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137 terms

Social Psychology 5-7

STUDY
PLAY
A very strong cultural norm dictates that males should be taller than their female mates. This height norm is cited in your text as evidence that
biology and culture interact to develop gender-role norms.
Research on the differences in men and women show all EXCEPT
men tend to be more democratic, women autocratic.
Research on possible hormonal influences on aggression has indicated that
violent male criminals have higher than normal testosterone levels.
The male-to-female arrest ratio for murder in the United States is
10 to 1.
_______ are more likely to favor conservative political candidates.
Men.
Evolutionary psychologists study
both physical and psychological traits.
According to anthropologists, which of the following is NOT true?
We are more different than we are alike.
How did Asch's studies of conformity differ from those of Sherif?
Asch's participants could clearly see the correct judgment.
Cultural values influence conformity. It is more responsive to others' influences
in collectivistic countries than individualistic countries.
Ahmed generally likes to go home to visit his family during vacation. However, after his father tells him that he must be home during spring vacation, Ahmed decides to remain at college. Ahmed's behavior is best understood in terms of
psychological reactance.
A lone black female lawyer in a group of black and white male lawyers will be most conscious of being
female.
If you clean your room only because your parents order you to, your behavior is a form of
obedience.
Which of the following statements is TRUE of conformity and obedience?
They are universal phenomena that vary by culture.
Even though you really dislike wearing a dress, you decide to wear one to your cousin's wedding. This is an example of
compliance.
When Werner and his colleagues (2002) placed signs on a campus with a two-sided message that not only stated the importance of recycling but also acknowledged the inconvenience of it, recycling
increased to 80 percent.
Studies have shown that if people are aware of opposing arguments, a _______ presentation is more persuasive and enduring.
two-sided
Persuasion can be resisted by
making a public commitment to one's own position.
The _______ effect occurs when we remember the message but forget the reason for discounting it.
sleeper
People tend to have different social and political attitudes depending on their age because the attitudes older people adopted when they were young persist through life largely unchanged. This refers to the _______ explanation for how age plays a role in persuasion.
generational
Which route to persuasion is most likely to create long-lasting attitudes and behavioral changes?
central
Which of the following is a universal norm according to the textbook?
incest
Norms _____ behavior.
prescribe
The text suggests that most religions encourage us to view ourselves as _______ and others as _______.
free agents; influenced by their environments
Evolutionary psychologists suggest that males are sexually assertive while females are more selective of sexual partners because
each strategy is likely to promote gene survival.
Human kinship is to the _______ perspective as social diversity is to the _______ perspective.
evolutionary; cultural
What cultural differences or similarities were found in the research on pedestrian interaction in the U.S. and Japan?
Both cultures tended to look back at someone who looked at them.
In psychology, the characteristics by which people define male and female, whether biologically or socially influenced, is referred to as
gender.
The psychological reactance theory may help explain why
All of the above
In the 60s and 70s, researchers observed only weak connections between personal characteristics and conformity. Later research finds
it can predict average rather than specific actions.
Research on social influence points out the key issues EXCEPT
situations can't induce ordinary people to be cruel.
When Milgram asked 100 psychiatrists, college students, and middle-class adults to predict the results of his experiment, the respondents said that they thought _______ would _______.
they themselves; disobey by about 135 volts
We tend to feel more sadness when we learn about one person's death on the news than we feel when we hear of thousands killed in a natural disaster. This is
because of personalization of the victim.
Conformity that involves publicly acting in accord with an implied or explicit request, while privately disagreeing, is called
compliance.
Mullen and her colleagues (1990) found that the average baseline jaywalking rate _______ in the presence of a non-jaywalking confederate.
decreases
Inoculation research suggests that children
fail to grasp the persuasive intent of commercials.
Speaking to a huge anti-union retail store, an anti-union political candidate's expertise seems to
increase.
Which statement is NOT true about the best way to deal with media information?
Messages are best comprehended and recalled when spoken.
Which of the following illustrates media influence through a two-step flow of communication?
A man buys a new laundry detergent after having it recommended by a friend, who had read that it was both effective and environmentally safe in a consumer magazine article.
Abelson and his colleagues (1982) found that voting preferences in the United States could be reasonably predicted from voters'
emotional reactions to the candidates.
Studies comparing different sources of media found that the more _______ the media, the more persuasive the message.
lifelike
Which has the most influence on personality differences?
peer influence.
As people mature to middle age and beyond,
gender differences in interpersonal behavior decrease.
According to Myers, most Americans maintain a personal space between themselves and strangers of approximately
4 or more feet.
Research on the Big 5 personality traits indicates that
differences among these traits in different countries is quite small.
Twin and adoption studies indicate that shared environmental influences explain approximately ___ percent of individual variations in personality traits.
0-10
Leung and Bond (2004) reported that there were five universal dimensions of social beliefs. Which of the following is NOT one of those five?
justice.
According to the text, women of all ages tend to prefer men _______ themselves.
slightly older than.
Consistent with what is known about depersonalization, Lydon and Dunkel-Schetter (1994) found that expectant women expressed more _______ to their pregnancies after seeing an ultrasound photo of the fetus.
commitment
In his classic study of _______, Sherif had participants in groups call out estimates of the distance that a small point of light appeared to move in a dark room.
norm formation.
In Western individualistic societies, the word "conformity" carries
a negative value judgment.
Research on social influence points out the key issues EXCEPT
situations can't induce ordinary people to be cruel.
The copycat suicide phenomenon is most likely to occur
in places where the suicide story is publicized.
The spread of bodily complaints within a school or workplace with no organic basis for the symptoms is called
mass hysteria
Speaking to a labor union, a pro-union professor's expertise seems to
increase.
Americans' support for the Iraq war increased after the war began mainly because of the
persuasive messages in the U.S. media.
People most vulnerable to cults are usually
under the age of 25 and facing a personal crisis.
If people remember the message better than the reason for discounting it, the impact of a noncredible person may _______ over time.
increase.
Inoculation research suggests that children
fail to grasp the persuasive intent of commercials.
People with _______ self-esteem are the easiest to influence.
moderate.
Being a student of social psychology, you can predict with reasonable accuracy that _______ are more likely to contribute to charitable organizations.
women.
Your family is anticipating the arrival of an exchange student from Latin America. Being a student of social psychology, you are aware that the student's preference for personal space will likely
be less than your family's.
According to research on gender differences, which statement is NOT true?
Women are more vulnerable to autism.
As women's employment in formerly male occupations has increased, the gender difference in self-reported masculinity/femininity has
decreased.
Evolutionary psychology has been criticized for
hindsight bias
The experimenter in Milgram's study used all EXCEPT which of the following verbal prods to encourage participants to continue?
"You will be penalized if you refuse to go on."
In Milgram's research, when the experimenter gave the commands by telephone instead of in person, full obedience
dropped 21 precent.
The names we choose for our children often express our
desire for uniqueness.
According to conformity research, a group's social power is deflated when
just one other person also differs from the majority.
Perceived expertise in a speaker includes all of the following EXCEPT
someone speaking hesitantly.
We tend to like people who are like us. This exemplifies which characteristic of attractiveness?
similarity.
Another term for a cult is a(n)
new religious movement.
The Eldersveld and Dodge (1954) study identified which group casting the most votes in an election?
The one that was exposed to mass media and visited personally
The _______ effect refers to how information that is presented last can have the most influence.
recency.
Which route to persuasion is most likely to create long-lasting attitudes and behavioral changes?
central.
The Nurture Assumption refers to the belief that
the way parents bring up their children governs who their children become.
According to a 2003 Gallup poll, ___ percent of American men and ___ percent of American women reported having cried as a result of the war in Iraq.
12; 43
Maccoby (2002) found that girls tend to _______ compared to boys.
talk more intimately
Women's wages in industrial nations are ___ percent of men's.
77
If we expect someone to be hostile, our actions toward that person may induce hostility. This is an example of how
people create their social situations.
Your mother has commented on how little time your older sister, who recently married, spends on housework, as compared to what she herself used to spend when she was a newlywed. Your mother's comment reflects how gender roles
vary over time
Both men and women desire _______ in their relationships.
kindness and love.
When we go along with the crowd and act counter to our own beliefs and values, we are conforming because of
normative influence.
Sherif is to the study of _______ as Asch is to the study of _______.
norm formation; conformity
Conformity that involves publicly acting in accord with an implied or explicit request, while privately disagreeing, is called
compliance.
In the 60s and 70s, researchers observed only weak connections between personal characteristics and conformity. Later research finds
it can predict average rather than specific actions.
Knowing that someone is trying to coerce you may prompt you to do the opposite of that person's wishes. This response is predicted by
the reactance theory.
Arguments, especially emotional ones, are often more influential when they come from beautiful people. This exemplifies which characteristic of attractiveness?
physical appeal.
Research has concluded that stimulating thinking makes stronger messages _______ persuasive and (because of counter-arguing) weak messages _______ persuasive.
more ; less
Whether a one-sided or two-sided message is more persuasive depends on all of the following EXCEPT
whether the audience thinks information is being shared in an appropriate way.
A cult has all of the following characteristics EXCEPT
isolation from the surrounding "evil" culture.
According to Myers, advertisers for beverages and clothing tend to adopt marketing strategies that use the _______ route to persuasion.
peripheral
Cults like Jim Jones's People's Temple typically recruit and retain members by using
the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.
Although there are many unoccupied tables in the restaurant, Rudolph decides to sit at the same table in the chair right next to James. James feels uncomfortable because Rudolph has violated
his personal space.
You read about an unsolved murder in the newspaper. Given what you have learned in social psychology, you can reasonably predict a(n) _______ committed the murder.
man.
The vicarious experience of another's feelings or ability to put oneself in another's shoes is
empathy.
Seven-year-old Mary says "Thank you" after opening each birthday present she receives because her family considers it to be proper behavior. This best illustrates the influence of a
norm.
______ is the study of the evolution of behavior using principles of natural selection.
evolutionary psychology.
In one variation of his original experiment, Milgram arranged for a confederate "clerk" (posing as a fellow participant) to assume command in the experimenter's absence. As a result of this manipulation,
80 percent of the teachers refused to comply fully.
When Regina returned to the U.S. after two years in Madagascar, she felt uncomfortable and out of place. She was experiencing
reentry distress.
Mullen and her colleagues (1990) found that the average baseline jaywalking rate decreases in the presence of a non-jaywalking confederate, especially if the non-jaywalker is well dressed. This is an example of the power of _______ on conformity.
status
Frank (1982) noted that psychotherapy is similar to cults and zealous self-help groups because they provide all of the following EXCEPT
isolation from outside world.
When two messages are back to back, followed by a time gap, the _______ effect usually occurs.
primacy
Individuals who are typically regarded as thinking people may be inclined to use the peripheral route to persuasion if
the speaker has apparently good motives.
The way a message is delivered is what social psychologists refer to as the _______ of communication.
channel
Hunter (2002) noted that culture shaping usually occurs _______, as cultural elites control the dissemination of information and ideas.
top-down
A person who is both _______ would be considered androgynous.
assertive and nurturing
Smoreda and Licoppe (2000) reported that when on the telephone, women's conversations with
friends are longer than are men's.
Evolutionary explanations of gender differences have been criticized because they
do not explain cultural changes in behavior that occur over relatively short periods of time.
A set of behavioral expectations for males or females defines gender
role
A psychiatrist who interviewed 40 of Milgram's participants a year after their participation concluded that
none had been harm
Ahmed generally likes to go home to visit his family during vacation. However, after his father tells him that he must be home during spring vacation, Ahmed decides to remain at college. Ahmed's behavior is best understood in terms of
psychological reactance.
When we go along with the crowd and act counter to our own beliefs and values, we are conforming because of
normative influence.
In the spring of 1954, Seattle residents were alarmed by widespread reports of damage by a mysterious windshield-pitting agent. According to the text, the true cause of public concern was most likely
mass suggestibility.
Group members who feel attracted to the group are more responsive to its influence. This fact illustrates the impact of _______ on conformity.
cohesiveness
When the influence of the situation is _______, the consequent behavior is more likely to be a result of _______.
weak; individual personalities
Persuasion can be resisted by
making a public commitment to one's own position.
Research on attitude inoculation suggests that religious educators are wise to avoid
creating a "germ-free ideological environment."
According to Aronson, Turner, and Carlsmith (1963), the effect of a large versus a small discrepancy between the communicator and the receiver of a message depends on whether or not the
communicator of the message is credible.
Werner and his colleagues (2002) conducted a study on aluminum can recycling at the University of Utah and found that the most effective message was a
two-sided one.
Research has found that _______ speakers are rated as more objective, intelligent, and knowledgeable.
fast.
Which one of the following is NOT one of the conditions under which a thinking person would adopt the peripheral route to persuasion?
when the arguments are strong and compelling
Much of the style we attribute to men is
humorous
According to Aronson (1997), when fear aroused by a persuasive message is relevant to a pleasurable activity (e.g., sex or smoking), the result is often
denial
Which route to persuasion is most likely to create long-lasting attitudes and behavioral changes?
central
The process by which media influence often occurs through opinion leaders, who in turn influence others, is referred to as
two-step flow of communication
Sherif is to the study of _______ as Asch is to the study of _______.
norm formation : conformity
Conformity based on a person's desire to fulfill others' expectations, often to gain their acceptance, is called
normative influence
According to the text, Asch's experiments lacked _______ but did possess _______.
mundane realism; experimental realism
Compared to people in individualistic countries, those in collectivist countries are
more responsive to others' influence.
Mullen and her colleagues (1990) found that the average baseline jaywalking rate _______ in the presence of a non-jaywalking confederate.
decreases
In follow-up experiments to his initial study, Milgram made the learner's protests more compelling by having him complain of a heart condition, then scream and plead for release, and finally refuse to answer. With this added condition,
the majority of participants still fully obeyed the experimenter's demands.
Worldwide, women's vocational interests, compared to men,
relate to people rather than things.
Evolutionary psychology would explain the male tendency to display their "abs and assets" as an example of their striving to offer what women desire, which is
external resources and physical protection.
Much of the style we attribute to men is
typical of people of both sexes of higher status and power.
In psychology, the characteristics by which people define male and female, whether biologically or socially influenced, is referred to as
gender
One dramatic finding from developmental psychology (Plomin & Daniels, 1987) is that two children in the same family are, on average,
as different from one another as two children selected at random.
One example of how gender roles vary with culture is that
most North American doctors and dentists are men.