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Chemistry II Final
Terms in this set (87)
What are the symptoms of primary hyperthyroidism?
•Weight and muscle loss
•Heart intolerance (tachycardia and tremor)
•Exophthalmos (eye bulging)
What values are increased and decreased in primary hyperthyroidism?
Increase T3, T4 and Decrease TSH
What is the common cause of primary hyperthyroidism?
What are the symptoms of primary hypothyroidism?
•Weight gain, decreased mental & physical output
•Cold intolerance and enlarged thyroid gland
What values are increased and decreased in primary hypothyroidism?
Decreased T3, T4 and Increased TSH
List three disease states of hypothyroidism?
maintains blood pressure, promotes sodium reabsorption, and potassium secretion
Conn disease- elevated aldosterone,
Addison disease- lower aldosterone
What disease does a deficiency in vitamin D cause?
Rickets and osteoporosis
What disease does a deficiency in vitamin C cause?
Scurvy, necrosis of gums, emotional disturbance
What antibiotic treats infection caused by gram positive bacteria, is administered by IV, and cause red man syndrome?
Define trough level. When is it collected?
Lowest Level and should be drawn right before the dose is given
Define peak level. When is it collected?
Highest Level and collection time is oral one hour after, IV 30 minutes after
Usually 5-7 doses are required to achieve steady state. Define steady state.
Refers to the situation where the overall intake of a drug is fairly in dynamic equilibrium with its elimination
Name the major apolipoprotein found in HDL.
Name the major apolipoprotein found in LDL
Which one is associated with an increased risk of heart disease?
List two lipoproteins that reflect light and give serum a turbid appearance.
VLDL (very low density lipoprotein) & Chylomicrons
What is a desirable cholesterol level?
Desirable ≤ 200 mg/dL
Which lipoprotein is the bad cholesterol? The good cholesterol?
LDL "Bad Cholesterol" and HDL "Good Cholesterol"
List three Creatinine Kinase isoenzymes and their tissue specificity.
CK-MM (Muscle), CK-MB (Heart), and CK-BB (Brain)
In an AMI, CK rises
rises within 4-6 hrs, peaks at 12-24 hrs, returns to normal within 2-3 days.
In an AMI, LDH rises
rises within 8-12 hrs, peaks at 12-48 hrs, returns to normal within
Lactate Dehydrogenase Highest levels are seen in which disease states
Pernicious anemia & megablastic anemia
• Increased in viral hepatitis
•Specific indicator for liver disease
ALP (elevated levels normal in kids)
• Increased hepatobiliary (obstructive) diseases
• Bone disorders
• Refrigeration decrease activity
• Increased in all hepatobiliary disorders
• Pancreas, salivary glands
• Increased in acute pancreatitis
• Increased in acute pancreatitis
• More specific than amylase
What hormone increases glucose?
•Glucagon-Primary hormone responsible for increasing glucose
What hormone decreases glucose?
Insulin- only hormone that decrease blood glucose
Type I Diabetes Mellitus
Deficiency of insulin (insulinopenia)
Abrupt onset; most often seen with childhood and adolescence
Type I DM Symptoms
o Polydipsia (thirst)
o Polyuria-frequent urination
o Rapid weight loss, mental confusion, nausea, hyperventilation
What does the HbA1C determine and what tube is it collected in ?
•Glycation, reflects blood glucose levels for the past 2-3 months
•Collected in EDTA
•Normal range 4-6%
↓ HCO3 ↓pH ↓PCO2
↑ HCO3 ↑pH ↑PCO2
↓ pH ↑ PCO2 ↑ HCO3
↑pH ↓PCO2 ↑ HCO3
What tests are included in an Electrolyte Profile and how is it measured?
Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, Bicarbonate and measured by ISE
What is the formula for the anion gap?
(Na+ + K+) - (Cl- + HCO3-) = anion gap
If specimen is lipemic, utilize
What is the correct order of draw for the following tubes?
What tube is used for lactic acid? Explain how it should be collected?
Sodium fluoride (gray top),release turniquet, collected on ice
What tube is used for ammonia? Explain how it should be collected?
Purple,collected on ice
Drug of Abuse Panel - medical use, random urine, centrifuged
How many amino acids is each protein made of? What is significant about the R group?
20 amino acids
R group (radical or side chain) -this chain is what distinguishes the AA from each other
Humans need 8 essential amino acids. Define essential.
Must be ingested rather than be made by the body
Porphryins if water soluble
excretion occurs in kidneys
Porphryins if non-water soluble
excretion occurs in feces
affect the nervous system
affect the skin
Define renal threshold.
The max amount of substance that the kidneys can reabsorb. Once the limit is reached, the extra "spills over" into the urine (ex: glucose in DM)
Blood urea nitrogen/BUN
good indicator of renal function and glomerular filtration
increased in CHF
Protein electrophoresis-performed when abnormality is detected in total protein:
List Normal order of migration, at pH 8.6
•2 Alpha-1 globulins
•3 Alpha-2 globulins
specific for AMI
Myoglobin-increased in muscle damaging disorders
elevated in inflammatory response- bacterial infection, MI
CSF protein levels
increased in meningitis
Iron -essential element needed for the functioning of living cells
•Used in hemoglobin, myoglobin, enzymes
•Stored as ferritin and hemosiderin
•Transferred by transferrin
•Usually related to diet, blood loss
unsaturated iron binding capacity -how much ferritin is not storing iron
total iron binding capacity/TIBC=UIBC + serum iron
Breakdown product of hemoglobin
Jaundice-occurs when bilirubin concentration is elevated; causes deposit of excess bilirubin in skin and sclera
(indirect bilirubin)- circulating bilirubin before received in liver
(direct bilirubin)- circulating bilirubin after liver has received it and has conjugated it to albumin
decreased oxygen carrying capacity
•SS- sickle cell disease
•SA- sickle cell trait
Hgb f- fetal
Increased affinity for oxygen
•Persists 6 months after birth
•Normal variant of Hgb A
•Found at low levels in normal blood
•2 alpha and 2 delta chains
(U x V)/P X (1.73)/A
Cannot use if triglyceride > 400
Comprehensive Metabolic Panel - CMP, CHEM 12, SMA 12
Glucose calcium albumin total protein sodium potassium CO2 chloride BUN creatinine
ALP ALT AST bilirubin
Basic Metabolic Panel - BMP, SMA7 (8), CHEM 7 (8)
Glucose calcium sodium potassium CO2 chloride BUN creatinine
Renal Function Panel - RFP, Renal, Kidney panel
Sodium potassium chloride CO2 phosphorous calcium albumin BUN creatinine glucose GFR
Hepatic Panel- Liver panel, LFT
ALT ALP AST bilirubin albumin total protein GGT
Cholesterol triglycerides HDL LDL
Troponin I (Troponin T)
Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, CO2
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