long been regarded as the first masterpiece of the Early Renaissance art. With his use of monumental figures, a more realistic relationship between figures and landscape, and visual representation of the laws of perspective, a new realistic style of painting was born. Onlookers become aware of a world of reality that appears to be a continuation of their own world. ... massive, three dimensional human figures provided a model for later generations of Florentine artists. This new renaissance style was absorbed and modified by other Florentine painters in the fifteenth century.
Lorenzo the Magnificent
During the last decades of the fifteenth century, a new sense of invention emerged in Florence, especially in the circle of artists and scholars who formed part of the court of the cuts leading citizen,... (grandson of Cosimo de'Medici
patron of culture and the arts
brought artists and scholars into his court
son became the pope)
One of the most prominent members of Lorenzo the Magnificent's court was... (1445-1510), whose interest in Greek and Roman mythology was well reflected in one of his most famous works,... which means spring. The painting is set in the garden of Venus, a garden of eternal spring. Though... figures are well defined, they also possess an otherworldly quality that is far removed from the realism that is far removed from the realism that characterized the painting of the Early Renaissance. At the center of the painting is Venus the goddess of love. At the right stands Flora, a Roman goddess of flowers and fertility, while Three Graces dance playfully at the left. Cupid, the son of Venus, aims his arrow at the Three Graces. At the far left of the picture is Mercury the messenger of the gods. Later in his life... experiences a profound religious crisis, leading him to reject his earlier preoccupation with pagan gods and goddesses. He burned many of his early paintings and thereafter produced only religious works.
This man (1386-1466) spent time in Rome studying and copying the statues of antiquity. His subsequent work in Florence reveals how well he had mastered the essence of what he saw. Among his numerous works was a statue of..., which is the first known life size, freestanding bronze nude in European art since antiquity. With the severed head of the giant Goliath beneath... feet, this mans statue might have celebrated Florentine heroism in the triumph of Florence over the Milanese in 1428. Like... other statues,... also radiated a simplicity and strength that reflected the dignity of humanity.
Filippo... (1377-1446), a friend of Donatello's, accompanied the latter to Rome. ... drew much inspiration from the architectural moments of Roman antiquity, and when he returned to Florence, he poured his new insights into the creation of new architecture. His first project involved the challenge of building a... for the unfinished cathedral of Florence (the...). The cathedral had been started in 1296, but it was this man who devised new building techniques and machinery to create a dome, built between 1420 and 1436, that spanned a 140-foot opening. This man was first commissioned to design the... for the unfinished cathedral of Florence in 1417, but did not begin until 1420. Although this man would have preferred the Roman hemispheric dome, for practical reasons he was forced to elevate the center of the dome and then lessen the weight of the structure by building a thin double shell around a structure of twenty four ribs. The most important ribs were placed on the outside of the dome (four of them are visible in this illustration).
By the end of the fifteenth century, Italian painters, sculptors and architects had created a new artistic environment. Many artists had mastered the new techniques for a scientific observation of the world around them and were now ready to move into individualistic forms of creative expression. This final stage of Renaissance art, which flourished between 1480 and 1520, called the... The shift to the... was marked by the increasing importance of Rome as a new cultural of the Italian Renaissance. The... was dominated by th work it three artistic giants: Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), Raphael (1483-1520), and a Michelangelo (1475-1564).
Leonardo da Vinci
This man represents a transitional figure in the shift to High Renaissance principles. He carried on he the fifteenth century experimental tradition by studying everything and even dissecting human bodies to see more clearly how nature worked. But this man agreed the need to advance beyond such realism and initiated the High Renaissance's preoccupation with the idealization of nature, or the attempt to generalize from realistic portrayal to an ideal form. This mans Last Supper, painted in Milan, is a brilliant summary of fifteenth century trends in its organization of space and use of perspective to depict subjects three dimensionally in a two dimensional medium. But it is also more. The figure of Philip is idealized, and the work embodies profound psychological dimensions. Te words of Jesus that "one of you shall betray me" are experienced directly as each of the apostles reveals his personality and relationship to Jesus. Through gesture and movement, Leonardo hoped to reveal a person's inner life. Unfortunately this man used an experimental technique in this Greco, which soon led to its physical deterioration.
Raphael's School of Athens
This man blossomed as a painter at an early age; at twenty five, he was already regarded as one of Italy's best painters. This man was acclaimed for his numerous madonnas, in which he attempted to achieve an ideal of beauty far surpassing human standards. He is well known for his frescoes in the Vatican Palace; his... reveals a world of balance, harmony and order— the underlying principles of the art of the Classical world of Greece and Rome. This man arrived in Fome in 1508 and began to paint a series of frescoes commissioned by Pope Julius II for the papal apartments at the Vatican. In..., painted in 1510 or 1511, Raphael created an imaginary gathering of ancient philosophers. In the center stand Plato and Aristotle. At the left is Pythagoras, showing his system of proportions on a slate. At the right is Ptolemy, holding a celestial globe.
This man, an accomplished painter, sculptor, and architect, was another giant of the High Renaissance. Fiercely driven by his desire to create, he worked with great passion and energy on a remarkable number of projects. This man was influenced by Neoplatonism, especially evident in his figures on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome. In 1508, Pope Julius II had called... to Rome and commissioned him to decorate the chapel ceiling. This colossal project was not completed until 1512. This man attempted to tell the story of the Fall of Man by depicting nine scenes from the biblical book of Genesis. In his Creation of Adam, the well proportioned figure of Adam awaits the divine spark. In good Neoplatonic fashion, the beauty of these figures is meant to be a good reflection of divine beauty; the more beautiful the figure the more god like the figure. Another manifestation of... search for ideal beauty was his David, a colossal marble statue commissioned by the Florentine government in 1501 and completed in 1504. Out of a piece of marble that had remained unused for fifty years, ... created a 14 foot high figure, the largest sculpture in Italy since the time of Rome.
Built by Michelangelo. Michelangelo was influenced by Neoplatonism, especially evident in his figures on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome. In 1508, Pope Julius II had called Michelangelo to Rome and commissioned him to decorate the chapel ceiling. This colossal project was not completed until 1512. This man attempted to tell the story of the Fall of Man by depicting nine scenes from the biblical book of Genesis. In his Creation of Adam, the well proportioned figure of Adam awaits the divine spark. Adam, like the other muscular figures on the ceiling, reveals an ideal type of human being with perfect proportions. In good Neoplatonic fashion, the beauty of these figures is meant to be a good reflection of divine beauty; the more beautiful the figure the more god like the figure.
Bramante and Saint Peter's
The High Renaissance was also evident in architecture, especially in the work of Donato... (1444-1514). He came from Urbino but took up residence in Rome, where he designed a small temple on the supposed site of Saint Peter's martyrdom. The Tempietto, or little temple, with its Doric volume surrounding a sanctuary enclosed by a dome, summarized the architectural ideals of the High Renaissance. Columns, dome, and sanctuary form a monumental and harmonious whole. Inspired by antiquity, ... had recaptured the grandeur of Ancient Rome. His achievement led Pope Julius II to commission him to design a new basilica for Rome, which eventually became the magnificent Saint Peter's.
Giorgio Vasari's "Lives of the Artists"
painter and biographer who wrote a series of short biographies about the great artists of Italy
helped create a new perspective on artists: that they were not artisans to be hired, but geniuses whose art was divine
allowed them to take a much higher socioeconomic status
In trying to provide an exact portrayal of their world, the artists of the north (especially the Low Countries) and Italy took different approaches. In Italy, the human form became the primary vehicle of expression as Italian artists sought to master the technical skills that allowed them to portray humans in realistic settings. The large wall spaces of Italian churches had given rise to the art of fresco painting, but in the moth, the prevalence of Gothic cathedrals with their stained glass windows resulted in more emphasis on illuminated manuscripts and wooden panel painting for altar pieces. The space available in these works was limited and great care was required to depict each object, leading northern painter to become master at rendering details.
Jan van Eyck
The most influential northern scholar of art in the fifteenth century was centered in Flanders. ... (1390-1441) was among the first to use oil paint, a medium that enabled the artist to use a varied range of colors and create fine details. In the famous Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride, ... attention to detail is staggering l: precise portraits, a glittering chandelier and a mirror reflecting the objects in the room. Although each detail was rendered as observed, it is evident that... comprehension of perspective was still uncertain. His work is truly indicative of northern Renaissance painters, who, in their effort to imitate nature did so not bf mastery of the laws of perspective and proportion but by empirical observation of visual reality and the accurate portrayal of details. Moreover, northern painters places great emphasis on the emotional intensity of religious feeling and created great works of devotional art, especially in their altarpieces.
By the end of the fifteenth century artists from the north began to study in Italy and were visually influenced by what artists were doing there. One northern artist of this later period who was greatly affected by the Italians was... (1472-1528) from Nuremberg. This man made two trips to Italy and absorbed most of what the Italians could teach, as is evident in his mastery of the laws of perspective and Renaissance theories of proportion. He wrote detailed treatises on both subjects. At the same time, as in his famous Adoration of the Magi, this man did not regret the use of minute details characteristic of northern artists. He did try, however, to integrate those details more harmoniously into his works and like the Italian artist of the High Renaissance, to achieve a standard of ideal beauty by a careful examination of the human form.
In Italy and France, the chief form of secular music was the... The Renaissance... was a poem set to music, and it's origins were in the fourteenth century Italian courts. The tests were usually twelve line poems written in the vernacular, and their theme was emotional or erotic love. By the mid sixteenth century, most... were written for five or six voices and employed a technique called text painting, in which the music tried to portray the literal meaning of the text. Thus, the melody would rise from the word heaven or use a wavelike motion to represent the word water. By the mid sixteenth century, the... had also spread To England, where the most popular form was characterized by the fa Malala refrain like that found in the English carol "Deck the Halls."
In the first half of the fifteenth century, European states continued the disintegrative pattern of the previous century. In the second half of the century, however, recovery set in, and attempts were made to reestablish the centralized power of monarchical governments. To characterize the results, some historians have used the label "Renaissance states"; others have spoken of the... especially those of England, France and Spain at the end of the fifteenth century. Although monarchs in Western Europe succeeded to varying degrees at extending their political authority, rulers in central and Eastern Europe were often weak and unable to impose their authority.
1)Louis XI The Spider and 2)Henry VII
1) The process of developing a French territorial state was greatly advanced by... (1461-1483), known as the... because of his silly and devious ways. By retaining the taille as a permanent tax imposed by royal authority this man secured a sound, regular source of income. This man was not, however, completely successful in repressing the French nobility, whose independence posed a threat to his own state building. A major problem was his supposed vassal, Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy (1467-1477). Charles attempted to create a Middle Kingdom between France and Germany, stretching from the Low Countries to Switzerland. This man opposed his efforts, and when Charles was killed in 1477 fighting he Swiss,... added part of Charles's possessions, the duchy of Burgundy, to his own lands. Three years later, the provinces of Anjou, Maine, Bar, and Provence were brought under royal control. Many historians believe that this man created a base for the later development of a strong French monarchy.
2) The War of Roses that broke out in the 1450s was a civil war that pitted the ducal house of York, whose symbol was a white rose. Many aristocratic families of England were drawn into the conflict. Finally in 1485, ... Tudor, duke of Richmond, defeated the Yorkist king, Richard III (1483-1485), at Bosworth Field and establishes the new Tudor dynasty. As the first king, ... (1485-1509) worked to reduce dissension and establish a strong monarchism government. This man ended the private wars of nobility by abolishing "livery and maintenance," the practice by which wealth aristocrats maintained private armies of followers dedicated to the service of their lord. Since England, unlike France and Spain, did not possess a standing army, the king relied on special commissions to trusted nobles to raise troops for a specific campaign, after which the troops were disbanded. This man also controlled the irresponsible activity of the nobles by establish the Court of Star Chamber, which did not use juries and allowed torture to be used to extract confessions. This man was particularly successful in extracting income from the traditional financial resources of the English monarch, such as the crown lands, judicial fees and fees, and customs duties. By using diplomacy to avoid wars, which were always expensive the king avoided having to call Parliament in any regular basis to grant him funds. By not overburdening the landed gentry and middle class with taxes, ... won their favor, and they provided much support for his monarchy. ... policies enabled him to leave England with a stable and prosperous government and an enhanced status for the monarchy itself.
1) Ferdinand and 2) Isabella
Few people at the beginning of the fifteenth century could have predicted the unification of the Iberian kingdoms. A major step in that direction was taken with the marriage of 2)... of Castile (1474-1504) and 1)... of Aragon (1479-1516) in 1469. This was a dynastic union of two rulers, not a political union. Both kingdoms maintained their own parliaments (Cortes), courts, laws, coinage, speech, customs and political organs. Nevertheless the two rulers worked to strengthen royal control of government, especially in Castile. Be royal council, which was to supervise local administration and oversee the implementation of government policies, was stripped of aristocrats and filled primarily with middle class lawyers. Trained in the principles of Roman law, these officials operated on the belief that the monarchy embodies the power of the state. Seeking to replace the undisciplined feudal levies they had inherited with a more professional army, 1)... and 2)... reorganized the military forces of Spain. The development of a strong infantry force as the heart of the new Spanish army made it the best in Europe by the sixteenth century. Because of its vast power and wealth, 1)... and 2)... recognized the importance of controlling the Catholic Church. They secured from the pope the right to select the most important church officials in Spain, virtually guaranteeing the creation of a Spanish Catholic Church in which the clergy became an instrument for the extension of royal power. The monarchs also used their authority over the church to institute reform. 2)... chief minister, the able and astute Cardinal Ximenes, restored discipline and eliminated immorality among the monks and secular clergy.
The religious zeal exhibited in Cardinal Ximenes reform program was also evident in the policy of strict religious uniformity pursued by Ferdinand and Isabella. Of course, it served a political purpose as well: to create unity and further bolster royal power. Spain possessed two large minorities, the Jews and the Muslims, both of which had generally been tolerated in medieval Spain. Although anti semitism had become a fact of life in medieval Europe, Spain had largely remained tolerant. In some areas of Spain Jews exercise much influence in economic and intellectual affairs. During the fourteenth century, however increased persecution led the majority of Spanish Jews to convert to Christianity. Although many of these converted Jews came to play important roles in Spanish society, complaints that they were secretly reverting to Judaism prompted Ferdinand and Isabella to ask the pope to introduce the... to Spain in 1478. Under royal control, the... worked with cruel efficiency to guarantee the orthodoxy of the the conversation but had no authority over practicing Jews. Consequently, in 1492, flush with the success of their conquest of Muslim Granada, Ferdinand and Isabella took the drastic step of expelling all professed Jews from Spain. It is estimated that 150,000 out of possibly 200,000 Jews fled. Ferdinand and Isabella also pursued a policy of battling the Muslims by attacking the kingdom of Granada. The war against th remaining Muslim city lasted eleven years until the final bastion of the city of Granada fell in 1492. Muslims were now encouraged to convert to Christianity, and in 1502, Isabella issues a decree expelling all professed Muslims from her kingdom. To be Spanish was to be catholic, a policy of uniformity enforced by the...
family that held the throne of Holy Roman Emperor
slowly taken possession of many properties along the Danube River, which was known as Austria
one of the wealthiest landholders
success is due to many dynastic marriages
Constantinople and 1453
In..., the Ottomans also completed the demise of the Byzantine Empire. With 80,000 troops ranged against only 7,000 defenders, Sultan Mehmet II laid siege to... In their attack on the city, the Turks made use of massive commons with 26-foot barrels that could launch stone balls weighing up to 1,200 pounds each. Finally the walls were breached; the Byzantine emperor died in the final battle. Mehmet II, standing before the palace of the emperor, paused to reflect on the passing nature of human glory. After their conquest of... the Ottoman Turks tried to complete their conquest of the Balkans, where they had been established since the fourteenth century.
1) John Wyclif and 2) John Hus
1) English Lollardy was a product of the Oxford theologian... (1328-1384), whose disgust with clerical corruption led him to make a far-ranging attack on papal authority and medieval Christian beliefs and practices. This man alleged that there was no basis in Scripture for papal claims of temporal authority and advocated that the popes be stripped of their authority and their property. Believing that the Bible should be a Christian's sole authority, this man urged that it be made available in the vernacular languages do that every Christian could read it. Rejecting all practices not mentioned in scripture, this man condemned pilgrimages, the generation of saints, and a whole series of rituals and rites that had developed in the medieval church. This man attracted a number of followers who came to be known as Lollards.
2) A marriage between the royal families of England and Bohemia enabled Lollards ideas to spread to Bohemia, where they reinforced the ideas of a group of Czech reformers led by the chancellor of the university at Prague,... (1374-1415). In his call for reform,... urged the elimination of the worldliness and corruption of the clergy and attacked the excessive power of the papacy within the Catholic Church. This mans objections fell on receptive ears, for the Catholic Church, as one of the largest landowners in Bohemia, was already widely criticized. Moreover many clergymen were German, and the native Czech's strong resentment of the Germans who dominated Bohemia also contributed to this mans movement. The Council of Constance attempted to deal with the growing problem of heresy by summoning... to the council. Granted safe conduct by Emperor Sigismund, ... went in the hope of a free hearing of his ideas. Instead he was arrested, condemned as a heretic (by a narrow vote), and burned at the stake in 1415. This action turned the unrest in Bohemia into revolutionary upheaval, and the resulting Hussite wars racked the Holy Roman Empire until a truce was arranged in 1436.
from the end of the Great Schism in 1417 until the beginning of the Reformation in the start of the sixteenth century
govern the Church in spiritual matters, and also charged with worldly tasks
pursued politics and government of the Papal States shamelessly, such as Julius II
relied on nepotism to bolster their families' interests
actions led to a further decline in support and moral leadership as they committed acts thought to be too temporal for a spiritual leader to concern himself with
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