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Terms in this set (156)
The body must take in oxygen and
Get rid of carbon dioxide
External respiration is the
Exchange of gases between the air in the lungs and the blood
internal respiration is the
Exchange of gases between the blood and body cells
oxygen is the final electron acceptor 8' the electron transport system which is one of the
Processes of cellular respiration
The respiratory zone refers to microscopic structures that are the
Actual sites of gas exchange in the lungs
The small, moveable arytenoid cartilages are moves by small muscles during speech. This movement causes
Abduction and adduction of the true vocal chords
The true vocal chords are the space between them are collectively known as the
The trachea is held open by incomplete (C shaped) ringed of
Dyspnea is the
Painful of labored breathing
The lungs help control the level of acid in the body(pH) by
Blowing off carbon dioxide
If the lungs cannot perform this function the person will develop respiratory acidosis since
More carbon dioxide will accumulate and be converted into carbonic acid
The carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffet system involves both
The lungs and the kidneys
Carbon dioxide combines with water to form
The combination of oxygen and hemoglobin is called
98.5% of oxygen in the blood is bound to hemoglobin within
Red blood cells
The genetic makeup is the
The outward appearance is the
polygenic inheritance: many inherited traits are produced by multiple gene pairs
At different loci acting in tandem
Specialized reproductive cells are called
Normal body cells also called somatic cells contain 23 pairs of chromosomes or
46 chromosomes in all; this is the diploid number or 2n
Gametes differ from other cells in the body because they only have half the usual number of chromosomes this is the
Haploid number or "n"
Meiosis ; genetic diversity is created by genetic recombination that occurs
During "crossing over"
During meiosis I, the homologous chromosomes are separated from each other, but still remain
In the replicated state
During meiosis II, the replicated "sister chromatids" are pulled apart, resulting in
Four haploid cells
Completion of the organ systems around 8 weeks marks the
Beginning of the fetal stage
Teratogens are drugs,chemicals, or other agents thy cause
Anatomical deformities in the fetus
During the last part of pregnancy, the fetus begins to display behaviors such as thumb sucking and playing with the cord. Some studies have demonstrated that the fetus responds to
Music and learns to recognize his or her mother's voice before birth
For inspiration to occur a
Negative pressure must be created inside the lungs
According to Boyle's law, the pressure and volume of a gas are inversely related, so to decrease the pressure, you must increase the size of the "container".
This means that the chest cavity must expand during inspiration so that air will be sucked into the lungs
Air moved in and out during one respiration, about 500 ml
total lung capacity is about
The normal volume of air moved in and out of the lungs in one respiration is called the
Tidal volume; this normally equals about 500 mL of air
3 things keep the alveoli slightly expanded at all times and prevents their collapse:
-the action of surfactant
-the negative pressure inside the pleural cavities
-the residual volume of air that remains in the lungs at all times
At rest, the pressure inside the lungs matches the atmospheric pressure (760 mm Hg at sea level). During inhalation,
A negative pressure is created by the contraction of the diaphragm muscle and the pressure drops to 758 mm Hg, causing air to rush in until the pressure is equal again
Importance of pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium in the respiratory system: Much of the respiratory tract (including most of the nasal cavity, the nasopharynx, trachea, and bronchi) is lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelial cells.
The cilia beat rhythmically and continuously to move dust particles and foreign particles that have been trapped by mucus toward the throa
This function is known as the "mucociliary escalator" in the trachea because
the dust and foreign particles "ride up the escalator" away from the lungs
Note: Cigarette smoking paralyzes
The nasal cavity is divided by a septum which
is formed by the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone and the vomer
The nasal conchae are three "shelves" of tissue on each side of the nasal cavity
As air enters the nose, it swirls around the conchae and is warmed and moistened.
The larynx or voice box sits at the top of the trachea, forming
an entrance to the lower respiratory tract
The epiglottis is a leaf-shaped structure that moves downward to form a "lid" over the larynx and prevent food
and drink from entering the airways when a person is swallowing.
The thyroid cartilage is largest and forms the anterior part of the larynx.
It is shaped like a shield.
A ridge on the front of the thyroid cartilage, called the laryngeal prominence, is commonly
known as the "Adam's apple."
A tracheotomy is a surgical incision into the
A tracheostomy is a surgical procedure that creates a permanent or semipermanent opening (stoma) in the
in the trachea to relieve obstruction, or to provide for long-term mechanical ventilation.
The two main bronchi that branch from the trachea are held open by C-shaped rings of cartilage, just like the trachea. As they branch into smaller bronchi, the rings of cartilage are replaced
by overlapping cartilaginous plates. Finally, the cartilage disappears and the amount of smooth muscle increases, forming spiral bands around the bronchioles.
The spiral bands of smooth muscle in the bronchioles are sensitive to epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine
from the adrenal medulla
When these hormones are released
the smooth muscle bands relax and widen the airways (bronchodilation).
release of histamine and other chemical mediators during an allergic response causes just the opposite effect:
the smooth muscle bands in the lower airways contract, causing bronchoconstriction.
Note: Histamine and other inflammatory mediators such as leukotrienes cause
. Epinephrine causes
microscopic air sacs called
The alveoli are surrounded by capillaries and it is here that the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place by
The exchange of gases takes place in the alveoli. The alveolar ducts and alveoli are lined with simple squamous epithelium (one layer of flat cells) to allow
for simple diffusion
The squamous cells of the alveoli and the endothelial cells which line the capillaries are therefore in direct contact
with each other, forming the "respiratory membrane."
The respiratory membrane is the thin barrier through which
gas exchange takes place
This is composed of the alveolar cells and endothelial cells of adjacent capillaries, along with their
basement membranes which become fused between them.
Surfactant is a lipid based mixture (containing phospholipids and lipoproteins) that prevents the alveoli from collapsing by decreasing the surface tension of water molecules with the
Thin film of fluid that lines each aleveolus
type 1 alveolar cells
simple squamous cells that allow diffusion of gas
type 2 alveolar cells
Round cuboidal cells that secrete surfactant
The lungs of premature babies are not fully developed and lack surfactant this causes
Preemies to develop respiratory distress syndrome
Emphysema is a lung disease that
Causes the alveolar walls to break down and merge also the elasticity of walls are lost
each lung is surrounded by a double-layered membrane called the pleura. The outer layer (the parietal pleura) is attached to the
wall of the thoracic cavity while the inner layer (visceral pleura) adheres to the surface of the lungs.
Between the two layers is a small space containing a thin film of fluid, known as the
The left lung is smaller and has only two lobes
the right lung has three lobes
The cardiac notch on the left lung allows
room for the heart
accumulation of air in the pleural cavity
Quiet inspiration is accomplished by contraction of the
diaphragm muscle and external intercostals
Quiet (unforced) expiration is passive and automatic, due to the
elastic recoil of the chest wall and lungs.
The large, dome-shaped diaphragm muscle that separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities is the most important muscle of respiration and is
responsible for about 2/3 of the volume of inhaled air.
The diaphragm is the prime mover of inspiration. During quiet inspiration, the external intercostals muscles act
as synergists by lifting the ribs "up and out."
The diaphragm is innervated by the
the right phrenic nerves
The normal arterial PO2 is
100 mm Hg
Chemoreceptors in the medulla are very sensitive to changes in the level of CO2 and pH. Rising levels of CO2
are the main stimulus for breathing in a healthy person
The primary breathing stimulus in a normal person
is the rising level of CO2
The lungs help to control the level of acid in the body (pH) by blowing off carbon dioxide. If the lungs cannot perform this function
the person will develop respiratory acidosis since more carbon dioxide will accumulate and be converted into carbonic acid
painful or labored breathing
Cheyne-Stokes respirations -
cyclic fluctuation of respiratory rate and depth
Kussmaul respirations -
very deep and labored breathing due to severe metabolic acidosis
Human DNA is organized into 23 pairs of chromosomes
the twenty-third pair consists of sex chromosomes that determine gender and are different in the male and female.
females are designated as "XX" while males are
designated as "XY."
The SRY gene (sex-determining region of the Y chromosome) is the critical gene that activates other genes and
turns on the male pattern of development in the fetus
A homologous pair of chromosomes is a "matching set" that includes
one chromosome from each parent
Each locus (location of a gene) on one chromosome has a matching locus on the other chromosome, so
genes are inherited in pairs called alleles
Alleles are different forms of a gene that can exist
at the same locus
Every inherited trait is determined by
at least one pair of alleles
Dominant-Recessive Inheritance: In some instances, one allele is dominant over the other one
in a heterozygous gene pair
Gametes differ from other cells in the body because they only have
half the usual number of chromosomes
Genetic diversity is created by genetic recombination that occurs during "crossing over"
During meiosis I, the homologous chromosomes are separated from each other, but
still remain in the replicated state
During meiosis II, the replicated "sister chromatids" are pulled apart, resulting
in four haploid cells
Every embryo produces
two sets of ducts: Wolffian and Mullerian ducts
In the presence of the SRY gene, the testes will develop and produce
testosterone and Müllerian-inhibiting factor, and the Wolffian ducts will develop into the male reproductive organs.
If the SRY gene is not present, the Wolffian ducts will degenerate (due to the lack of testosterone) and
the Mullerian ducts will develop into the female reproductive organs.
Male gonads are the testes or testicles, which are located
in the scrotum
The production and survival of sperm depends on keeping them 3 o C cooler than
This is why the sperm develop in a separate compartment away from the man's body.
The cremaster muscle
raises the testes and brings them closer to the body when the temperature is too cold.
Failure of the testes to descend
This condition is known as "cryptorchidism."
Spermatogenesis begins at puberty and
About 300 million sperm are produced each day.)
Sperm are produced in the seminiferous tubules
of the testes
Special cells in the testes called Sertoli cells act as "nursemaid" cells to the developing sperm cells by protecting them and
supplying them with nutrients and oxygen
Other cells called Leydig cells produce
During ejaculation, the sperm are propelled forward through the vas deferens
to the ejaculatory duct
Sperm cells are the smallest cells in the human body and the only cells in humans
with a flagellum
Each sperm is made up of a
head, midpiece, and tail.
The head contains the DNA, and the midpiece
The acrosome, which is a cap-like structure over the anterior part of the head, contains
enzymes that allow the sperm to penetrate the egg.
Sperm can survive for about 48 hours in the
female reproductive tract
After ejaculation, a sperm cell must undergo
capacitation before it can fertilize an egg.
involves removal of extra cholesterol from the plasma membrane
and the influx of calcium ions needed for motility of the flagellum.
female gonads are the
The immature egg cells (called oocytes) are contained in follicles and are present
from birth but do not begin to mature until puberty
Final maturation and completion of meiosis does not occur until
During fetal development, millions of oogonia (stem cells that can form eggs) are produced and
give rise to primary oocytes, and remain dormant until the onset of puberty
only about 400 will mature
in a womens lifetime
The follicle containing the oocyte that is "chosen" for ovulation develops more rapidly and becomes a
large, mature, fluid-filled follicle known as the Graafian follicle.
The secondary oocyte becomes "stuck" in metaphase II of meiosis and does not complete
meiosis unless fertilization takes place.
During ovulation, the Graafian follicle ruptures and releases
the secondary oocyte
The ovulated oocyte is surrounded by the zona pellucida, a clear layer of secreted glyoproteins, and the
a group of granulosa cells from the follicle that surround and protect the oocyte.
The corpus luteum develops from the remnant of a ruptured follicle - It produces both
estrogen and progesterone until it degenerates into the corpus albicans
FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) stimulates development of the follicles, while LH (luteinizing hormone) triggers
ovulation around day 14 and subsequent development of the corpus luteum.
The first two weeks of the ovarian cycle make up the follicular phase,
which ends with ovulation
The last two weeks make up the luteal phase, Estrogen and progesterone produced during the ovarian cycle cause
corresponding changes to the endometrium, which is the lining of the uterus
The endometrium has a superficial (functional) layer that is regenerated with each
cycle and sloughed off during the menstrual phase of the next cycle if no pregnancy has occurred
During the follicular phase, production of estrogen by the follicles regenerates
the superficial layer of the endometrium
During the luteal stage, the corpus luteum produces
both estrogen and progesterone.
Progesterone works with estrogen to maintain the newly
If no pregnancy occurs, the corpus luteum degenerates into the corpus albicans, and the
newly regenerated layer of endometrium is sloughed off during menstruation
Estrogen produced by the follicles during the first 2 weeks
regenerates the functional layer of endometrium
Ovulation is triggered around day 14 by a sudden surge
of LH (luteinizing hormone
After ovulation, the corpus luteum produces both estrogen and progesterone
during the last 2 weeks
Progesterone works with estrogen to maintain the
endometrium for implantation of a fertilized egg.
Ovulation is triggered by a
sudden surge of LH
After ovulation occurs, the secondary oocyte
can live about 24 hours.
Fertilization normally occurs in a fallopian tube. At each end of the tube, finger-like projections called
fimbriae create currents that draw the oocyte into the fallopian tube
The sperm cells that surround the egg must first break through the
corona radiata with the help of cell surface enzymes on the heads of the sperm.
Then the sperm cells bind to ZP3 glycoproteins that function as
sperm receptors in the zona pellucida
About 200 sperm cells reach the egg, but only one sperm
is allowed to gain entry
As soon as one sperm enters, a "fast block" mechanism depolarizes
the cell membrane of the egg and prevents other sperm from entering
this is followed by a "slow block" biochemical change in the zona pellucida,
making it impenetrable
Fertilization normally occurs in a
The cell produced by the union of egg and sperm (fertilization) is called
Right after fertilization, the egg cell completes meiosis; then the nuclei of both
gametes swell and join together, combining their DNA
The true moment of conception occurs when the two nuclei join
into one and the new cell is formed
the first mitotic cell divisions (called cleavage) transform the zygote into a solid ball of cells called a morula;
the solid ball then forms a hollow ball called a blastocyst which contains the inner cell mass (portion that will become the embryo) and the trophoblast (portion that will form the placenta and other structures).
Identical (monozygotic) twins result if a zygote divides completely in
two during the first 8 days after fertilization.
Since identical twins come from one zygote, they are always of
the same gender and have identical DNA
Fraternal (dizygotic) twins result from the simultaneous release of 2 egg cells
instead of one, which are fertilized by two separate sperm.
After implantation, the cells of the inner cell mass rearrange themselves into three primary germ layers known as
ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. This event is called gastrulation
Neurulation is the formation of structures that give rise to the
central nervous system (brain and spinal cord)
Closure of the neural tube is a critical point in development; failure of the edges to meet and
fuse together results in neural tube defects
The incidence of neural tube defects can be greatly reduced by adequate intake of
folic acid (a B vitamin) before and during pregnancy.
The incidence of neural tube defects can be reduced by
adequate intake of folic acid.
The embryo develops in an inner, transparent sac called the amnion, which is
filled with amniotic fluid
an outer membrane, called the chorion, extends fingerlike projections called
chorionic villi that form the fetal part of the placenta.
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