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33 terms

psychology in action chapter 15

studying therapy
STUDY
PLAY
psychotherapy
techniques employed to improve psychological functioning and promote adjustments to life
three major approaches to therapy
insight: personal understanding
behavior: maladaptive behaviors
Biomedical: mental illness and medical treatments, such as drugs
insight therapies
Variety of therapies to improve psychological functioning by increasing awareness of underlying motives and improvement in thoughts feelings and or behavior
Insight therapies
Types:
psychoanalytic/psychodynamic
cognitive
humanistic group family and marital therapies
psychoanalysis
Freudian therapy designed to bring unconscious conflicts to consciousness
5 major types of psychoanalysis
free association, dream analysis (latent=real and manifest=symbolic)
analyzing resistance, analyzing transference,interpretation
psychoanalysis
major criticisms
limited applicability
lack of scientific credibility
modern psychodynamic therapy
a briefer more directive and more modern form of psychoanalysis focusing more on the conscious processes and current problems
cognitive therapies
cognitive therapy: therapy that treats problem behaviors and mental processes by focusing on faulty thought processes and beliefs
Self Talk: internal dialogue; the things people say to themselves when they interpret events
Cognitive therapies
cognitive restructuring process in cognitive therapy to change the destructive thoughts or inappropriate interpretations
Cognitive-behavior therapy; combines cognitive therapy changing faulty thinking and behavior therapy changing faulty behaviors
rational emotive behavior therapy
cognitive therapy to eliminate emotional problems through rational examination of irrational beliefs
albert ellis
beck's cognitive therapy
distorted thinking patterns
selective perception focus on negative events
overgeneralization
magnification; exaggerated undesirables and shortcomings
all or nothing thinking; seeing things in black or white no grey areas
evaluating cognitive therapies
highly effective for: depression, anxiety disorders, bulimia, anger mgmt, addiction, procrastination, some forms of schizophrenia,
insomnia
criticisms: ignoring unconscious, overemphasis on rationality, minimizing importance of the past, uses behavior techniques rather than changing cognitive structure
humanistic therapies
rogers' client centered therapy: emphasizes client's natural tendency to become healthy and productive
techniques: empathy, unconditional positive regard, genuineness, active listening
evaluating humanistic therapies
support: evidence of success
criticisms: core concepts are difficult to empirically test, data on outcomes rely on self reports from clients, mixed results on specific therapy techniques
group family and marital therapies
group therapy: a number of people meet together to work toward a therapeutic goal
family and marital: work to change maladaptive family and couple interaction patterns
behavior therapies
behavior therapy; group of techniques based on learning principles used to change maladaptive behaviors
three foundations of behavior therapy; classical conditioning, operant conditioning, observational learning
classical conditioning
systematic desensitization gradual process of extinguishing a learned fear by working through a hierarchy of fearful stimuli while remaining relaxed
aversion therapy
pairing an aversive unpleasant stimulus with a maladaptive behavior
operant conditioning
operant conditioning techniques to INCREASE adaptive behaviors: shaping; successive approximations of target behavior are rewarded; includes role-playing, behavior rehearsal, assertiveness training
operant conditioning
operant conditioning techniques used to DECREASE maladaptive behaviors:
extinction; withdrawal of attention
punishment: adding or taking away something (time out)
observational learning
modeling: watching and imitating models that demonstrate desirable behaviors
participant modeling: combining live modeling with direct and gradual practice
Bandura
evaluating behavior therapies
support for use in: phobias, ocd, eating disorders, autism, intellectual disabilities, delinquency
criticism: generalizability to the "real world" outside therapy,ethics related to control
biomedical therapies
Biomedical therapy: uses physiological interventions, such as drugs, to treat psychological disorders
three forms of biomedical therapy:
psychopharmacology, electroconvulsive therapy, psychosurgery
psychopharmacology
four major categories of drugs:
antianxiety; increases relaxation, reduces anxiety and muscle tension
antipsychotic: treats hallucinations and other symptoms of psychosis
mood stabilizers: treats manic episodes and depression
antidepressants: treats symptoms of depression
electroconvulsive therapy
biomedical therapy based on passing electrical current through the brain:
used almost exclusively when other methods have failed
likely affects mood controlling neurotransmitters
psychosurgery
surgical alteration of the brain to bring about desirable behavioral, cognitive and emotional changes
generally used when patients have not responded to other forms of therapy
lobotomy: outmoded medical procedure for mental disorders that involved cutting nerve pathways between the frontal love and the thalamus and hypothalamus
cingulotomy: limited but still being done; destroy part of the cingulum which is part of the limbic system and associated with emotion
eclectic approach
combining techniques from various theoris to find the most appropriate treatment
institutionalization
involuntary commitment:
generally can occur if people are believed to be: dangerous to self or others, believed to be in serious need of treatment, no reasonable alternatives.
deinstitutionalization: discharging patients from mental hospitals as soon as possible and discouraging admissions
finding therapy
critical/urgent need:
hospital emergency services, hotlines
have time to search:
ask for referrals, university/college counseling centers, seeking therapist best suited for your goals
culture and therapy
cultural similarities in therapy: naming the problem, qualities of the therapist, therapist credibility, familiar framework, techniques that bring relief, special time and place
culture and therapy
cultural differences: therapies in individualistic cultures emphasize independence, the self and control over one's life
therapies in collective cultures emphasize interdependence
gender and therapy
key considerations for women and therapy:
higher rates of diagnosis and treatment, stresses of poverty, stresses of aging, violence against women, stresses of multiple roles