469 terms

AP European History Review

FYI: Every term starred is the start of a new unit. I also will add every set of notecards from each unit, the of the last group testing. This should involve every unit in time for the AP Euro exam.
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Jacob Burkhardt
a Swiss writer that wrote Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860. He was the first to coin the Renaissance as a period of rebirth.
Hanseatic League
a commercial and defensive league of many merchant guilds and their market towns that were made up of many German States against trade that prevented a lot of commerce for a time
The Medici
a banking family of Florence that controlled much power in the city state; they helped patron much of the arts and made Florence the center of the Renaissance
Baldassare Castilglione
wrote Book of The Courtier; a standard for the Renaissance man that aimed to make a man achieve a well-rounded life through the arts. It also gave some advice on women, asking them to be chaste.
Francisco Sforza
the founder of the Sforza dynasty in Milan, he was able to hold his country. He was a moderate patron of the arts.
Florence
the center of the Renaissance. It was a cultural breeding ground and patroned many people of the arts. It was also a flourishing city in trade.
Venice
a city that was centered around trade and dominated in power
Papal States
the religious states that helped patron the arts. It was centered around the Pope's power
Naples
a kingdom that did not have much power; they were not a real patron of the Renaissance
Federigo da Montefeltro
one of the most successful condottieri (professional military leader) in Urbino. He was a humanist and civil leader. He made a Great Library that were centered around his books. He patroned the arts greatly and made it able to rise in power during the Renaissance
Battista Sforza
wife of Montefeltro that recieved a humanist education and was versed in Greek and Latin
Isabella d'Este
was one of the leading women in the Renaissance as a political and cultural figure that was a patron of the arts; regent of Mantua and prolific writer. She patroned the arts.
Peace of Lodi
treaty between Milan and Venice that ended the war of succession to Milan in favor of Sforza that balanced the power between Venice, Milan, Naples, Florence and the Papal States
Sack of Rome, 1527
Spanish armies of Charles I brought a temorary end to the Italian wars that allowed for the Spaniards to dominate Italy.
Niccolo Maciavelli
wrote The Prince that described that the acquisition and expansion of political power as the means to restore and mantain order. It was secular and said the ends justified the means.
Cesare Borgia
son of Pope Alexander VI that used ruthless measures to achieve his goal of carving a new state in Italy. He abandoned morality for political activity.
Humanism
an intellectual movement based on the study of the classical literary works of Greee and Rome. They studied the liberal arts and antiquity. They were largely secular.
Petrarch
the father of humanism. He was the first to say that the Middle Ages were a period of darkness. It set him searching for Latin books that put an emphasis on classical Latin such as that of Cicero.
Civic Humanism
Florence's humanist movement that was tied to civic spirit and pride in that country.
Lorenzo Valla
educated in bothLatin and Greek that made him write The Elegances of the Latin Language to purify medieval Latin and restore Latin to its proper position over the vernacular. He accepted only the Latin Language of the last century of the Roman Republic and first of their empire
Neoplatoism
the rebirth in interest in Plato that was advocated by the translator Ficino
Giovanni Pico della Mirandola
one of the most famous pieces of writing of the Renaissance called The Oration on the Dignity of Man. He combined the works of many philosophers that were all part of God's revelation to humanity. He believed in unlimited human potential.
Laura Cereta
educated in Latin by her father. She defended women to be scholars. She wrote a series of letters defending this.
Johannes Gutenburg
made the Gutenburg Bible, which was the first truebook of the West to be produced by the movable type.
Sandro Boticelli
had an interest in Greek and Roman mythology as seen with Primavera. It has well-defined figures with an otherworldly quality that is not quite realism.
Donato di Donatello
spent his time in Rome copying Greek and Roman statues. His statue David shows the triumph and strength of Florence over Milan. It had simplicity and strength that reflected the dignity of man.
Filippo Brunelleschi
a friend of Donatello that drew inspiration from architecture of Ancient Rome that built Church of San Lorenzo. He created church environments that did not overwhelm the worshipper but comforted them in human, not divine measurements.
Leonardo da Vinci
transitional figure to the High Renaissance that carried on experimenting and even disecting human bodies. He advanced the idealization of nature from natural to ideal form. It uses space and perspective to show people as three dimensional.
Raphael
he was acclaimed for madonnas that achieved an ideal beauty beyond human standards. He painted frescos in the Vatican and displayed balance, harmony and order.
Michelangelo
an accomplished painter, sculptor and architect that was influenced by Neoplatonism. His muscular figures shows an ideal being that shows divine nature.
Jan van Eyeck
the first to use oil paint that allowed a range of colors and fine details. He did not have a true grasp of perspective though. He used empirical observation of reality.
Albrechet Durer
understood laws of perspective and proportion. Adoration of the Magi brough details to the art as well as ideal form.
Guillaume Dufay
changed the music of the Mass. Used secular tunes to replace Gregorian chants as the fixed melody. He composed a number of secular songs.
Charles VII
established a royal army composed of cavalry and archers. He recieved from the Estates General the right to levy the taille without any further approval of them. It meant less power for the Estates General.
Taille
an annual direct tax on land or property
Louis XI
the Spider King that retained the taille as a permanent tax imposed by royal authority. Louis secured a sound source of income. He could not repress the French nobility though.
Charles the Bold
Duke of Burgundy that attempted to create a middle kingdom between France and Germany. Louis opposed his action and Charles was killed in battle. Louis took his lands and started to develop a strong French Monarchy.
Henry VII
the first Tudor king that worked to reduce internal dissension and establish a strong monarchy. He ended private wars of the nobility by abolishing the practice that aristocrats mantained privatearmies of followers dedicated to the service of their lord.
Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon
the dynastic union of two rulers not a political union. Both kingdoms maintained their own parliaments, courts, laws, coins, speech, customs and political organs.The two rulers worked to strengthen the government. They reorganized the military forces of Spain. They secured from the pope the right to select the most important church officials in Spain. They made people convert to Catholicism or they were forced to leave.
Maximilian I
attempted the centralize the administration by creating new instutions common to the entire empire. Opposition grom German princes doomed this. However, he arranged his son to Mary of Isabella and Redinand. Charles created heir to all three lines.
Matthias Corvinus
broke the power of wealthy lords and created a well-organized bureaucracy. He patronized humanism and brought Italian scholars and artists to bring to Hungary.
John Wyclif
disgust with clerical corruption led him to far-ranging attack on papal authority and medieval Christian beliefs and practices. Alleged that there was no basis in Scripture for papal claims and advocated popes to be stripped of their power. He attracted followers called Lollards
John Hus
urged the elemination of the worldliness and corruption of the clergy and attacked the excessive power of the papacy within the Catholic church. Hus was condemned as a heretic that led to revolutionary upheaval.
Pope Julius II
most involved in war and politics. Called the 'warrior-pope' personally led armies against his enemies,much to the disgust of pious Christians.
Pope Alexander VI
a member of the Borgia family that was known for his sensuality. He encouraged his son Cesare to carve out a central Italian territory out of the Papal States, creaing a scandal.
Pope Leo X
patron of Renaissance culture. Accelerated the construction of St. Peter's.
Northern Humanism
focused on sources of early Christianity, the Holy Scriptures and the writings of church fathers. They discovered a simple relgion. They believed that the teaching of this could bring inner piety that would reform the church and society. This brought support of education.
Desiderius Erasmus
formulated and popularized the reform program of Christian humanism. Wrote The Handbook of the Christian Knight that reflected his preoccupation with religion. He called his conception of religion the philosophy of Christ. Believed Christianity should be a guiding hilosophy for the direction of daily life. He emphasized inner piety and deemphasized the external forms of religion.
Thomas More
wrote Utopia that gave an account of idealistic life and institutions. A new social system in which cooperation and reason replaced power and fame as the proper motivating agents for human society. All people work together. They are carefully controlled for the moral welfare of society and its members.
Martin Luther
he believed that salvation through faith alone in promises of God. This became from the primary Protestant Reformatio. Luther arived from this as the sole authority of the Bible.
95 Theses
a statement that criticized that the sale of indulgences was not just. It was originally just to spark debate and not a break with the church.
Peasants' War
peasant dissatisfaction in Germany stemmed from several sources. Many peasants had not been been touched by economic improvement. Social discontent became tangled with religion, seeking for Luther's support but he did not.
Charles V
Holy Roman Emperor that ruled over an empire consisting of Spain and its overseas possessions, Austrian-Habsburg lands, Bohemia, Hungary, the Low Countries and the kingdom of Naples. He could not control his empire.
Habsburg-Valois Wars
rivalry between Charles V and Valois king of France, Francis I that became in conflict after disputed territory in southern France, the Netherlands, the Rhineland, northern Spain and Italy.
Suleiman the Magnificient
defeated and killed King Louis of Hungary, Charles V's brother in law. They overran most of Hungary and into Austria.
Schmalkaldic League
eight Lutheran princes and eleven imperial cities firned a defensive alliance against Charles V's threat of turning them back to the Catholic church. They vowed to help oneanother.
Peace of Augsburg
the division between Christianity was formally established. Lutheranism granted equal legal standing with Catholicism. Each German ruler could choose the religion for their subjects.
Anabaptists
went to simple living. Believed that The Lord's Supper was interpreted as a remembrance, a meal of fellowship celebrated in the evening in private houses. They believed in adult baptism and complete seperation of church and state.
Ulrich Zwingil
Swiss reformer that spread rthe reformation. Relics and images were abolushed, paintings and decorations were removed from the churches and repaced by whitewashed walls. The Mass was replaced by reading of the Bible.
Henry VIII
wanted to divorce his wife Catherine of Aragone. he cut off all appeals from English church courts to Rome. He abolished pope authority in England.
Thomas Cranmer
archbishop of Canterbury
Thomas Cromwell
King's principle secretary that advised annulment of marriage.
Act of Supremacy, 1534
The King was the only supreme head of the Church of England. They could control doctrine, appointments, and discipline.
Treason Act
Punishable by death to deny that the King was the supreme head of the church
Edward VI
Underage and sickly king that passed power to the council of the refency. They moved England to be more Protestand and insituted rights of clergy to marry, elimation of images and the creation of a revised Protestant lituary in the Book of Common Prayer
Mary I
Catholic who intended to restore Englan back. She burned more than 300 heretics that actually made England more Protestant.
John Calvin
The founder of Calvinism that wrote The Institutes of Christian Religion that adhered to justification of faith alone.
Predestination
God had predestined some people to be saved (the elect) and some to be damned (the reprobate). One had to openly profess faith, participate in baptism and communion and live a godly life. One couldn't be absolutely certain about this though.
Geneva
John Calvin set up a ministry that brought a church constitution that used clergy and layman for te church as well as a code enforcing discipline.
John Knox
Scottish reformer that helped spread the Calvinist thought throughout Europe
Catholic Reformation
mixture of old and new elements. Medieval Catholicism revived with mysticism through tied experiences as well as monasticism was brough in.
Society of Jesus
Jesuits became the chief instrument for the Catholic reformation that submitted to will of the church. They emphasized that human will can be strengthened by the church. The believed in strong heirarchy as well as education of the masses.
Ignatius of Loyola
experiences spiritual torment similar to Luther but turned to Catholic church. He wrote The Spiritual Exercieses as a training manual for spiritual development by exercises that helped follow the will of God
Pope Paul III
included himself in politics and patronized the arts. He appointed a reform commission and helped create papal reform.
Paul IV
he increased Inquisition so even liberals were silent. Hecreated the Index of Forbidden Books that was ungodly for Catholics to read.
Council of Trent
upheld traditional Catholic teachings in opposition to Protestant beliefs.
Huguenots
French Calvinists that made up to 50 percent of the nobility icluding the house of Bourbon which was a threat to monarchial power.
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
when reconciliation was believed between Valois king and Bourbon ruler, the French family were persuaded that Huguenots were a threat and sent a wave of violence that gripped the city.
Catherine de Medici
a powerful womanwho used her young sons as puppets to control the throne
Henry IV
a Protestant that changed to Catholicism for France to assend the throne
Edict of Nantes
acknowledged Catholicism as the official religion of France but guaranteed Huguenots could worship in select areas and recieve fortified towns as well as political privileges.
Phillip II
King of Spain that ushed it into greatness by use if the Soanish Inquisition. He made trade important as well as the importance of Catholicism.
William of Orange
wished to unify all seventeen provinces of Netherlands after a revolt but later was split to the North and south. He led the South Protestant Union as the Dutch Republic.
Elizabeth I
Settled religion that used Act of Uniformity that restored service to Book of Common Prayer as well as Act of Supremacy. She also used caution in her foreign policy.
Mary, Queen of Scots
next in line to the English throne who was Catholic. She was placed on house arrest and later executed.
Puritans
those who were in the Anglican church who wanted to remove any trace of Catholicism from their church
Spanish Armada
an attempt to get rid of a Protestant monarch in England in place of a Catholic one. Miserably failed by being caught in a storm and brought Europe to Naval power.
Prince Henry the Navigator
founded a school for navigation in Portugal. This caused Portuguese fleets to probe around the coast of west Africa for Gold. It brought back slaves from the Senegal river and gold on the southern coast of the hump of West Africa.
Bartholomeu Dias
took advantage of westerly winds in South Atlantic to tried to round the Cape of Good Hope but feared mutiny and went back.
Vasco de Gama
rounded the cape with his crew and stopped at several ports controlled by Muslim merchants along the coast of East Africa. Crossed the Arabian Sea and reached the port of Calicut and brought back ginger and cinnamon.
Christopher Columbus
an Italian explorer that worked with the queen of Spain. He believed Asia was larger than previously thought and thought he could reach it by sailing west. He send 3 ships and landed on the Bahamas, believing he had reached Asia. He converted natives to Christianity.
John Cabot
made a British claim of Canada that was the first British explorer
Treaty of Tordesillas
split the land claims between the Spanish and the Portuguese. Spain got most of Latin American and the Portuguese got the Cape of Good Hope
Hernan Cortez
arrived to the capital of the Aztecs and was greeted by Moctezuma. He believedthat he was a God and gave him gold. But eventually he tookhimgostage and pillaged the city. The disease they brought killed many of the Aztecs and led for the Spanish to take over.
Francisco Pizzaro
had steel weapons, gunpowder and horses that were unfamiliar to the Incan empire. They already were ravaged by smallpox. The emporer died because of it and his two sons claimed the throne which caused a civil war. He captured the capital and took it for the Spanish.
Encomienda
a system that permitted the conquering Spaniards to collect tribute from the natives and use them as laborers. In turn, the holders were supposed to protect them, pay them and suprivise their spiritual needs. Many took advantage of this and treated them poorly.
Bartolome de Las Casas
participated in the conquest of Cuba and recieved land and natuves, He underwent radical transformation and came to believe that the natives were treated porly. He became a Dominican friar and fought for their rights. He wrote The Tears of the Indians.
Boers
Dutch farmers that began to settle in areas outside the city of Cape Town.
King Alfonso from the Congo
became concerned about the impact of slave trade in his society
Robert Clive
an aggressive British empire-builder who eventually became the chief representative of the Easy India Company. He consolidated British control in Bengal. Would later lead to colonies being made there.
East India Company
expanded their authority for an economic decision that made regular revenue to pay for military operations in India.
Dutch East India Company
Dutch trade of spices near the East India
Jacob Fugger
head of one of the wealthiest banking firms inin Amsterdam that eventually went bankrupt
Antwerp
the older commercial and banking center replaced by Amsterdam
Mercantilism
belief that the total volume of trade was unchangeable. It's economic activity was war carried on by peaceful means. The properity of a nation depended on a plentiful supply of gold and silver. It was desirable to have more exports and imports. It focused on the role of the state with tarrifs on foreign goods.
Geradus Mercantor
a cartographer that created a world map that was based on new projections of the new world.
Thirty Years War
last of the religious wars between militant Catholicism and Calvinism
Ferdinand II
elected the Holy Roman Emperor refused to accept that he sohould be disposed by rebels. Defeated Frederick and Bohemian nobles and came back into power.
Christian IV
King of Denmark that was a Lutheran that intervened by leading an army into northern Germany. He was defeated by Wallenstein and ended Danish supremacy in the Baltic.
Maximilian of Balvaria
took the rest of the teritory that the Spanish took.
Gustavus Aldophus
king of Sweden that revived Sweden and made it a Baltic power. He brought disciplined and well-equipped Swedish army to northern German. He was a devout Lutheran and was killed in battle. It led to southern Germany to remain Catholic.
Wallenstein
a Bohemian noble that took advantage of of Fernidad's victory over Frederick and defeated the Dutch. He was assasinated but would bring victory for Southern Germany
Peace of Westphalia
ended the Thirty Years' War. Made it clear that religion and politics were seperate. It also made Calvinists, Protestants or Catholic Kings decide the religion of their people.
Louis XIII
a young king that passed his power down to the many cardinals at the time
Jacques Bossuet
wrote Politics Drawn from the Very Words of Holy Scripture that argued government was divinely ordained so that humans could live in an organized society. God established kings andthrough them reigned over all the peoples of the world. Their authority was absolute.
Cardinal Richelieu
Louis XIII's chief minister that initiated policies that eventually strengthed the power of the monarchy. He eliminated the political and military rights of the Huguenots while preserving their religious ones, Richelieu transformed them into more reliable subjects. He uncovered noble plots and crushed conspiracies.
Intendents
royal officials that were sent to the provines to execute the orders of the central government. They further strengthened the power of the King.
Cardinal Manzarian
trained successor to Richelieu that dominated the government under Anne of Austria. He was an Italian that came to France to carry out policies of his teacher.
Fronde
revolt that were against the foreign cardinal. The nobles were against centralized power and allied with the Parlement who opposed the new taxes levied by the government and the masses that did not want more taxes. They were interested in overthrowing Manzarian to secure their positions. It was crushed and said that the best hope in stability was through the crown.
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This is taking so long I stg
Louis XIV
the supreme power of France thatwas an absolute power. He was willing pay the price of being a strong ruler and created an absolute monarchy.
Jean-Baptiste Colbert
the controller of finances for the Sun King. He increased the wealth and power of France through mercantilism. He expanded the quantity and increased quality of manfactured goods. He made new luxury industries and oversaw training of workers. He franted special privileges, including tax exemptions to those with new industries.
Versailles
a palace that was the household of the king, the location of central governmental machinery and where powerful subjects found themselves. He used it as a way to keep powerful people out of politics.
Edict of Fontainbleau
revoked the Edict of Nantes
Marquis of Louvios
secretary of war that led France to develop a professional army numbering 100,000 men in peacetime and 400,000 in time of war.
Triple Alliance, 1667
Dutch, English and Sweds that forced Louis to sue for peace by invading the Spanish netherlands and forced him to accept a few towns there
League of Augsburg
Spain, Holy Roman Emperor, the United Provinces, Sweden and England that ed to his third war that brought famine to France.
War of the Spanish Succession
brought to arms about who was to get the throne of Spain. Charles II left his throne to the grandson of Louis VIV, but when he, Philip V became ruler, Europe brought up arms in an attempt to mainain a balance of power.
Peace of Utrecht, 1713
ended the war of the Spanish Succession and confirmed Philip V as Spanish ruler. Led a Spanish Bourbon dynasty but said that Spain and France's thrones were to seperated. The Spanish Netherlands, Milan and Naples were givven to Austria. Prussia got some land and Britain got Gibraltar for their naby as well as French possessions of Newfndland, Hudson Bay and Novia Scotia.
Philip III
interested in court luxury and relics, he allowed his first minister to run his country.
Philip IV
chief minister Guzman dominated his moves to revive the interest of the monarch. They curtailled the power of the church and aristocracy as well as a political reform program whose purpose was to further centralize the government of all of Spain and its possessions. This did not do much though.
Frederick William the Great Elector
came into power during the 30 Years' War. He built an efficient army and sustained it. He levied taxes for the army and oversee its training. He governed the state. He made a deal with the nobles in exchange for a free hand in government, nobles had unlimited power over peasants and were exempt from taxation.
Frederick I
granted the title King of Prussia
Leopold I
Austrian who encouraged eastward movement of Austria that was challenged by the Turks. The Turks were defeated and eventually laid their power in southeastern Europe. Austria gained possession ofthe Spanish Netherlands and revieved formal recognition of its occupation of Spanish territory. It was never fully centralized.
Peter the Great
encountered the West and had determination to westernize Russia. He wanted to transplant technology to Russia by reorganizing the army as well as the central government. Split Russia into provinces.
Table of Ranks
created opportunities for nonobles to serve the state and join the nobility due to system of ranks.
Great Northern War
Peter's was with the Danes and gained a warm-water port that would be the 'window of the west' and the capital of Russia.
Charles XII
interested in military affairs in Sweden that would involve them in wars. He lost much of his land to Russia, making Sweden's power short-lived.
Suleiman the Magnificent
brought the Turks back to Europe's attention. He extended their power into the western Mediterranean andthreatened to turn it into a Turkish Lake.
Battle of Lepanto
when the Mediterranean was threatened, the Turks were defeated by the Spanish that brought them to norm control of that area.
William III of Orange
established a monarchy in Dutch Republic but then went back to a republic as it once was.
James I
son of Mary Queen of Scots that became king of England. Undersood little about the laws, institutions and customs of the English. Believed in divine right of kings that alienated the parliament. Puritans were opposing of the policy of the king.
Charles I
Parliament passed the petition of right that the king was supposed to accept before being granted any tax revenues that granted many freedoms. He originally accepted it but decided not to. He decided that he would not summon parliament. He collected taxes on seacoast towns called ship money. He married a Catholic that aroused suspicions.
Long Parliament
took a series of steps to limit authority of the royal governemnt. There were to be no arbitrary courts, the abolition of taxes that the king had collected without their consent and the Triennial act that said they were to meet at least every 3 years.
English Civil War
King tried to take advantage of split between radicals and moderates and arrested some radicals. He arrested Putitans and started the English CivilWar.
Oliver Cromwell
made The New Model Army that was made of Puritans that believed they were fighting for the lord. He became a leader after the death of the King. He made a military dictatorship.
Rump Parliament
Presbyterians of the Parliament were purged, leaving 53 Puritans by Cromwellthat tried and condemned the king. They executed him.
Charles II
returned toEngland. The restoration of the monarchy still made Parliament have much power and its necessity for its consent to taxation was accepted. Arbitrary courts were still abolished.
James II
devout Catholic that attempted to further Catholicism in England and named them in high positions. He made it able for Catholics to become powerful in office.
Test Act, 1673
Charles II's Parliament said that only Anglicans could hold military and civil offices
Declaration of Indulgence, 1687
suspended all laws barring Catholics and Dissenters from office
Glorious Revolution
William of Orange and Mary were invited to invade England. With almost no bloodshed, there were acts of new king and queen to prevent Catholic power.
William and Mary
raised an army and invaded England while James, his wife and son fled to France. They accepted a declaration of rights and Parliament's authority
Thomas Hobbes
wrote Leviathan that claimed that the state of natre was terrible. They were guided by animalistic instincts and self-preservation. They said that a commonwealth with absolute authority should be the most powerful. It should strike fear in the citizens.
John Locke
wrote Two Treatises of Government that said humans lived in equality in the state of nature. They made government to protect their rights while people would act reasonably. If the government broke this, people could form a new government.
Mannerism
brought anxiety, uncertainty and suffering to painting. It broke down principles of balance, harmony and moderation. They distorted rules of proportion with enlongated figures
El Greco
painted enlongated and contorted figures in unusual shades that created emotion
Baroque
they brought classical ideals with spiritual feelings with dramatic effects that would be used to arouse emotions. It reflected search for power.
Bernini
action, profusion and dramatic effects mark his style. He made Ecstasy of Saint Theresa that would show mysticism.
Gentileschi
a female artist that was the first woman to be elected to the Florentine Academy of Design. She painted heroines from the Old Testament.
French Classicism
commited to values of the Renaissance. It created clarity, balance and simplicity that was a version of the High Renaissance style. Its triumph reflected chaos to order.
Rembrandt
Dutch painter that painted opulent portraits and grand, colorful scenes. He lost public interest by doing his own style and died bankrupt.
Shakespeare
a playwright that wrote through mastery of the English language as well as the codifying of the language. He knew human phschology and wrote about human condition. He brought both upper and lower classes to his plays.
Racine
wrote Greek styled tragedies that focused on conflicts such as Phedre
Moliere
wrote comedies that rediculed religious hypocrisy and social issues. Wrote Tartuffe.
Nicolaus Copernicus
studied math and astronomy. He became aware of ancient views that contradicted the Ptolematic System. He completed a manuscript called On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres. He relied on data from his predecessors. He believed that the Earth centered world was too complicated. Argued that Aristotle's Heavenly Spheres and circular orbits were correct.
heliocentric
a system that put the Sun in the center of the Solar System with the Earth revolving around it with other planets. It brought the human view to feel more small to the universe around them.
Ptolematic System
a system that put the Earth in the center of the Solar System with the sun and Heavenly bodies around it. It made humans seem like the masters and controlers of the universe.
Tycho Brahe
built a castle with a library, observatories and instruments that he designed for astronomatic study. He compiled a record of his observations that disproved the Ptolematic System but he refused to accept the Earth moved.
Johannes Kepler
Elaborated that the universe was constructed based on geometric figures. He believed that harmony of the human soul was mirrored in numerical relationships existing between the planets (music of the spheres). Gained possession of Brahe's research and made three laws of planetary motion. Orbits were elliptical; the speed of the planet is faster when it is closer to the sun and planets with larger orbits revolve at a slower average velocity.
Gaileo Galilei
Taught mathematics. First European to make systematic observations of the heavens by means of a telescope. He discovered mountains and craters on the moon, phases of Benus, sunspots and four moons round Jupiter. The Starry Messanger reiterated that the planets were not heavenly bodies. Wrote Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems: Ptolemaic and Copernican. He discovered inertia and if uniform force was applied to an object, it would move at an accelerated speed rather than uniform.
Issac Newton
Invented calculus as well as composition of light. He wrote Principa which focused on the culmination of Copernicus, Kepler and Galileo. He defined the 3 laws of motion: ever object continues in a state of rest unless deflected by a force; the rate of change of motion of an object is proportional to the force acting on it and every action has an equal of opposite reaction. He argued the laws of gravitation.
Paracelsus
rejected the work of Aristotle and Galen and attacked universities. He followed a chemical philosophy that a human was a small replica of the larger world. He used chemical remedies that went for each sickness, He is associated with diagnosis and treatment of disease.
Andreas Vesalius
Wrote On the Fabric of the Human Body that deviated from traditional practice by dissecting a body to illustrated the individual organs and structure of the human body.
William Harvey
Wrote On the Motion of Heart and Blood that demonstrated the heart was te beginning point of the circulation in the blood in the body and same blood flows in both beins and arteries and blood makes a complete circuit throughout the body.
Maragret Cavadish
Encouraged by he husband to pursue scientific works. She wrote plays an autobiography and a biography of her husband. She was excluded from the Royal Society. Wrote Observations upon Experimental Philosophy and Grounds of Natural Philosophy that attacked that humans could be masters of nature.
Maria Sibylla Merian
established a reputation as an important entomologistby the start of the 18th century. Training came from her father. She learned the art of illustration and drew the Metamorphosis of the Insects of Surinam which used illustration to show the reproductive and developmental cycles of the insects life.
Maria Winkelmann
Educated by her father and unle and recieved training in astronomy. She married Kirch of Germany and assisted him in Berlin Academy of Science. She was denied the post as assistant astronomer in the Berlin academy though.
Rene Descartes
He believed that he would only accept things that his reason said was true. He seperated mind and matter that created Cartesian dualism. Mathematics would help humans understand the world arund them. Believed in deductive methods.
Francis Bacon
wrote The Great Instauration that created inductive science. He went from particular to general for practical reasons. He was not a scientist but he wanted science to be logical.
Benedict de Spinoza
Wrote Ethics Demonstrated in the Geometrical Manner that believed that humans were part of God. The lack of understanding of God led to bad things, so people should love him to gain their ends. Human emotions should be analyzed.
Blaise Pascal
French scientistwho made calculation machine and devised probability. He assured in Pensees that Christianity was the only one to see man as vulnerable and great. God was a reasonable bet.
The English Royal Society
Created a committe to investigate technological improvements for industry
The French Royal Academy of the Sciences
Created a committee to collect tools and machines
Bernard de Fontenelle
direct link between Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment. He was the secretary of the French Royal academy. He communicated scientific knowledge in a clear way that appealed to theupper classes. Wrote Plurality of Words based on a womantalking to her friend about new cosmology
Pierre Bayle
Protesant that was critical of traditional religious attitudes (skeptic). He attacked supestition, religious intolerance and dogmatism. Compelling people to be a certain religion was wrong and created hypocricy. Conscience should determine one's actions.s He believed that this should be applied to the Bible as well, as seen in the Historical and Critical Dictionary (calling David evil) and Dictionary.
Tabula Rasa
Locke's belief that every human is born with a blank mind. People were molded by their environment and subject to influence. By change the enviornment and influence, society would be changed. This could be achieved through Newton's reason.
Philosophes
French term; literary people, professors, journalists, statesmen, economists, political scientists and social reformers from nobility and middle class. Paris was heir capital and affected the Western World. Rational criticism should be applied to everything. Subject to state censoring.
Montesquieu
French noble that wrote The Persian Letters and attacked traditional religion. The Spirit of the Laws compared governments that applied the scientific method to the social and political arena to ascertain the natural laws. There were 3 governments: republic (small states), monarchy (middle-sized) and despotism (large empires). He believed in the power of checks and balances to play a part in government
Voltaire
Wrote French tragedy. Impressed with England (had to flee for 2 years) he wrote Philosophic Letters on the English that showed a deep admiration for English life, its freedom of the press, political freedom and religious toleration. Criticized royal absolutism in France. Attacked traditional religion and advocated for religious toleration.
Jean Calas
Protestant that was accused of murdering his own son to stop him from becoming a Catholic. He was tortured to confess his guilt and died. Voltaire wrote Treatise on Toleration in which he argued that religious toleration had created no problems for England. Voltaire caused the family to gain money for the misled trial.
Denis Diderot
Condemned Christianity as fanatical. He said that it was the worst religion. Wrote the Encyclopedia that attacked superstition and tolerationas well as improvements. Spread to the masses when it was lowered in price.
David Hume
Scottish philosopher that wrote Treatise on Human Nature that argued that observation and reflection grounded in common sense made a science of man.
Francois Quesnay
A Physiocrat that said natural economic laws governed society. Wealth could increase by agriculture alone because all other activities were unproductive. The state revenue should come from a single tax as well as natural supply and demand.
Adam Smith
Wrote Wealth of Nations that condemned mercantilist use of tarriffs to protect home industries. Believed that labor was true wealth of a nation as well as the government should leave the economy alone and only be used for army, police and public works.
Paul d'Holbach
Wrote System of Nature that argued that everything in the universe consisted of matter in motions. Humans were machines and God was a product of the humanmind. He had uncompromising atheism.
Marie-Jean de Condorcet
Wrote The Progressof the Human Mind that showed humans went through 9 stages of history and noow were entering to the tenth stage of perfection.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
Wrote Discourse on the Origins of the Inequality of Mankind that saw humans were happy in equality in the state of nature. In order to preserve their private property they turned to government. He also wrote The Social Contract to harmonize individual liberty and government authority. Best for all was best of individual.
Mary Astell
Wrote Serious Proposal to the Ladies that said women were to be better educated. She also argued for the equality of the sexes in marriage.
Mary Wollstonecraft
Founder of modern feminism. Wrote Vindication of the Rights of Woman that pointed at the contradictions of the point of view of women. The subjection of women were wrong. Women had same rights as men.
Salons
Elegant draing rooms in the urban houses where invited philosophes and huests gathered and engaged in conversations.
Marie-Therese de Geoffrin
Widow hat welcomed the encyclopedists to her salon and offered financial assistance tothem.
Marquise de Deffand
Invited great figures such as Montesquieu,Hume and Voltaire and was rival with Geoffrin.
Rococo
Grace and gentle action that had fondness for curves and natural objects such as seashells and flowers. Made designes interlaced in gold.
Neoclassical
French movement that wanted to recapture the dignity and simplicity of the classical style of ancient Greece and Rome.
Jacques-Louis David
Neo-Classical painter who used moral seriousness and honor and patriotism.
Bach
Composed Mass in B Minor, St. Matthew's passion and cantatas and monets. Believed music was worship to God.
Handel
Wrote songs for large audiences that wrote 40 operas and secular music. However, he is most known for Messiah
Haydn
Composed 104 symphonies as well as string quartets, concerti, songs, ortorios and Masses. Wrote Creation and Seasons for the common people.
Mozart
Child prodigy who wrote Marriage of Figaro, Don Giovanni and The Magic flute. It has grace, precision and emotion.
Samuel Richardson
Wrote Pamela that shows a servant thhat does not cave in to seduction. The master reads her letters and sees that she has a good mind and heart and marries her. Appeals to cult of sensitivity.
Henry Fielding
Wrote The History of Tom Jones about the adventures of a young scoundrel that is a comedy about English society.
Edward Gibbon
Wrote Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire that believed that ideas of progress and Christianity led to the fate of the Romans.
Cesare Beccaria
Wrote On Cimes and Punishments that was opposed to capital punishment. Turned towards cells and thepeople subject to discipline.
Barber-Surgeons
They had a dual occupation that served to bleed patients and perform surgery in bad conditions. They soon diverged and studied bodies and patients.
Carnival
A time of excess in a festival that was celebrated before Lent. Consumption of food and sexual activity wer commonplace. It was time to drink in excess.
Toleration Patent, 1781
Joseph II of Austria said that Catholic had public practice and granted Lutherans, Calvinists and Greek Orthodox the right to worship privately.
Zinzendorf
Focused on personal experience with God that constituted relgious experience. He opposed rational form of religion.
John Wesley
Anglican minister that experienced a mystical experience. Wesley preached to the massesand organized people into Methodism that became another sect of Christianity.
Enlightened Absolutism
Absolute monarchies that gave freedom of speech and press. the right to hold private property, fostering the arts, sciences and education. They must obey laws and enforce them equally on all subjects.
Natural Rights
Rights that were inalterable privileges that ought not to be withheld from anyone. This included equality before the law, freedom of religious worship, freedom of speech and press and the right to assemble, hold property and seek happiness.
Louis XV
Lazy and weak ruler that allowed ministers and mistresses to influence him, control the affairs of state and underminethe prestige of the monarchy. He lost the overseas empire in the Seven Years' War and gave burdensom taxes.
Cardinal Fleury
Louis XIV's minister that caused France to pull back from foreign adventures while commerce and trade expanded and the government promoted the growth of industry.
Robert Walpole
Relied on by King George I and II as prime minister. They were allowed to handle Parliament and dispense patronage that led to modern day Great Britain. Pursued peaceful foreign policy.
John Wilkes
Journalists who openly criticized the king's ministers. He was arrested and then released, but expelled from his seat in Parliament. When he won another seat, he was denied a place in Parliament again. He became a symbol for liberty and end to Parliamentary privileges.
Frederick William I
Promoted evolution of civil bureaucracy through creating the General Directory. It was the chief administrative agent of the central government, supervising police, military and economic and social affairs. Made code of obedience, honor and service to the King.
Junkers
Nobility/Landed Aristocracy of Prussia that owned large estates with many sefs that played a dominate role. They had monopoly of officers in the Prussia army.
Frederick the Great
Best educated and most ultured monarchs in the 18th century. Establismed single code of laws that eliminated torture exept for treason and murder. Limited freedom of speech and press as well as full religious toleration. Took away Frederick I abiliy for commoners to rise to power. Expanded army. Made Prussia a military power.
Maria Theresa
Accepted privileges of Hungarian nobility and the right for them to have their own laws, sheabolished Austrian and Bohemian chancelleries and replaced them with departments such as that of foreign affairs. She curtailed the role of diets and made nobles forced to pay property and income taxes to royal officials.
Joseph II
Abolished serfdom and tried to give peasants heriditary rights. He abandoned economic restraints by removing guild restrictions, eliminating internal trade barriers and ending monopolies. He established equality under the law in Austria as well as religious toleration. He made 6,000 decrees and 11,000 laws. His reforms were undone.
Catherine the Great
First eager to do reform that questioned serfdom, torture and capital punishments. Divided Russia into 50 provinces. Local nobility became increasingly important. She favored the nobility.
Charter of the Nobility
Gave nobles right of trial by peers and exemptionfrom taxation and corporal punishment.
Pugachev's Rebellion
Peasant that won support by freeing all peasants from taxes and military service. He encouraged them to sieze their landlords' estates and killed. The rebellion collapsed and serfdom expanded.
Philip V
the laws, administrative institutions of the state and language of Castile were established in other Spanish kingdoms that made him truly king of Spain. Intendents were introduced.
Charles III
The Catholic church was brought under control when the king banished the Jesuits and circumscribed the activities of the Inquisition.
Gustavus III
Reasserted the power of the monarchy in Sweden. Established freedom of religion, speech and press and instituted a new code of justice that eliminated use of torture. Reduced tariffs, abolished tolls and encourages trade and agriculture. Nobles were frightened by their loss of power and killed him.
War of the Austrian Succession
Charles VI could not produce a male heir so he wrote in the Pragmatic Sanction that his daught Maria Theresa should be put on the throne when he died. However, when he died people took away that Sanction and fought in war that made Prussia take away Silesia, France occupy the Spanish Netherlands and France taking Madras in India; British the French fortress of Louisbourg.
Seven Years' War
Due to the Diplomatic Revolution, European powers were in conflict. The British and Prussians were against Russia, Austria and he French. Frederick the Great defeated him but then faced defear. They they were saved by Peter III who withdrew Russia from the conflict and encourge a stalemate. British under Robert Clive beat France and gained their territory.
Diplomatic Revolution
A signing by Maria Theresa of new rivalries. Britain and France over colonies and Austria and Prussia over Silesia. France allied with Austria and Great Britain with Prussia.
Agricultural Revolution
Increase in food production due to more farmland, increased yields per acre, healthier and more abundant livestock and an improved climate. It improved living conditions.
Jethro Tull
Discovered that using a hoe to keep the soil loose allowed air and moisture to reach plants and enabled them to grow better. He also used a drill to plant seeds in rows instead of scattering them.
John Law
Tried to create a national bank for France and paper currency. People went overboard and drove stock exremely high and the bank went bankrupt.
Domestic System
A system that was a family interprise that applied traditional methods of manufacturing in homes. Merchang entrepreunuers bought raw materials to rural workers where they spun it. The entrepreneurs sold the product and used profits to manufacture more.
Richard Arkwright
Invented the water frame powered by horse or water that turned yarn much faster than spinning looms that would later develop mechanized looms.
Grand Tour
A tour young aristocratic men went on at the end of their school career throughout Europe to study antiquity as well as art throughout Europe's biggest cities.
Louis XVI
Under his reign, the nobility had continued to play a crucial role in French society.
Nobles of the Robe
Derived their status from officeholding, often enabled commoners to become noble rank. Dominated royal law courts and administration.
Nobles of the Sword
Descendents of original medieval nobility. They wanted to resist the monarchy and control positions in government, military and church.
Taille
A tax that the clergy and the second estate were exempt from as opposed to the Third Estate which paid all of the taille.
Charles de Calonne
Controller of general finances that proposed a complete revamping of the fiscal and administrative system of the state. He convened an assembly of notables to ask for support but they refused. He was forced to call the Esates-General
Estates-General
Fench Parliamentary body that was conveened in order to gain consent to raise taxes to pay for the deby by the government.
Cahiers de Doleances
Statements of local grievances that were drafted throughout France during the elections to the Estates-General; advocated a refular constitutional government that would abolish the fiscal privileges of the church and the nobility
Abbe Sieyes
Wrote What is the Third Estate? that says that it is everything. It hasn't been represented and wants to. This showed the view of changes within a framework in the respect of the king.
National Assembly
When the First Estate refused to vote by head, the Third Estate voted to create this and decided to draw up a constitution.
Tennis Court Oath
The meeting place of the National Assembly was locked so they moved to an indoor Tennis Court and swore to meet until they produced a Constitution.
Bastille
The king took defensive measures by increasing the number of troops at the arsenals in Paris and along the roads to Versailles. Increased mob activity happened. The Parisian people needed arms, so the captured this royal armory and freeing seven prisoners. This was a symbol of triumph over despotism.
The Great Fear
A vast panic by agrarian people that feared invasion by foreign troops that were supported by the aristocracy that encouraged the formation of more citizens' militias and permenant committees.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
Charter of basic liberties that reflected the ideas of the major philosophes of the Enlightenment. It went to affirm the destruction of aristocratic privileges by proclaimed an end to exemptions from taxation, freedom and equal rights for all men and access to public office by talent. Monarchy was restricted. Freedom of speech and press as well as the outlawing of arbitrary arrests were also made.
Olympe de Gouges
Playwright and pampleteer that refused to accept the exclusion of women from political rights that wrote Declaration of the Rights of Women and Citizen.
Women's March to Versailles
Parisian women marced to demand bread from the king. They had starving children. Louis XVI promised grain supplies but this did not end the protest. Lafayette ordered them to march and now they ordered the family return to Paris. The king also brought flour from the Paris stores.
Assignats
Form of paper money that was issued based on the collateral of the newly nationalized church property.
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Bishops and priests of the Catholic church were to be elected by the people and paid by the state. They were required to swear an oath to the Civil Constitution. The pope forbade it, so only 54 percent took the oath.
Constitution of 1791
Established a limited constitutional monarchy. There was still a monarch.
Legislative Assembly
Assembly that the power of the King was vested in 1791 that was to sit for two years and consist of 745 representatives chosen by an indirect system of election that preserved power in the hands of the more affluent members of society. A distinction was drawn between active (men over 25 paying taxes equivalent to 3 days of unskilled labor) and passive citizens.
Jacobins
Radical group that grew out of deputies. They occupied Paris and formally made groups and correspondence networks. There were 900 clubs in one year with Paris in the center.
Declaration of Pillnitz
Leopold II of Austria and King Frederick II of Prussia invited other European monarchs to take the most effectual means to put the king back into power. However, the leaders were suspicious of one another that did not do much of anything.
Flight to Vareenes
The king was upset by the upheaval so he tried to flee France to his wife's native land Austria. He was captured at Varennes and brough back to Paris. The moderates chose to ignore the king's flight and pretended that he had been kidnapped.
Paris Commune
Radical Parisian political groups that called themselves a commune that organized a mob attack on the royal palace and Legislative Assembly in 17922 as well as taking the king captive, forcing the Legislative Assembly to suspend the monarchy and call for a national convention based on universal male suffrage.
Sans-Culottes
Ordinary patriots that were both the working people and poor but also merchants and better-off artisans who were the elite of their neighborhoods and trades.
National Convention
New body that was taken over by the radical Paris Commune. It began its sessions as well as ready to draft a constitution. It was the sovereign ruling body of France. 2/3rd of deputies were under 45 and many were lawyers, professionals and property owners with a few artisans. All had political experience due to the revolution and were distrustful of the king. They decalred France a republic.
Girondins
Represented the provinces that feared radical mobs in Paris and were disposed to keep the king alive as a hedge for the future.
Mountain
Represented the interests of the city of Paris and owed much of its strength to the radical and popular elements of the city although most of them were middle class. They won and condemned the king to death.
Committee of Public Safety
In order to curb domestic crisis, the National Convention made this. They were organized to protect the republic from internal enemies.
Maximillien Robespierre
The leader of the Committee of Public Safety that governed France. He centralized the administration of France and helped expand the Reign of Terror.
Reign of Terror
Killed royalists, former revolutionary Girodins and peasants. Many who opposed the san-culottes were killed by guillotime. 16,000 were formally killed. The true number was near 50,000.
Republic of Virtue
The belief of what would happen when all the internal enemies were purged. France would be a stronger nation.
Society for the Revolutionary Republican Women
Composed of largely working-class women that were a family of sisters that were ready to defend France. However, many men believed they should not be in politics and instead at the home.
Temple of Reason
Changed the Notre-Dame Cathedral to this. It was a public ceremony dedicated to the worship of reason was held in here. Patriotic women paraded before the temple where the high altar once stood. Female personifying Liberty rose from it. It created many more enemies than friends.
Toussaint L'Ouveture
Led 100,000 black slaves to rise in revolt and sieze control of present day Haiti and later was captured. He started and created the Haitian republic, spreading French Revolution ideals abroad.
Thermidorian Reaction
The National Convention curtailed the Committee of Public Safety and shut down the Jacobin club. Churches were allowed to reopen and the decree of 1795 let all be free to worship. Laissez-faire and moderation triumphed.
Constitution of 1795
Established a national legislative assembly consisting of two chambers: the Council of 500 who were to initiate legislation and an upper house of 250 members known as the Council of Elders of people over 40 that were married or widowed. The people that could vote had to own property more than 100 days of unskilled labor. The electors were chosed by all male taxpayers over 21. 2/3rd of new members were to be chosen by their ranks,
The Directory
The government that the Council of Elders elected from five electors presented by the Council of 500 to act as the executive authority. It was a materialistic reaction to the Reign of Terror. They had to contend with political enemies.
Napoleon Bonaparte
A military general that rose through the ranks in the French Revolution. He had energy and charm as well as intelligence that allowed him to take over France in a coup after escaping from Egypt. He formed a new government of a bicameral legislative assembly voted indirectly to reduce role of election.
Concordant of 1801
The pope gained the right to despose French bishops, but the French state retained right to nominate bishops. The pope could hold processions again and reopen seminaries. The pope acknowledged the revolution and to not bring up land taken. Catholicism was not reestablished as the state religion. The Catholic church was no longer an enemy.
Civil Code of 1804
A codified law that preserved most revolutionary gains that recognized the equality of all citizens before the law, the right of individuals to choose their profession, religious toleration and the abolition of serfdom and feudalism. Divorce was no longer easily. Fathers were in control of their family.
Peace of Amiens
Napoleon saught peace with Russia, Britain and Austria. He gained new land and number of lient territories from the North Sea to the Adriatic. This did not last long though.
The Grand Empire
Consisted of 3 parts: the French empire, dependent states and allied states. He considered himself the leader of the whole. Napoleon demanded obedience to his will. He spread enlightenment ideals.
Battle of Trafalgar
Napoleon was defeated by the English navy, one of his first of a series of defeats.
Continental System
Napoleon attempted to prevent British goods from reaching the European continent in order to weaken Britain economically and destroy its capacity to wage war. But countries resisted and this failed as well.
Invasion of Russia
The major event that Napoleon decided to do with 600,000 men. His Grand Army had hopes for swift victory. Scorched earth policy was made to prevent Napoleon from taking the land. When he reached Moscow, even that city was on fire. His Great Retreat in terrible winter conditions only managed 40,000 men to remain. This was a military disaster.
Elba
Napoleon was exiled here first on the coast of Tuscany while the Bourbons were restored to France in Louis XVIII. Napoleon slipped away from here back to France.
Waterloo
Napoleon met combined British and Prussian forces and suffered defeat. He was then exiled to tiny St. Helena.
Richard Arkwright
made the water frame spinning machine that was powered by water or horse and increased cotton production
James Watt
asked to repair a Newcomen steam pump engine. Instead, he added a separate condenser and steam pump and transformed it into a steam engine. Power was derived from steam. It could pump water three times more quickly.
Thomas Newcomen
an atmospheric engine developed in 1712 to pump water. Although it was better than horses lifting water from the mine, it was still largely inefficient.
Henry Cort
developed a system called puddling in which coke was used to burn away impurities in pig iron to produce iron of high quality.
George Stephenson
made the Rocket, which was used on the first public railwayline in 1830, expanding 32 miles from Liverpool to Mancester at 16 miles per hour.
Crystal Palace
a structure made entirely of glass and iron that was a tribute to British engineering. It was 19 acres and had 100,000 exhibits of items made during the Industrial REvolution. It was a symbol of success and how humans dominated over nature.
Frederich List
emigrated to America and returned to Germany as a United States consul. He wrote National System of Political Economy in 1844 that advocated a rapid and large-scale program of industrialization as the surest path to develop a nation's strength. He felt that a nation must use tariffs as a path to industrialization. If they practiced free trade, British goos would flod the market and destroy industries before they could grow.
Credit Mobilier
French joint-stock company that helped take savings of small investors and brought shares for new industries. These investments were essential to industrialization.
The Great Famine
while half of the population depended on the potato for survival, the potato crop in 1845 had struck blight due to a fungus. This caused for over one million to die of starvation and two million to move to the United States and Britain.
Edwin Chadwick
an urban reformer with a background in law that was obsessed with eliminating the poverty of urban areas. He was appointed to a number of government investigations. He was a secretary of the Poor Law comission that initiated a search for conditions of the working classes. This led to his Report on the Condition of the Laboring Population of Great Britain. He believed that the disease was caused by sanitation problems. He wanted a modern sanitary system and efficient sewers and piped water. This caused the National Board of Health to be created.
Factory Act of 1833
strengthened earlier labor legislation. All textile factories were included, and children between 9-13 could work only 8 hours and 13-18 could work only 12.
Combination Acts
outlawed associations of workers. It, however, failled to prevent the formation of trade unions.
Robert Owen
believed in the creation of voluntary associations that would demonstrate the benefits of cooperative than competitive living. It was not directed to unionists, but it appealed to them. Plans emerged for the Great Consolidated Trades Union in 1834. The lack of real working-class support caused its collapse but individual trade unions for specific crafts were made such as that of the Amalgamated Society of Engineers that formed in 1850. Its probision of generous unemployment benefits in a return of small weekly payment was practical.
Luddites
skilled craftspeople in the Midlands and northern England who in 1812 attacked the machines that they believed threatened their livelihoods. These attacks failed to stop mechanization but they had wide-spread support in the areas that they were present in.
Chartism
first important political movement of working men organized during the 19th century that was aimed to achieve political democracy. A people's charter was drawn up in 1838 that demanded universal male suffrage, payment for members of Parliament, and annual sessions of Parliament. They had millions of signatures but did not get recognized by Parliament. It aroused and organized millions of working class men and women.
Ten Hours Act
reduced the workday for children between 13 and 18 to 10 hours. Women were also included.
Coal Mines Act
eliminated the employment of boys under ten and women in the mines.
Congress of Vienna
represantitives of all states that fought Napoleon gathered for a peace settlement in 1815 to settle a decade of war. The rulers sought to restore stability by reestablishing much of the old order to a Europe ravaged by war. Kings, landed aristocrats, bureaucratic elites regained their control over domestic governments and internationally the forces of conservatism tried to maintain the new status quo.
Klemens von Metternich
Austrian foreign minister that was an experienced diplomat that was concerned about reestablishing peace and stability in Europe. He believed that legitimate monarchs were the only ones who could preseve traditional institutions.
Edmund Burke
wrote Reflections on the Revolutions in France in reaction to the French Revolution, especially its radical republican and democratic ideas. Burke maintained that society was a contract, the state was a partnership for trade. No one generation had the right to destroy the partnership, each generation has the duty to preserve and transmit it to the next. He advised against the violent overthrow of the government, but he did not reject the posibility of change.
Concert of Europe
a means to maintain the new status quo. It grew out of the reaffirmation of the Quadruple Alliance that renewed their commitment against any attempted restoration of Bonapartist power and agreed to meet periodically in conferences to discuss their common interests and examine measures to maintain peace.
Quadruple Alliance
Great Britain, Austria, Prussia and Russia that agreed to stay united, not only to defeat France but also to ensure peace after the war. They reestablished the Bourbon monarchy to France through Louis XVIII and agreed to meet at a congress in Vienna.
Protocol of Troppau
meant that great powers had the right to send armies into countries where there was revolutions to restore legitimate monarchs to their thrones. Britain refused to agree and argued that the intention of the alliance was not to interfere in the internal affairs of other states except in France.
Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle
most peaceful congress in which the four great powers agreed to withdraw from the occupation from France and add France to the Concert of Europe, making a quintuple alliance.
Congress of Laibach
in 1821, Austria, Prussia and Russia went behind Britain's backs and authorized the sending of Austrian troops to Naples that crushed the revolts there. Restored Ferdinand I to the throne and then moved north to suppress the rebels in the Piedmont.
Monroe Doctrine
guarenteed the rights of independence of the new Latin American nations and warning against any further European intervention.
Greek Revolution
revolted against the Turk masters for 400 years that allowed them to maintain language and faith. Their national sentiment brought a revolt. The British and French defeated an Ottoman armada as well as Russia declaring war on them. The Treaty of Adrianople ended the Russian-Turkish war and caused them to protect two provinces. The Turks gave Britian, Russia and France the right to decide the fate of Greece.Declared Greece an independent kingdom and two years later a new royal dynasty. The revolution was successful because the great powers supported it.
Peterloo Massacre
mass protests of the Corn Laws took a turn when a calvary charged into a crowd of 60,000 people that killed 11 people. The Parliament restricted large public meetings and dissemination of pamphlets among the poor.
Corn Law of 1815
a measure that placed extraordinarily high tariffs on foreign grain that was beneficial to landowners, but made bread too high for the working class.
Louis XVIII
understood the need to accept some of the changes brough to France during the revolutionary and Napoleonic eras. He accepted the Civil Code with recognition of equality under the law and property rights of those who had purchased confiscated lands were secured. A bicameral legislature was established with a chamber of peers elected by the king and Chamber of Deputies chosen by 100,000 wealthy people.
Ultraroyalists
criticized the king's willingness to compromise and retain so many features of the Napoleonic era. They wanted to return to a monarch dominated by an aristocracy of privilege and bring the Catholic Church to as much status as it was before.
Charles X
granted indemnity to aristocrats whose land had been confiscated during the revolution. He pursued a religious policy that encouraged the Catholic church to reestablish control over the French educational system. Outrage occured and forced the king to compromise in 1827 and accept the principle that ministers of the king were responsible to the legislature. A protest by the deputies led the king to dissolve the legislature and call for new elections.
Frederick William III
followed the advice of his two ministers in the Napoleonic era and instituted political and institutional reforms in response to Prussia's defeat to Napoleon. He abolished serfdom, municipal self-government hrough town councils, the expansion of primary and secondary schools and universal military conscription to form a national army. It did not included a representative government. After 1815, he grew reactionary. It was an absolutist state with little interest in German unity.
Burschenschaften
student societies that were dedicated to fostering the idea of a free, united Germany. Their motto was Honor, Liberty, Fatherland. Jahn organized societies during the Napoleonic wars to regenerate German youth and urge the to pursue their German heritage. They burned books of conservative authors. A deranged student asassainted a reactionary playwright in 1817.
Karlsbad Decrees of 1819
closed the student societies, provided censorship of the press, and placed the universities under close supervision and control.
Alexander I
had been raised by ideas of the Enlightenment and at first seemed willing to make reforms through relaxed censorship, freeing political prisoners and refoming education. He refused to grant a constitution or free the sefs. However, he became a reactionary after Napoleon and reverted to strict and arbitrary censorship. Opposition arose.
Decemberist Revolt
the Northern Union was a society that was against Alexander I and saw the lack of academic freedom and freedom of the press. They wanted a Constitutional monarchy and abolition of serfdom. When Alexander I died they had an opportunity. Constantine was legal heir to the throne but he abdicated in favor of Nicolas I. This had not been made public which resulted in confusion. The military leaders of the N.U rebbelled against Nicholas. They were crushed by leaders loyal to Nicholas and leaders were executed.
Thomas Malthus
wrote Essay on the Principles of Population that argued that population left unchecked, increases at a geometric rate while food increases at a much slower rate. Sever overpopulation and utimately starvation for the human race if this growth is not in check. Misery and poverty were inevitable result of the law of nature and no one should interfere with its operation.
David Ricardo
wrote The Principles of Political Economy that developed iron law of wages. It argued that an increase of population means more workers, more workers make wages fall below substinence level. The result is misery and starvation that decreases the population. This causes the wages to rise again and the cycle is repeated.
John Stuart Mill
wrote On Liberty that was published in 1859 that argued for absolute freedom of opinion and sentiment on all subjects that needed to be protected from both government censorship and the tyranny of the majority. He also wrote On the Subjection of Women with his wife that argued that the women could be as strong as a man if they were taught more, becoming an important work towards women's rights.
Utopian Socialism
political theorists that wanted to introduce equality into social conditions and believed that human cooperation was superior to the competition that characterized early industrial capitalism. They were against private property and the competitive spirit of capitalism. By eliminating these things and creating new social organization, they thought that a better enviornment could be achieved for humanity.
Charles Fourier
proposed the creation of small model communities called phamlansteries that were self-contained. It had ideally 1,620 people. that were communally housed and worked together for their mutual benefit. Work would rotate to relieve workers of undesirable tasks.
Robert Owen
the British cotton manufacturer that believed humans would show their true kindness. He was successful in transforming a factory into a coopertative community. However in New Harmony in Indiana, the bickering within destroyed his dream.
Louis Blanc
wrote The Organization of Work in which he maintained that social problems could be solved by government assistance. He called for the establishment of workshops that would manufacture goods for public sale. The state would finance them but the workers would own and opperate them.
Flora Tristan
tried to synthesize feminism and socialim by travelling through France and preaching the freedom for women. The Worker's Union advocated the application of Fourier's ideas to reorganize family and work.
French Revolution of 1830
the 'July Revolution' in which barricades went up in Paris as a provisional government led by a group of moderate liberals was hastily formed and appealed to Louis Phillipe, the cousin of Charles X to become the new Constitutional Monarch of France. Charles X fled to Britain.
July Ordinances
election of liberals in 1830 caused Charles X to issue the July Ordinances that imposed rigid censorship of the press, reduce the electorate in preparation for new elections and dissolve the legislative assembly.
Lous-Phillippe
political support for his rule came from the upper-middle class. He dressed like a member of the middle class. Financial qualifications for voting were reduced by did not raise enough, guaranteeing only the wealthiest could vote. The working class was disappointed. The rapid expansion of industry gave rise to the working class and terrible working and living conditions and economic crises led to high levels of violence.
Great Reform Bill of 1832
gave explicit recognition to the changes to Britain due to the industrial revolution that disfranchised fifty-six rotten boroughs and franchised forty-two new twns and cities and reapportioned others. This gave urban communities some voice in government. It benefited the upper-middle class and the lower classes did not get to vote. The change did not significantly alter the House of Commons.
Poor Law of 1834
based on the theory that giving to the poor only encouraged laziness and increased paupers. Tried to remedy this by making heir lives so hard they would choose to work. Those unable to support themselves were crowded in workhouses where working and living conditions were intentionally miserable so that people could find employment.
Anti-Corn Law League
Richard Cobden and John Bright who formed it to help workers by lowering bread prices.
Robert Peel
leader of the conservative Tories that persuaded some of his associates to support free trade principles and support free trade principles and aandon the Corn Laws. He repealed the Corn Laws.
Revolution of 1848 - France
severe agricultural and industrial depression beginning in 1846 brought hardship to the lower middle-class, workers and peasants. One third of workers were unemployed by 1847. Scandals and corruption were rampant. When the government forbade banquets and pople came anyway, students and workers threw up barricades. Although Louis-Phillipe proposed reform, he was unable to form a ministry and abdicated and fled to Britain. A provisional government was made by moderate and radical republicans. They ordered representatives for an assemply to draw a new constitution for universal male suffrage.
Adople Theirs
Louis-Phillipe's government refused to make changes and opposition grew by radical republicans and socialists joined by the upper middle class (led by him) agitated for the dismissal of the minister Guizot. Since they were forbidden to form rallies, they held banquets to call for reform.
National Workshops
under the influence of Louis Blanc, the workshops were cooperative factories run by the workers that came to provide jobs consisting of leaf-raking and ditch-digging for unemployed workers. When it cost too much, they were shut down, workers fought. Thousands were killed and four-thousand prisoners were deported.
The Second Republic
a unicameral housed legislature of 750 elected by universal male suffrage for three years and a president, also elected universally by males, for four years.
Louis Napoleon
elected into the Second Republic as president as the nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte. He would soon become emperor Napoleon.
Frankfurt Assembly
dominated by well-educated, middle-class delegates that were ahead of their times in nationalism. The assembly aroused controversy by saying they were a government for all of Germany. They made little Germany without Austria and making the Prussian king emperor of the new German state.
Frederick William IV
refused the assembly's offer and ordered them home
Giuseppe Mazzini
leader of the resurgence of Italy that was a dedicated Italian nationalist who founded the organization of Young Italy in 1831 that set its goalin the creation of a united Italian republic. He wrote The Duties of Man that urged Italians to dedicate their lives to the Italian nation. Inspired by him, rebellions spread as ruler after ruler granted a constitution for his people. They rebelled against their Austrian overlords in Venitia and declared a republic in Venice. Charles Albert assumed leadership for a war of liberation and was unsuccessful and Austrians reestablished control over them.
Louis-Maurice Debellyne
prefect of Paris that made police officers called serjents that were dressed in blue and a white cane. They were supposed to free traffic movement, maintain safety, clean streets, supervise and precaution against accidents and maintenance of order in public places.
Bobbies
uniformed police officers that appeared on the streets of London that were known after Robert Peel. Their primary goal was to prevent crime. The polic also imposed order on urban inhabitants. They demanded better pay and treatment that led to improved working conditions and created a sense of professionalism.
Romanticism
tried to balance the use of reason by stressing the importance of intuition, feeling, emotion and imagination as sources of knowing. They believed in inner drives and rebelling against middle-class conventions. They were passionate about the past especial the medieval ages. Worshipped nature.
Goethe
wrote The Sorrows of the Young Werther that later rejected Romanticism. He sought freedom in order to fulfill himself. Misunderstood and rejected, he believed in the worth of his inner feelings but his deep lvove for a girl led to suicide. This led to plots revolving around women diagnosed wih a disease that led to the sorrow of their male loves.
Carlyle
the Romantic hero was celebrated as a genius ready to defy the world and sacrigice his life for a great cause. However, he did not make his heroes destroy themselves but transform society. He stressed that historical events were determined by such heroes.
Waltar Scott
wrote Ivanhoe about the clash of Saxon and Norman knights in medieval England.
Lord Byron
dramaticized himself as a melancholy Romantic hero described in Childe Harold's Pilgrimage. He participated in the Greek independence movement and died fighting the Ottomans.
Percy Bysshe Shelley
expelled from school for advocating atheism. Wrote Prometheus Unbound as a portrait of the revolt of human beings against the laws and customs that oppress them.
WIlliam Wordsworth
experienced mystical feelings from nature. Nature contained a mysterious force, in his opinion, that a poet could percieve and learn from. Nature could teach a person about themselves. It was alive and sacred.
Caspar David Frederich
painted landscapes with an interest that transcended natural details. He showed mystery and mysticism. Nature was manifestation of divine life.
Delacroix
famous French Romantic artist that was self-taught. He had a passion for color and expressed exoticism. Combined theatricality and movement with use of color.
Beethoven
served as bridge from the Classical to the Romantic. He wrote Eroica that was originally intended for Napoleon that had many uncontrolled rhythms. It opens many emotions through music.
Chateaubriand
wrote Genius of Christianity hat was scene as 'the Bible of Romanticism' that defended Catholicism on Romantic sentiment of emotions. Cathedrals brought the presence of God. It showed the revival of interest in the Catolic church at the time.
Marie Curie
discovered that the element radium gave off rays of radiation that apparently came from within the atom itself. Atoms were not simply hard, material bodies but small worlds containing electrons and protons that were randon and inexplicable.
Max Planck
rejected the belief that a heated body radiates energy in a steady stream but maintained that instead that energy is radiated discontinuously, in irregular packets called quanta. Quantum theory raised questions about the subatomic realm of the atom.
Albert Einstein
German-born officer that pushed theories of thermodynamics into a new terrain. The Electro-dynamics of Moving Bodies contained a special theory of relativity. Space and time were not believed to be absolute but instead relative to the observer in a 4-D time continuum. Neither space nor time had an existence independent of human experience. Matter and energy reflected the relativity of time and space. Einstein concluded that matter was nothing but energy in E = mc^2. It opened the atomic age.
Friedrich Nietzsche
one of the intellectuals that glorified the irrational. The Western bourgeois society was decadent and incapable for any real culture creativity, primarily because of its excessive emphasis in the rations faculty at the expense of emotions, passions and instincts. Reason played little role in life as they were dominated by the irrational. Christianity was believed to take away human impulse for life and human will. God is believed to be dead and that it was no longer needed in a cosmic order. Eliminating it would cause a greater being he called superman.
Henri Bergson
French philosopher whose lectures at the University of Paris made him one of the most important influencers in French thought. Accepted rational, scientific thought as a practical instrument for providing useful knowledge but maintained that it was incapable of arriving at truth or reality. Reality was the life force that suffsed all things; it could not be divided into analyzable parts. Reality was a whole that coud only be grasped intuitively and experienced directly. When we analyze it, we have merely a description, no longer reality.
Georges Sorel
French political theorists that combined Bergson and Nietzsche's ideas on the limits of rational thinking with his own passionate interest in revolutionary socialism. Understood the political potential of the nonrational and advocated violent action as the only means to achieve the aims of socialism. He envisioned the end of the capitalist society with a general strike that took violent and heroic action. Small elite should rule before masses ruled themselves.
Sigmund Freud
put forth a series of theories that believed in the irrational in the human mind. In The Interpretation of Dreams contained the basic foundation of what came to be known as the foundation of pyscoanalysis. Human behavior was determined by the unconscious by earlier experiences and inner forces. To explore the content of the unconscious, Freud relied not only on hypnosis but in dreams. Theywere dressed in a code that had to be interpreted. Repression made influences of the unconscious mind in which unsettling experiences were blotted from consciousness.
Social Darwinism
application of Darwin's principle of organic evolution to social order.
Herbert Spencer
exponent of Social Darwinism that argued that societies were organisms that evolved through time from a struggle with their environment. Progress came from the 'struggle' as the 'fit' societies gained. He explained the book Social Statics many of these principles.
Houston Steward Chamberlain
German that wrote The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century in 1899 that had an impact on Germans. Germans were the only pure successor to the Aryans who were 'the creators' of Western culture. The Aryan race, under German leadership, must be prepared to fight for Western civilization and 'save' it from Jews, Asians and (god awful term coming) Negroes.
Ernst Rehan
French Catholic scholar that wrote Life of Jesus. Questioned the historical accuracy of the Bible and presented a radically different picture of Jesus. He saw Jesus not as the son of God but as a human being whose value lay in the example he provided by his life and teaching.
Pope Pius IX
took a rigid stand against modern ideas. He outright rejected modern ideals and forces.
Syllabus of Errors
written by Pope Pius IX that stated that he can not agree with progress, liberalism and modernity. He condemned nationalism, socialism, religious toleration and freedom of the speech and press.
Pope Leo XIII
achieved compromise through the Catholic church by teaching evolution as a hypothesis in Catholic schools and responded to modernization in economic and social spheres. Recommended that Catholics form socialist parties and labor unions of their own to help workers.
De Rerum Novarum
encylical written in 1891 by Pope Leo XIII that upheld the individual's right to private property but also criticized capitalism for poverty and degradation that had left the working classes. He believed in socialism as well but also he believed that revolution and materialism and atheism were wrong.
Salvation Army
founded in London in 1865 by William Booth. It established food centers, shelters where the homeless could sleep and rescue homes for women. These served as a purpose to save not only the person but the soul from Hell.
Naturalism
literature that accepted the material world as real and believed that literature should be realistic. By addressing social problems, writers could contribute to the objective understanding for the world. It lacked liberal optimism about people and society that was often prevalent in Realism. They were pessimistic about Europe's future.
Emile Zola
French writer that wrote about urban slums and coalfields of northern France. She showed how alcholism and enviornments affected people's lives in the beliefs he read in the theory of the evolution. Rougon-Macquart was a 20 volume series of novels and the natural and social history of family. He maintained that the artist must dissect life.
Leo Tolstoy
wrote War and Peace that played out against Napoleon's invasion of Russia in 1812. Its realistic description of military life and character portrayal should be noted. Each person is analyzed pyschologically. He imposed a fatalistic view of history that ultimately proved irrelevant in the face of life's enduring values of love and trust.
Fyodor Dostoevsky
combined narrative and acute psycological and moral observation with insights on human nature. Maintained that the major problem was lack of spirituality. People are trying to gain salvation through materialism. He feared total tyranny. Only through suffering and faith could the sould be purified, as seen in Crime and Punishment and The Brothers Karamazov.
Symbolists
reacted against Realism. They wrote poetry and believed that the objective knowledge of the world was impossible. The external world was not real but only a collection of symbols that reflected the true reality of the individual human mind. Art should function for its own sake instead of serving, criticizing or seeking to understand society. Only through knowledge of the poet's personal language could one understand what the poem was saying.
Impressionism
a movement that originated in France in the 1870s when a group of artists rejected the studios and museums and went out into he countryside to paint nature directly.
Camille Pisarro
one of the founders of Impressionism that believed that art should not be defined on outlines but involve brushstrokes in color to focus on nature. One would paint what they observe and feel.
Claude Monet
enchanted with water and painted many pictures that he saught to capture light, water and atmosphere as seen in Impression, Sunrise.
Berthe Morisot
broke the practice of women being only amateur artists and became a professional painter. Her dedication won her the disfavor of academics. She used light colors and flowing brushwork.
Post-Impressionism
arose in France and spread to other European countries. It kept emphasis on light and color but also paid attention to structure and form. They used color and line to express inner feelings and present a personal statement of reality. It was the start of modern art.
Paul Cezanne
one of the most important Post-Impressionismts. He rejected the Impressionists and in paintings such as Woman with Coffee Pot, he saught to express visually the underlying geometric structure and form of everything he painted.
Vincent van Gogh
tortured artist that believed art was spiritual. He was interested in color and believed that it could be used as a language to show what artists feel.
Pablo Picasso
extremely flexible artist that painted in many styles. His development of Cubism was also important. Les Demoisselles d'Avignon was the first Cubist painting.
Cubism
used geometric designs as a visual stimuli to re-create reality in the viewer's mind.
Wassily Kandinsky
abstract painter that worked in German that was one of the founders of the movement. In Painting with White Border, he sought to avoid representation altogether. Art should avoid any reference to visual reality and concentrate on color.
Claude Debussy
his musical compositions were inspired by the visual arts such as Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun that inspired a Symbolist poet. He did not tell a story in music, the piece recreated in sound the feeling of the poem.
Igor Stravinsky
one of the 20th century's most famous composers that gained international fame as a ballet composer and with Diaghilev revolutionalized the ballets with Firebird, Petrushka nad The Rite of Spring.
Millicent Fawcett
organized a moderate group who believed that women must demonstrate that they would use political power responsibly if they wanted Parliament to give them the right to vote.
Emmeline Pankhurst
along with her daughters, founded the Women's Social and Political Unions in 1903 that enrolled middle and upper class women. They realized the value of the media.
Suffragettes
women that used unusual publicity stunts to call attention to their demands such as pelting government officials with eggs, chaining themselves to lampposts, smashed windows of department stores, burned rainroad cars and went on hunger strikes. Had aim to full citizenship in the nation-state.
Maria Montessori
attended the medical school at the University of Rome that persisted and became the first Italian to receive a medical degree. She led a lecture tour on he subject of the 'new women' which focused a rational and scientific perspective. She developed schools based on this and with a mentally retarded child, she established education where students learned at their own pace.
Alfred Dreyfus
a Jew that was captain in the French general staff. A secret military court found him guilty of selling army secrets and condemned him to life in prison. Mobs yelled 'death to the Jews'. Soon after, evidence showed him innocent and he was pardoned by the government of France.
Christian Socialists
combined agitation for workers with a virulent anti-Semitism most powerful in Vienna.
Karl Lueger
leader of Christian Socialists and mayor of Vienna. Held German nationalism that blamed Jews for corruption of German culture. Hitler had this worldview due to this.
Theodor Herzl
key figure in Zinoism that published The Jewish State in which he advocated for a Jewish state. Finances came from yishuvsm or settlements in Palestine by wealthy Jewish bankers.
Zionism
a movement for a Jewish nation. They advocated to return to Palestine, the land of ancient Israel that had been the land of their dreams. National independence caught their attention.
Fabian Socialists
stressed the need for the workers to use their right to vote to capture the House of Commons and pass legislation that would benefit the working clsas. They wanted evolutionary socialism.
Labour Party
where British unions and Fabian socialists combined to form a party. They gained 29 members to the House of Commons by 1906.
National Insurance Act of 1911
provided benefits for workers in case of sickness and unemployment, to be paid for by compulsory contributions from workers, employers and the state. It provided pension for retirees over 70 and compensation for workers injured in the job.
David Lloyd George
orator from Wales who had been moved by the misery of Welsh coal miners. Increased taxes on the wealthy to pay for social reforms.
William II
unstable and aggressive emporer that was inclined to tactless remarks as when he told soldiers they had to be prepared to shoot their mothers and fathers if they had to.
Sergei Witte
minister of finances sponsored the state's industrialism in Russia. He saw industrialism as ssential to Russia's strength. He built railroads and encouraged protective tariffs. He believed in foreign capital.
Revolution of 1905
started by peasants that went to the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg to present a petition of grievances to the tsar.
Russo-Japanese War
when a Baltic fleet was sent to Japan, only to be defeated it brought shock to Europe. The Russians admitted defeat and sued foer peace. Transportation broke down and food shortages were on the rise in major Russian cities.
Bloody Sunday
when troops opened fire to a peaceful demonstration that killed hundreds. It incited workers to call strikes and form unions. Zemstvos demanded parliamentary government, ethnic groups revolted and peasants burned land of landowners.
Peter Stolypin
tsar's chief adviser that dissolved the village ownership of land and opened the door to private ownership by enterprising peasants.
New Imperialism
when European states embarked on an intense scramble for overseas territory in a revival of imperialism for Africa and Asia.
"White Man's Burden"
the belief that the superiority of their civilization obligated Europeans to impose their practices, such as industrialization and medicine, to nonwhite people.
Cecil Rhodes
founded both diamond and gold companies that monopolized production of these precious commodities and enabled him to gain control of a territory north of Transvaal. Conspired to overthrow the Boer government without British approval.
Transvaal
the Vaal River where the Boers were forced to migrate by. Hostilities between them and the British continues. When the British governor of the Cape Colony seized the Transvaal but a Boer revolt led the British government to recognize it as an independent nation.
Boer War
extremists from both sides the initiated conflict. The Boers were overwhelmed by the British. The end caused Transvaal and the Orange Free State to have representative governments as well as the Union of South Africa the was a self-governing dominion.
David Livingstone
Scottish missionary that believed that he needed to convert many in central Africa.
King Leopold II
Belgian king that had rushed to pursue Africa. He treated Africans so brutally that many were apalled. He created the International Association for the Exploration and Civilization of Central Africa and engaged Henry Stanley to establish Belgian settlements in the Congo.
British East India Company
private trading company that was responsible for subjugating much of India. After a revolt of sepoys caused the British to defeat them, London gained direct control of it.
"Open-Door" Policy
China was forced to agree to this policy in which one country would not restrict the commerce of the others in its spheres of influence.
Commodore Perry
American navy commander who forced the Japanese to grant the United States trading and diplomatic privileges.
Boxer Rebellion
Boxers, or Chinese that belonged to the Society of Harmonious Fists, whose aim was to push foreigners out of China. They murdered foreign missionaries, Chinese who converted, railroad workers, foreign businessmen and the German envoy.
Meiji Restoration
the restoration of the emperor as the rightful head tof the government. The new leaders controlled the emperor initiated a change in Japanese government.
Indian National Congress
moderate, educated Indians that were starting to seek self-government. When Britains were violent and insensitive, they demanded independence.
Congress of Berlin
led by Bismarck that demolished the Treaty of San Stefano (a treaty where a large Bulgarian state extended from the Danube to the Aegean Sea that would become a Russian satellite) The Bulgarian state was reduced and the rest of the land was under Ottomancontrolled. Serbia, Montenegro and Romania were recognized as independent. Bosnia and Herzegovina were placed under Austrian protection.
Triple Alliance
when Russia was alienated by the Congress of Berlin, this alliance was made between Germany, Austria and Italy to support existing political order while providing a defensive alliance against France.
Three Emporer's League
when Bismarck allied with traditionally conservative powers of Austria-Hungary and Russia. Did not work well because of Austro-Russian rivalry in the Balkans.
Reinsurance Treaty
Bismarck sought to preserve friendly terms with the Russian and signed this in hopes to prevent a French-Russianalliance that would threaten Germany on a two-front war.
Admiral von Tirpitz
secretary of the German navy that worried the British since he constructed a large navy and a number of battleships.
Entente Cordiale
where the British turned to their enemy France and settled their colonial disputes.
First Moroccan Crisis
where Germans chose to oppose French designs on Morocco in order to humiliate them and drive a wedge between the two new allies. It only suceeded in unifying Britain, France, Russia and the United States against Germany.
Triple Entente
loose association of Russia, France and Great Britain that grew rigid as the Balkans were heating up.
Bosnian Crisis
when Austria annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina that caused the Serbs to become outraged. Many dashed there in hopes of creating a Serbian kingdom. A large Sebia was believed to be a threat and Russians supported the Serbs. The Serbs prepared for war with Austria but William IIintervened and demanded Russians accept the annexation.
First Balkan War
when Europeans attention returned to the Balkans in 1912 where Serbia, Bulgaria, Montenegro and Greece organized the Balkan league and defeated the Ottomans.
Second Balkan War
when the allies were unable to agree on how to divide the conquered Ottoman provinces of Macedonia and Albania. Greece, Serbia, Romania and the Ottomans attacked and defeated Bulgaria. Bulgaria obtained only a small part of Macedonia and the rest was divided between Serbia and Greece.
Francis Fernidad
heir to the Austrian throne that was assasinated in Sarajevo that precipitated the confrontation between Austria and Serbia.
Militarism
when large mass armies grew after 1900. This caused conscription. Machines used for the military doubled in size. The influence of military leaders grew that drew up complex plans for mobilizing men and supplies in case of war.
Pan-Slavism
the idea that the Black Hand had hopes of to create a nationalistic Slavic kingdom with Serbia and Austria.
WWI
the war that was intended to be local but grew larger and larger due to nationalistic tendencies and alliances.
Schlieffen Plan
Germany could not solely raise its army against Russia, so they declared war on France after issuing an ultimatum to Belgium declaring the right for themto pass through.
Battle of the Marne
when the Germans reached the verge of success by going to Paris, but were halted by France. German troops fell back but France could not pursue its advantage. Trenches were dug for shelter as it grew to a stalemate. Two lines of trencges extended for Switzerland to the English Channel, where they would be for four years.
General von Hindenburg
the leader that was defeated as a commanding general. Created military dictators and decreed a system of complete mobilization.
General Ludendorff
chief of staff for Hindenburg that made Russia no longer a threat to Germany.
Moltke
modification of the German attack plan in the west and his inability to retain control of his rapidly advancing armies significantly contributed to the halt of the German offensive on the Marne
Verdun
one of the largest and longest battles of the war that resulted in around 750,000 dead with one of the costliest battles in human history.
Lusitania
where the German government declared the area around the British Isles a war zone and threatened to torpedo those that were in it. One hundred Americans lost their lives on this passanger liner that suspended the act against the area.
Total War
affected the lives of all citizens no matter where they were. It transformed and centralized powers and regimentation.
Easter Rebellion
when members of the Irish Republican Brotherhood and Citizens Army occupied government building in Dublin that forced Brtain to crush it and condemn them to death.
Defence of the Realm Act
allowed the public authorities to arrest dissenters as traiters that was later extended to authorize public officials to censor newspapers by deleting objectionable material and suspend newspaper publication.
March Revolution
at the start of March, a series of strikes broke out in Russia due to the government increasing food rations after the price of bread skyrocketed.
Petrograd
the capital city that was formerly St. Petersburg where women protested on March 8th shouting 'peace and bread' and 'down with the autocracy'
Lenin
leader of the Bolsheviks. He was dedicated to the violent revolution that would destroy the capitalist system. He spent most of his time in Switzerland but went back to Russia when he saw the opportunity for power.
Bolsheviks
small group of Russian Social Democratics who saw value in socialism. Needed to control people to overthrow the provisional government. Redistribution of land to peasants and factories to the soviets. Peace, Land Bread. Worker Control of Production. All Power to the Soviets.
Nicholas II
last tsar of Russia that was forced to abdicate after the 1905 Revolution
Army Order No. 1
order for all RUssian military forces that encouraged them to remove their officers and replace them with committees of elected representatives of the lower ranks of the army that caused chaos
Bolshevik Revolution
when Kerensky released Bolsheviks from prison ad turned to the Petrograd soviet for help. Numbers of soviets raised to 240,000
Leon Trotsky
revolutionary and chairman if the Petrograd soviet that took over the city. The government collapsed.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
signed a treaty with Germany that gave up eastern Poland, Ukraine, Finland and the Baltic probinvrs to try to keep peace.
Russian Civil War
when the Bolshevik army was fighing many fronts that came from Siberia, Ukraine and others. They gained Ukraine back as well as Georgia, Russian Armenia and Azerbaijan. The tsar was murdered as well as his family.
Woodrow Wilson
American president that attempted at the start of 1918 shifted the discussion of war aims to higher ground through fourteen points to the American Congress. He also spelled out steps for lasting peace. He waged it as a people's war against absolutism and militarism. He wanted liberal nations that would guarantee political independence.
Treaty of Versailles
where the Germans were concerned about how severe it was, but their one with Russia was more severe. It declared Austria and Germany were responsible for the war. They had to pay reperations for all the damage to which Allied governments were subjected to. Had to reduce to an army of 100,000 men, cut back its navy and eliminate its air force. German territorial losses included Alsace and Lorraine to France and Prussia to new Polish state. Rhine was a demilitarized zone.
Georges Clemenceau
French leader that was determined to punish Germany for humilitation of the French empire. He renonced desire for a seperate Rhineland and instead a defensive alliance with Britain and the United States.
League of Nations
aimed to prevent future wars that Wilson agreed to make compromises on territory in exchange for establishment of the league.
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