27 terms

Ch 11 Biology Miller Levine

Ch 11 Introduction to Genetics
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genetics
the study of heredity
fertilization
the joining of male and female reproductive cells
trait
specific characteristic of an individual organism
hybrid
the offspring of crosses between parents with different traits
gene
factors that are passed from parents to offspring
allele
different forms of a gene
principle of dominance
some alleles are dominant and some are recessive
segregation
separation
gametes
sex cells
probability
likelihood of an event to occur
homozygous
organisms that have two identical alleles for a trait
heterozygous
organisms that have two different alleles for a trait
phenotype
physical traits
genotype
genetic makeup
Punnett square
diagram that uses mathematical probability to predict genotype and phenotype combinations of genetic crosses
independent assortment
genes for different traits can separate independently during the formation of different gametes
incomplete dominance
one allele is not completely dominant over another
coodominance
when the phenotype produced by both alleles is clearly expressed
multiple alleles
many genes exist in several different forms (more than two)
polygenic traits
traits controlled by two or more genes
homologous
each chromosome from the male parent has a corresponding chromosome from the female parent
diploid
a cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes
haploid
cells that only contain one set of chromosomes
meiosis
cellular division process that results in haploid cells
tetrad
two pair or four chromosomes formed during meiosis I
crossing-over
process that involves paired chromosomes getting so close that they exchange sections of their genetic materials resulting in new combinations of the alleles of the cell
zygote
a fertilized egg