83 terms

OrgPysch Midterm 3

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Personnel psyhcology
The specialty area of I/O psychology focusing on an organization's human resources
Job analysis
The systematic study of the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of a job and the qualities needed to perform it
Job description
A detailed description of job tasks, procedures, and responsibilities; the tools and equipment used; and the end product or service
Job specification
A statement of the human characteristics required to perform a job
Job evaluation
An assessment of the relative value of a job to determine appropriate compensation
Performance criteria
The means for appraising worker success in performing a job
Job incumbent
The person currently holding the job
Observational method of job analysis
A trained job analyst observes the job incumbent at work for a period of time
For what kinds of jobs does the observational method of job analysis work the best?
Jobs involving manual operations, repetitive tasks, or other easily seen activites
Participational method of job analysis
A trained job analyst participates in the job to get a firsthand understanding of how the job is performed
Existing data method of job analysis
Using information or records from large established organizations
Additional methods of job analysis
Interviews
Surveys
Job diaries
Subject matter expert
An individual who has detailed knowledge about a particular job
Job element method of job analysis
A job analysis method that analyzes jobs in terms of the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) required to perform the jobs
Critical incident technique (CIT) of job analysis
A job analysis technique that relies on instances of especially successful or unsuccessful job performance
Position analysis questionnaire (PAQ) technique of job analysis
A job analysis technique that uses a structured questionnaire to analyze jobs according to 187 job statements, grouped into six categories
Six categories of the PAQ
1. Information input
2. Mental processes
3. Work output
4. Relationships with other persons
5. Job context
6. Other job characteristics
Functional job analysis (FJA)
A structured job analysis technique that examines the sequence of tasks in a job and the processes by which they are completed
0=complex
n=least complex
Three categories of FJA
1. Data
2. People
3. Things
Realistic job preview (RJP)
An accurate presentation of the prospective job and organization made to applicants
Employee screening
The process of reviewing information about job applicants used to select workers
False-positive error
Erroneously accepting an applicant who would be unsuccessful
False-negative error
Erroneously rejecting an applicant who would have been successful
Reliability
The consistency of a measurement instrument or its stability over time
Test-retest reliability
A method of determining the stability of a measurement instrument by administering the same measure to the same people at two different times and then correlating the scores
Parallel forms
A method of establishing the reliability of a measurement instrument by correlating scores on two different but equivalent versions of the same instrument
Internal consistency
Common method of establishing a measurement instrument's reliability by examining how the various items of the instrument intercorrelate
Validity
A concept referring to the accuracy of a measurement instrument and its ability to make accurate inferences about a criterion
Content validity
The ability of the items in a measurement instrument to measure adequately the various characteristics needed to perform a job
Construct validity
Refers to whether an employment test measures what it is supposed to measure
Criterion-related validity
The accuracy of a measurement instrument in determining the relationship between scores on the instrument and some criterion of job success
Advantages of individual testing
More involved
Advantages of group testing
Reduced cost
Speed tests focus on
the number of items completed in the time period provided
Power tests focus on
the percentage of items answered correctly. Typically have more difficult items.
Paper-and-pencil tests
require some form of written reply
Performance tests
involve the manipulation of physical objects
Biodata
Background information and personal characteristics that can be used in employee selection. I.e attitudes, values, likes, and dislikes
Cognitive ability tests
range from tests of general intellectual ability to tests of specific cognitive skills.
Mechanical ability tests
are developed to measure abilities in identifying, recognizing, and applying mechanical principles.
Motor and sensory ability tests
measure specific motor skills or sensory abilities.
Work sample tests
Used in job skill tests to measure applicants' abilities to perform brief examples of important job tasks
Personality tests
Instruments that measure psychological characteristics of individuals
Polygraphs
Instruments that measure physiological reactions presumed to accompany deception; also known as lie detectors
Integrity tests
Measures of honest or dishonest attitudes and/or behaviors
Test battery
A combination of employment tests used to increase the ability to predict future job performance
Validity generalization
The ability of a screening instrument to predict performance in a job or setting different from the one in which the test was validated
Test utility
The value of a screening test in determining important outcomes, such as dollars gained by the company through its use
Rankings
Performance appraisal methods involving the ranking of supervisees from best to worst
Paired comparison
Performance appraisal method in which the rater compares each worker with each other worker in the group
Forced distributions
Assigning workers to established categories of poor to good performance with fixed limitations on how many employees can be assigned to each category
Individual methods
Performance appraisal methods that evaluate an employee by himself or herself, without explicit reference to other workers
Graphic rating scales
Performance appraisal methods using a predetermined scale to rate the worker on important job dimensions
Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS)
Performance appraisal technique using rating scales with labels reflecting examples of poor, average, and good behavioral incidents
Behavioral observation scales (BOS)
Performance appraisal methods that require appraisers to recall how often a worker has been observed performing key work behaviors
Checklists
Performance appraisal methods using a series of statements about job performance
Narratives
Open-ended written accounts of a worker's performance used in performance appraisals
Leniency error
The tendency to give all workers very positive performance appraisals
Severity error
The tendency to give all workers very negative performance appraisals
Central tendency error
The tendency to give all workers the midpoint rating in performance appraisals
Halo effect
An overall positive evaluation of a worker based on one known positive characteristic or action
Recency effect
The tendency to give greater weight to recent performance and lesser weight to earlier performance
Actor-observer bias
The tendency for observers to overattribute cause to characteristics of the actor and the tendency for the actor to overattribute cause to situational characteristics
On-the-job training
An employee training method of placing a worker in the workplace to learn firsthand
about a job
Apprenticeship
A training technique, usually lasting several years, that combines on-the-job experience with classroom instruction
Vestibule training
Training that uses a separate area adjacent to the work area to simulate the actual work setting
Job rotation
A method of rotating workers among a variety of jobs to increase their breadth of knowledge
Seminar
A common training method in which an expert provides job- related information in a classroom-like setting
Audiovisual instruction
The use of films, video- tapes, and other electronic media to convey training material
Behavior modeling training
A training method that exposes trainees to
role models performing appropriate and inappropriate work behaviors and their outcomes and then allows trainees to practice modeling the appropriate behaviors
Simulation
Training that replicates job conditions without placing the trainee in the actual work setting
Programmed instruction
Self-paced individualized training in which trainees are provided with training materials and can test how much they have learned
Computer-assisted instruction
Programmed instruction delivered by computer that adapts to the trainee's learning rate
Problem-solving case study
A management training technique that presents a real or hypothetical organizational problem that trainees attempt to solve
Role-playing
A management training exercise that requires trainees to act out problem situations that often occur at work
Action learning
Teams assembled to work on a company- related problem or issue to learn by doing
Reaction criteria
Assess trainees' opinions about the training and their learning.
Learning criteria
Measures of the amount of learning that has taken place.
Behavioral criteria
Measures of the amount of newly learned skills displayed once the trainee has returned to the job.
Results criteria
Measures the outcomes that are important to the organization, such as increased trainee work output as expressed by production rates, dollar sales figures, or quality of work.
Posttest-only design
A program evaluation that simply measures training success criterion following completion of the training program
Pretest-posttest design
A design for evaluating a training program that makes comparisons of criterion measures collected before and after the introduction of the program
Solomon four-group design
A method of program evaluation using two treatment groups and two control groups