EVN Ch 17

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Terms in this set (...)

Which of the following categories comprises the greatest proportion, by weight, of solid waste before recycling in the United States today?
Metal
Paper
Yard trimmings
Plastic
Glass
Paper
What is the term that refers to the reduction of the amount of waste entering the waste stream?
recycling
inventory
source reduction
liquidation
source reduction
__________ is the process of recovering organic waste through decomposition.
composting
recovery
combustion
recycling
composting
What are the goals of waste management?
disposing of waste safely as well as effectively, minimizing the amount of waste generated, and increasing recovery
developing management training for supervisors of disposal companies
promoting mid-level managers to high-level managers to more effectively manage waste
developing technology for more efficient incineration
disposing of waste safely as well as effectively, minimizing the amount of waste generated, and increasing recovery
As of 2008, the average American generates about ________ pounds of solid waste per day.
1.5
9
4.4
13.7
40
4.4
What does the red line on the graph represent?
the total amount of solid waste generated by all people in the United States per year
the average amount of solid waste generated by each household in the United States per year
the period of time in years
the average amount of solid waste generated by each person in the United States per year
the average amount of solid waste generated by each person in the United States per year
In 2000, how much solid waste did the average person in the United States produce?
220 metric tons per year
770 kilograms per year
190 metric tons per year
840 kilograms per year
770 kilograms per year
Which of the following statements is the best description of the per capita generation of solid waste between 1960 and 2010?
Between 1960 and 2010, per capita generation was relatively constant.
Between 1960 and 1990, per capita generation increased at a steady rate. After 1990, per capita generation continued to increase, but at a slower rate.
Between 1960 and 2000, per capita generation increased. After 2000, per capita generation declined.
Between 1960 and 2010, per capita generation of solid waste increased steadily.
Between 1960 and 2000, per capita generation increased. After 2000, per capita generation declined.
Which of the following actions would not reduce the per capita generation of solid waste?
composting kitchen scraps and yard waste
installation of waste-to-energy incinerators
recycling paper and plastic bottles
reducing the volume of product packaging
reusing items such as shopping bags and clothing
installation of waste-to-energy incinerators
Which of the following statements is the best description of the total MSW generation between 1960 and 2010?
Between 1960 and 2000, total MSW generation increased. After 2000, total MSW generation declined.
Between 1960 and 2010, total MSW generation increased steadily.
Between 1960 and 2005, total MSW generation increased at a steady rate. After 2005, total generation leveled off.
Between 1960 and 2010, total MSW generation remained constant.
Between 1960 and 2005, total MSW generation increased at a steady rate. After 2005, total generation leveled off.
Between 2000 and 2010, per capita generation of solid waste declined, but the total amount of MSW remained relatively constant. What caused the difference in these two trends?
The total population was increasing.
The amount of industrial waste was increasing.
Per capita generation of waste is not included in the figures for total MSW generation.
The answer cannot be determined from this graph.
The total population was increasing.
How is the generation of municipal solid waste likely to change in the next 20 years?
Total municipal waste generation will continue at its current rate.
Per capita generation of waste will continue to decline.
Total municipal waste generation will decline.
The answer cannot be determined from the graph.
The answer cannot be determined from the graph.
What is the difference between the amount of paper within the waste stream before and after recycling/composting?
1.2%
11.2%
16.2%
27.4%
11.2%
Which of the following represents the largest waste disposal practice in the United States?
composting
incineration
landfills
recycling
landfills
How can consumers decrease waste generation?
by choosing minimally packaged goods
by choosing to buy locally made goods
by choosing to purchase only imported goods
by purchasing goods with the Energy Star label
by choosing minimally packaged goods
The conversion of organic waste to mulch or humus usable for enriching soil by encouraging natural biological processes of decomposition in a controlled manner is called __________.
compromising
combustion
composting
composition
composting
What is the largest component of the U.S. municipal solid waste stream?
paper and paper products
yard waste
all varieties of plastics
metals
paper and paper products
Which of the following is an example of a product found in a "throwaway society," such as the United States?
paper napkins
reusable cloth diapers
reusable razor blades
fine silverware
paper napkins
As recycling and composting efforts have grown, what has occurred with the annual amount of waste sent to landfills?
it has proportionally decreased
it has disproportionally increased
it has stayed the same
it has proportionally increased
it has proportionally decreased
Why does the average U.S. citizen create more waste today than 50 years ago?
higher rates of consumption
lack of landfill space
high rates of recycling
lack of composting facilities
higher rates of consumption
The average American produces how much trash per day?
4.4 pounds
10 pounds
25 pounds
100 pounds
4.4 pounds
What prevents the contamination of groundwater in landfills?
locating them below the water table
locating them in layers of impermeable rock
locating them at least 6 meters above the water table
locating them in deserts
locating them at least 6 meters above the water table
Which of the following conditions results from the operation and subsequent use of old landfills built before 1976?
Modern sanitary landfills are lined with a porous material.
Hydrogen gas is generated by the organic decomposition and can be sold as a by-product.
Decommissioned landfills cannot be used as locations for schools, industries, parks, or golf courses for 300 years after the closing of the landfill.
Leachate from old landfills can contaminate groundwater.
Leachate from old landfills can contaminate groundwater.
What is one problem associated with the incineration of solid waste?
leachate the may contaminate groundwater
the waste is radioactive
hazardous chemicals are often created and released into the atmosphere
the volume of waste increases
hazardous chemicals are often created and released into the atmosphere
How can solid waste incineration be of benefit?
it can generate methane
it can be used to clean the air
the heat from waste combustion can be used to generate energy
the fly ash can be used as compost or mulch
the heat from waste combustion can be used to generate energy
How is compost used?
It is used as animal feed.
It is used to generate energy.
It is used to enrich soil.
It is used as building material.
It is used to enrich soil.
Which of the following actions is required for the recycling loop to be successful?
Consumers and businesses must purchase products made from recycled materials.
Consumers must purchase only products made in the United States.
Corporations must make more products from virgin (raw) materials.
Genetically modified bacteria must be found to consume toxic components.
Consumers and businesses must purchase products made from recycled materials.
From the 1960s to the present, the trend has been that ________ over time.
there have been equal ratios of land disposal, combustion, and recovery
less waste was recovered for recycling
less overall waste was produced
less waste was sent to landfills
more overall waste was produced
more overall waste was produced
The year ________ demonstrated the greatest volume of recycling.
1985
1960
1998
1970
2008
2008
Volume of waste recovered by composting was insignificant until ________.
1980
2000
the early 1960s
2009
the late 1980s
the late 1980s
What sort of waste is predominantly generated by U.S. industrial facilities?
radioactive
wastewater
organic
heavy metals
wastewater
Which type of analysis is performed by industrial ecologists when they examine a product from its beginning as a raw material until its disposal?
full-term analysis
life-cycle analysis
reverse-engineering analysis
disposal-tracking analysis
life-cycle analysis
Which of the following statements about current U.S. waste disposal is true?
We landfill half of our trash and recycle a third of it.
We incinerate 90% of our trash and landfill the rest.
We incinerate 50% of our trash and the rest is in open landfills.
We landfill half of our trash and recycle the other half.
We landfill half of our trash and recycle a third of it.
How can an engineered cover on landfills reduce decomposition of the trash?
The cover keeps the landfill moist on the inside, preventing decomposition.
The cap prevents hawks and blue jays from decomposing the trash.
The cover keeps the landfill dry, which decreases the ability of bacteria to decompose trash.
The cover causes paper to bond to plastic in the landfill.
The cover keeps the landfill dry, which decreases the ability of bacteria to decompose trash.
Which of the following statements about U.S. landfills is true?
It is against the law to build anything on an abandoned landfill.
More than three-fourths of the landfills in the United States have been closed since 1988.
Landfills should be kept as dry as possible to maintain high biodegradation levels.
There are more active landfills in existence today than ever before.
More than three-fourths of the landfills in the United States have been closed since 1988.
What is the goal of an industrial ecologist?
to make industry more profitable regardless of environmental impact
to save endangered species
to increase expenditures in industry in order to generate more landfill space
reduce the waste in industrial systems
reduce the waste in industrial systems
Why do industries tend to produce so much waste even though it is not the most efficient way to do business?
Industry ecologists do not recommend streamlining industrial waste.
It is more profitable to be efficient with waste.
In most cases, there is no financial incentive for becoming efficient.
Most of industry is run by disorganized people.
In most cases, there is no financial incentive for becoming efficient.
Which of the following types of hazardous waste are unstable and pose dangers when in contact with other compounds?
ignitable
corrosive
reactive
toxic
reactive
Which of the following sectors produces the most hazardous waste?
residential
small businesses
grocery stores
industry
industry
Which of the following choices best describes a surface impoundment used for hazardous waste disposal?
any artificial lake created by a dam
used to store and concentrate dilute liquid hazardous waste before it is moved to a permanent disposal option
a permanent disposal option for liquid hazardous wastes
used for nuclear waste storage
used to store and concentrate dilute liquid hazardous waste before it is moved to a permanent disposal option
Substances that degrade the metals that make up storage tanks or equipment are called __________.
alkaline caustic agents
toxics
ignitables
corrosives
corrosives
What is an abandoned waste site that poses a direct threat to health and the environment, designated to have U.S. government funds applied to its cleanup?
Superfund site
surface impoundment site
hazardous waste site
landfill leachate-producing site
Superfund site
Which statement about e-waste is accurate?
Electronic devices die easily, so few of the devices thrown out in the United States could be reused.
E-waste contains toxic heavy metals that can leach into the environment.
E-waste is biodegradable.
There is no financial incentive to recycle e-waste.
E-waste contains toxic heavy metals that can leach into the environment.
What do chromium, mercury, copper, and tin have in common?
They are all gases.
They are all corrosive materials.
They are heavy metals.
They are ignitable.
They are heavy metals.
What is a potential, and likely, drawback to the deep-well injection of hazardous wastes?
Well casings can corrode leaking hazardous waste into soil, rock, and gravel.
Large buildings must be constructed to house these wells.
The wells tend to catch fire.
It is hard to drill very deep into the ground.
Well casings can corrode leaking hazardous waste into soil, rock, and gravel.
Of the following, ________ produce(s) the largest amount of hazardous waste.
agriculture
industry
utilities
households
building demolitions
industry
To safeguard against groundwater contamination, sanitary landfills are ________.
located in unpopulated areas
located on industrial sites where groundwater is not used for drinking or agriculture
located on slopes so water runs downhill
lined with cement
lined with plastic and clay
lined with plastic and clay
Deep inside landfills, bacteria decompose organic wastes in a low oxygen environment. This anaerobic decomposition results in a mix of gases called landfill gas, which consists of about 50% ________.
hydrogen
methane
chlorine gas
carbon monoxide
argon
methane
The best solution to the solid waste problem is to ________.
increase the number of sanitary landfills
increase the number of WTE facilities
subsidize WTE facilities
reduce the amount of material that enters the waste stream
increase the number of oceanic burial sites
reduce the amount of material that enters the waste stream
The second step in the recycling loop is ________.
the use of recyclables by industry to manufacture new products
the incineration of paper
the elimination of number 1 plastics
the purchase by consumers of products made from recycled materials
the collection and processing of recyclable materials
the use of recyclables by industry to manufacture new products
The Fresh Kills Landfill ________.
site will be converted into a public park
is New York's first and only modern sanitary landfill
was abandoned in the late 1970s
will remain open until late 2020
is the United States' first landfill conversion project
site will be converted into a public park
________ is the conversion of organic waste into mulch or humus.
Composting
Compacting
Injecting
Cogeneration
Reusing
Composting
The earthworms, fungi, and bacteria in your compost pile will NOT be happy if you give them ________.
food scraps
autumn leaves
grass clippings
plastic
paper
plastic
RCRA is a U.S. law enacted in the 1970s to ________.
regulate how hazardous waste is handled
reduce environmental levels of the 12 most toxic chemicals, called the "dirty dozen"
protect endangered species
restrict use of off-road vehicles in national parks
regulate greenhouse gas emissions from power
regulate how hazardous waste is handled
The Trash Track project ________.
tells managers which items should be recycled
allows cities to charge polluters who dump large volumes of trash
monitors the amount of hazardous items in municipal waste
monitors the movement of trash items to improve efficiency of management processes
measures the volume of various categories of municipal waste in various cities
monitors the movement of trash items to improve efficiency of management processes
Approximately ________% of all U.S. residents are served by curbside recycling programs, and the part of the U.S. waste stream that is recycled is currently about ________%.
60; 100
50; 25
40; 50
30; 30
30; 90
50; 25
Recycling aluminum cans saves ________% of the energy needed to make the same amount of aluminum from virgin bauxite.
95
70
50
80
25
95
In Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, glass is ________.
dumped at landfills
composted
incinerated
melted down to make light bulbs
recycled into reflective paint and signs
recycled into reflective paint and signs
Industrial ecologists ________.
urge an emphasis on internal manufacturing costs rather than external costs
favor an economy that moves linearly rather than circularly
advocate for taxes on green industries
redesign industrial systems to minimize physical inefficiency and maximize economic efficiency
primarily analyze industrial inputs
redesign industrial systems to minimize physical inefficiency and maximize economic efficiency
Life-cycle analysis ________.
is the study of statistical changes in the human population
examines the cycling of carbon in the environment
defines how different organisms interact within ecosystems
is an environmental movement designed to reduce municipal traffic and encourage alternative forms of transport
examines the life cycle of products for ecological efficiency
examines the life cycle of products for ecological efficiency
All of the following are considered to define types of hazardous waste except ________.
reactive
inert
ignitable
corrosive
toxic
inert
Of the following, ________ represent criteria for classifying hazardous waste.
inorganic and organic
solid, liquid, gaseous
ignitable, corrosive, reactive, toxic
non-biodegradable and biodegradable
municipal, industrial and agricultural
ignitable, corrosive, reactive, toxic
Heavy metals ________.
bioaccumulate in animal tissues
are unregulated by the U.S. government
are not harmful unless they are directly ingested
become less hazardous after incineration
become less hazardous over time as they degrade chemically
bioaccumulate in animal tissues
________ represent(s) the largest source of unregulated hazardous waste.
Households
Small businesses
Utilities
Farmers
Large industry
Households
Of the following, ________ are classified as hazardous heavy metals.
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
lead, mercury, cadmium
any non-biodegradable materials
aluminum, iron, silicon
nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium
lead, mercury, cadmium
E-wastes are a source of ________.
radioactive materials
ignitables
acid corrosives
compostable organic compounds
heavy and precious metals
heavy and precious metals
As of 2014, under the jurisdiction of the EPA, approximately ________% of hazardous sites identified under CERCLA as a national priority have been cleaned up.
60
40
50
30
3
30
Deep-well injection ________.
injects mostly liquid hazardous wastes into porous rock isolated by impervious clay deep beneath human water supplies
is a method of disposing of hazardous wastes in deep aquifers
is a pool of strong acids on the land surface used for breaking down e-waste
has been banned as unsafe by the Dept. of the Interior
is the EPA-approved method of disposing of low-level radioactive wastes
injects mostly liquid hazardous wastes into porous rock isolated by impervious clay deep beneath human water supplies
The EPA is charged with cleaning up brownfields, which are ________.
desert regions used for unsafe nuclear waste disposal
lands whose reuse or development is complicated by the presence of hazardous materials
agricultural lands polluted by acid and heavy metals
coastal sea grass beds damaged by industrial dumping
urban areas contaminated by acid drainage from mining
lands whose reuse or development is complicated by the presence of hazardous materials
The current state of e-wastes is that ________.
by EPA mandate, all metals in electronics have been replaced by biodegradable materials
although recycling is improved, the rate of e-wastes going into landfills and incinerators is rising
the recycling rate has dropped significantly between 1999 and 2010
only because of the actions of charitable organizations, the recycling rate is 5%
because the EPA has classified e-wastes as toxic, more than 95% are being recycled
although recycling is improved, the rate of e-wastes going into landfills and incinerators is rising
The best way to reduce plastic in landfills is to ________.
reuse beverage bottles
urge the government to pass more bottle bills
increase use of recycled items
use biodegradable plastic items
buy products produced locally with minimal packaging
buy products produced locally with minimal packaging
Closing the recycling loop refers to ________.
finding ways to recycle all plastics, including polystyrene
avoiding contamination of plastic and paper collectables during sorting
covering landfills once they have outlived their usefulness and converting them to public parks
purchasing items made from recycled materials
composting of biodegradable plastic
purchasing items made from recycled materials
Plastic ________.
from beverage containers is easily recyclable if decapped, washed, and squashed
from grocery bags is labeled with recycling symbols #1 and #2
polystyrene is considered a plastic contaminant
not made from recyclables is made from renewable raw materials
containers from motor oil are recycled with beverage bottles to make new bottles
from beverage containers is easily recyclable if decapped, washed, and squashed
________ are wastepaper contaminants that cannot effectively be recycled.
Corrugated cardboard boxes
Cereal boxes
Paper shopping bags
Newspapers
Office papers
Cereal boxes
Paper and plastic waste share the following characteristics: ________.
their increased consumption leads to increased waste
they readily degrade in landfills
they are both made from petrochemicals
they cannot be incinerated to produce energy
both are more than 90% recycled in the United States
their increased consumption leads to increased waste
LDPE is ________.
banned in Denmark
the most widely recycled plastic
not currently recycled
the plastic used to make grocery bags
a toxin found in most plastics
the plastic used to make grocery bags
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