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29 terms

endoplasmic reticulum

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The endoplasmic reticulum
is a large system of membranes that accounts for a majority of all membranes in a eukaryotic cell
there are two different kinds of ribosomes
free ribosomes and bound ribosomes
free ribosomes
...
bound ribosomes
...
ribosomes are inportant because
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the endoplasmic reticulum
...
there are two different kinds of ER
smooth er and rough er
smooth er
is not involved in protein synthesis. it is the site of the synthesis of fatty acids and phospholipids
it is called smooth er because
it has no ribosomes on its surface
smooth er
creates steroids and stores ions so that the cell can have them when it need it.
rough er
get its name because it surface is studded covered with ribosomes and is the site of synthesis for certain proteins
The rough endoplasmic reticulum (rough ER) is a
a complex membrane-bound organelle and is involved in the transport of the proteins made by ribosomes on its surface. Found in eukaryotic cells — the cells of plants, animals, and humans
the rough endoplasmic reticulum changes with the needs of the cells
When the cell is actively making proteins, the rough ER can enlarge and become more complex.
Ribosomes that dot its surface move onto the membrane as they begin to
make protein and move off when they are done.
The function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum is intimately bound to the
production and transport of proteins in the cell.
. Both types are present in
plant and animal cells
Cells specialising in the production of proteins will tend to have a larger amount of
rough ER
cells producing lipids (fats) and steroid hormones will have a greater amount of
smooth ER
The smooth ER is responsible for a variety of vital cell processes that include
carbohydrate metabolism, lipid synthesis, calcium storage, and drug and poison detoxification
carbohydrate metabolism
refers to the production, storage and use of carbohydrates within organisms.
lipid synthesis
...
calcium storage
...
The smooth ER is the source of many important enzymes that important in
lipid synthesis
Animal cells involved in hormone secretion are
rich in smooth ER, which is fitting given the role of the smooth ER in steroid and hormone production
the ER
IS a series of canals that connects the nucleus to the cytoplasm of the cell
the ribosomees on the rough ER serce as the
place for the synthesis of proteins that are directed by the genes to be put together in the ER
the main function of ER is to make and transport
proteins
carbohydrates
A component of food that supplies energy (calories) to the body.
Three broad categories of carbohydrates are
sugars (also called simple carbohydrates), starches (also called complex carbohydrates), and fiber.