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Chapter 12 Recovery and Rebirth: The Age of the Renaissance

Terms in this set (48)

1) The process of developing a French territorial state was greatly advanced by... (1461-1483), known as the... because of his silly and devious ways. By retaining the taille as a permanent tax imposed by royal authority this man secured a sound, regular source of income. This man was not, however, completely successful in repressing the French nobility, whose independence posed a threat to his own state building. A major problem was his supposed vassal, Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy (1467-1477). Charles attempted to create a Middle Kingdom between France and Germany, stretching from the Low Countries to Switzerland. This man opposed his efforts, and when Charles was killed in 1477 fighting he Swiss,... added part of Charles's possessions, the duchy of Burgundy, to his own lands. Three years later, the provinces of Anjou, Maine, Bar, and Provence were brought under royal control. Many historians believe that this man created a base for the later development of a strong French monarchy.
2) The War of Roses that broke out in the 1450s was a civil war that pitted the ducal house of York, whose symbol was a white rose. Many aristocratic families of England were drawn into the conflict. Finally in 1485, ... Tudor, duke of Richmond, defeated the Yorkist king, Richard III (1483-1485), at Bosworth Field and establishes the new Tudor dynasty. As the first king, ... (1485-1509) worked to reduce dissension and establish a strong monarchism government. This man ended the private wars of nobility by abolishing "livery and maintenance," the practice by which wealth aristocrats maintained private armies of followers dedicated to the service of their lord. Since England, unlike France and Spain, did not possess a standing army, the king relied on special commissions to trusted nobles to raise troops for a specific campaign, after which the troops were disbanded. This man also controlled the irresponsible activity of the nobles by establish the Court of Star Chamber, which did not use juries and allowed torture to be used to extract confessions. This man was particularly successful in extracting income from the traditional financial resources of the English monarch, such as the crown lands, judicial fees and fees, and customs duties. By using diplomacy to avoid wars, which were always expensive the king avoided having to call Parliament in any regular basis to grant him funds. By not overburdening the landed gentry and middle class with taxes, ... won their favor, and they provided much support for his monarchy. ... policies enabled him to leave England with a stable and prosperous government and an enhanced status for the monarchy itself.
Few people at the beginning of the fifteenth century could have predicted the unification of the Iberian kingdoms. A major step in that direction was taken with the marriage of 2)... of Castile (1474-1504) and 1)... of Aragon (1479-1516) in 1469. This was a dynastic union of two rulers, not a political union. Both kingdoms maintained their own parliaments (Cortes), courts, laws, coinage, speech, customs and political organs. Nevertheless the two rulers worked to strengthen royal control of government, especially in Castile. Be royal council, which was to supervise local administration and oversee the implementation of government policies, was stripped of aristocrats and filled primarily with middle class lawyers. Trained in the principles of Roman law, these officials operated on the belief that the monarchy embodies the power of the state. Seeking to replace the undisciplined feudal levies they had inherited with a more professional army, 1)... and 2)... reorganized the military forces of Spain. The development of a strong infantry force as the heart of the new Spanish army made it the best in Europe by the sixteenth century. Because of its vast power and wealth, 1)... and 2)... recognized the importance of controlling the Catholic Church. They secured from the pope the right to select the most important church officials in Spain, virtually guaranteeing the creation of a Spanish Catholic Church in which the clergy became an instrument for the extension of royal power. The monarchs also used their authority over the church to institute reform. 2)... chief minister, the able and astute Cardinal Ximenes, restored discipline and eliminated immorality among the monks and secular clergy.
The religious zeal exhibited in Cardinal Ximenes reform program was also evident in the policy of strict religious uniformity pursued by Ferdinand and Isabella. Of course, it served a political purpose as well: to create unity and further bolster royal power. Spain possessed two large minorities, the Jews and the Muslims, both of which had generally been tolerated in medieval Spain. Although anti semitism had become a fact of life in medieval Europe, Spain had largely remained tolerant. In some areas of Spain Jews exercise much influence in economic and intellectual affairs. During the fourteenth century, however increased persecution led the majority of Spanish Jews to convert to Christianity. Although many of these converted Jews came to play important roles in Spanish society, complaints that they were secretly reverting to Judaism prompted Ferdinand and Isabella to ask the pope to introduce the... to Spain in 1478. Under royal control, the... worked with cruel efficiency to guarantee the orthodoxy of the the conversation but had no authority over practicing Jews. Consequently, in 1492, flush with the success of their conquest of Muslim Granada, Ferdinand and Isabella took the drastic step of expelling all professed Jews from Spain. It is estimated that 150,000 out of possibly 200,000 Jews fled. Ferdinand and Isabella also pursued a policy of battling the Muslims by attacking the kingdom of Granada. The war against th remaining Muslim city lasted eleven years until the final bastion of the city of Granada fell in 1492. Muslims were now encouraged to convert to Christianity, and in 1502, Isabella issues a decree expelling all professed Muslims from her kingdom. To be Spanish was to be catholic, a policy of uniformity enforced by the...
1) English Lollardy was a product of the Oxford theologian... (1328-1384), whose disgust with clerical corruption led him to make a far-ranging attack on papal authority and medieval Christian beliefs and practices. This man alleged that there was no basis in Scripture for papal claims of temporal authority and advocated that the popes be stripped of their authority and their property. Believing that the Bible should be a Christian's sole authority, this man urged that it be made available in the vernacular languages do that every Christian could read it. Rejecting all practices not mentioned in scripture, this man condemned pilgrimages, the generation of saints, and a whole series of rituals and rites that had developed in the medieval church. This man attracted a number of followers who came to be known as Lollards.
2) A marriage between the royal families of England and Bohemia enabled Lollards ideas to spread to Bohemia, where they reinforced the ideas of a group of Czech reformers led by the chancellor of the university at Prague,... (1374-1415). In his call for reform,... urged the elimination of the worldliness and corruption of the clergy and attacked the excessive power of the papacy within the Catholic Church. This mans objections fell on receptive ears, for the Catholic Church, as one of the largest landowners in Bohemia, was already widely criticized. Moreover many clergymen were German, and the native Czech's strong resentment of the Germans who dominated Bohemia also contributed to this mans movement. The Council of Constance attempted to deal with the growing problem of heresy by summoning... to the council. Granted safe conduct by Emperor Sigismund, ... went in the hope of a free hearing of his ideas. Instead he was arrested, condemned as a heretic (by a narrow vote), and burned at the stake in 1415. This action turned the unrest in Bohemia into revolutionary upheaval, and the resulting Hussite wars racked the Holy Roman Empire until a truce was arranged in 1436.