western civ, chs 9,10,11,12,13 slides
Terms in this set (69)
economy of high middle ages
Feudalism was gradually replaced by a market economy.
three major forms of universities
Student Paid: Bologna 1088
Church Paid: Paris 1170
State Paid: Oxford 1096
during the middle ages developed alongside Christian Theology and it can be difficult to separate the two.
this philosopher had been virtually forgotten by the West until contact with the Arab world in the 12th century.
The most important philosopher of the middle ages who taught at the University of Paris.
An issue that dominated early medieval philosophy was a dispute over the nature of?
A problem with universals was demonstrated by?
denied the existence of forms or universals.
In church, the liturgies were set to tune first during the 6th century. These were sung usually monophonic, but developed different forms over the centuries.
They had thick walls with barrel vaulted ceilings and rounded
These used pointed arches and flying buttresses to support the weight of the walls
Harold Hardrada of Norway
thought he should be king of England as he was a distant relative of King Edward the confessor.
William of Normandy
argued that Edward had promised the kingdom to him out of gratitude.
Harold fights William
William prevailed at the Battle of Hastings and a new phase of English history began.
pivotal event for the future of England (and the United States)
the signing of the Magna Carta in 1215.
Subdued the Welsh by building massive stone castles.
During the High Middle Ages the power of the kings of ________ was at a low point.
holy roman empire
a unusual feature for this empire was the election of the emperor by an assembly of elector princes.
dubbed the empire "holy" when he tried to exert control over Rome.
revitalized Islamic culture; the elites spoke Parsi but most maintained their old language
Emperor Alexius Comnenus
sent an envoy to the Bishop of Rome asking for western help.
Pope Urban II
He called for a military pilgrimage to recapture Jerusalem and restore Christian control there.
The response was overwhelming as people shouted _______ meaning "God wills it!"
it meant take up the cross, Matt. 16:24
first crusade, 1099
Only fully successful campaign. Took Jerusalem, Edessa, and Aleppo.
the Knights Templar
were named after what was mistaken for Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem.
Templar bank in Jerusalem
This finantial ability was foundational for the future of commerce.
consequences of the crusades
Warfare was not constant, and there was much peaceful interaction between Christians and Muslims.
He began forging the largest contiguous empire in world history.
were brutal conquerors, but reigned over a tolerant and peaceful empire.
the black death
In the 1340's, Bubonic Plague swept into Europe. Rats accompanying caravans were responsible.
the hundred year's war
A protracted war that was waged principally between the English and the French from 1337 to 1453.
the Battle of Crécy
which battle was fought early in the Hundred Years War.
what died in 1346?
Knights of this era
often used war hammers rather than swords when fighting other knights.
was brought from China during the Pax Mongolica.
The first long type small arm was called?
because of cannons
why did walls became sloped and angular?
It rose to be a commercial giant able to extend economic and political power across the Mediterranean.
manipulated the Fourth Crusade into expanding Venetian power in the early 1200s.
For a much of the 1400s _______ resided in Avignon not Rome.
In 1378, after the papacy was returned to Rome, a dispute resulted in three popes presiding simultaneously.
was resolved in 1414 by the Council of Constance.
started as a literary movement in Florence, Italy. Individuals like Dante Alighieri delved deep into the past.
wrote the first significant work in Italian,
revived the study of Classical Literature in its original Greek and Latin
He was one of the first to compose a detail description of human anatomy.
wrote a famous book in 1500, called "The Prince".
He applied the methods of Humanism in creating a Greek New Testament
criticism of the church
As scholars began to considered the Bible and compare it to the doctrines taught by the renaissance Church, many, including Erasmus, became very critical.
the Church's instance
that its own tradition was equal to the scripture itself most irked the Humanists. Humanists contended that the bible superseded tradition.
this debate from 1000 years earlier was the core of the church disagreement between Roman catholics and humanists.
He insisted that salvation was by faith alone, and the Church was dangerously wrong about the role of good works in salvation.
At the Council of Constance, he was asked to defend his position. He was condemned for heresy. They burned him at the stake.
This is the one thing the previous reformers lacked, the ability to counter the Church's control over written information.
(1398-1468) devised a system of movable type for the mass production of printed material.
Sola Fide, Martin Luther
faith alone, became the first principle of the Protestant Reformation.
he nailed 95 points of critique to the door of Wittenberg Church.
Treaty of Augsburg
Finally, in 1555,the _______ legalized Lutheranism in the Empire.
Subsequent with Luther, Huldrych Zwingli(1484-1531) launched his own reformation in Zurich, Switzerland.
spent most of his adult life in Geneva, Switzerland where he wrote to the "Reformed" Protestants.
Oxford scholar who translated all the New Testament into English, illegally.
was the first Protestant King of England.
was a moderate on doctrinal issues, and desired harmony above all.
Called Huguenots in France
This lead to them being called "Anabaptists" meaning rebaptizer.
Jacob Arminius rejected five major points of Calvinism. These revolved around the nature of man's free will and its implication towards salvation.
The Council of Trent
took a hard line against the reformers in 1563.
broke the power of Church over intellectual thought. People began to ask more questions leading to a rapid expansion of scientific knowledge in the 1600's.
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