Math/Algebra Final Review

Vocabulary for math and algebra
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Terms in this set (...)

absolute value
the difference from zero (0)
length
the standard metric unit is the meter
millimeter
about the thickness of a dime
centimeter
about the width of your pinkie
meter
about the distance from the doorknob to the floor
kilometer
about the length of eleven (11) football fields
mass
the standard metric unit is the gram
milligram
about the mass of a mosquito
gram
about the mass of a paper-clip
kilogram
about the mass of a bunch of bananas
capacity
the standard metric unit is the liter
milliliter
a small spoon holds about five (5) of these
liter
a little more than a quart
algebraic expression
a mathematical phrase that uses variables, numbers, and operation symbols
equation
a mathematical sentence with an equal sign
inequality
a mathematical sentence that contains one of the signs:
<, >, ≤, ≥
inverse operations
operations that undo each other
open sentence
an equation with one or more variables
solution of an equation
any value or values that make an equation true
solution of an inequality
any value or values that make an inequality true
variable
a letter that stands for a number
composite
a whole number greater than one that has more than two factors
exponent
shows a product of equal factors and how many times a number or a base is used as a factor
greatest common factor (GCF)
the greatest number out of two or more numbers that is the factor of all the numbers
least common multiple (LCM)
the least number out of two or more numbers that is the least of all the numbers
prime factorization
writing a composite number as the product of its prime factors
scientific notation
a number is written as the product of two factors, the first factor is greater than or equal to one and less than ten; the second power of ten
perfect squares
a number that is a square of an integer
base
when a number is written in exponential form; the number that is used as a factor
divisible
a whole number can be divided by a second whole number with a remainder of zero
factor
any of the numbers that form a product when multiplied together
power
a number that can be expressed using an exponent
prime number
a whole number with exactly two factors: one and itself
square roots
the inverse of squaring a number
relatively prime
when the GCF of two numbers is one
natural numbers
positive whole numbers
whole numbers
positive whole numbers + zero
integers
the set of positive whole numbers + their opposites + zero
rational numbers
numbers that can be written as a fraction where the denominator is not zero
irrational numbers
numbers that can not be written as a fraction or as decimals, they can go on forever without repeating
perimeter
add the outsides of the figure
circumference
pi times the diameter / two times pi times the radius
area: rectangle
length times width
area: square
side squared
area: parallelogram
base times height
area: triangle
base times height divided by two / 1/2 times base times height
area: circle
pi times the radius squared / pi times the radius times the radius
area: trapezoid
base1 plus base2 times height divided by two
edge
each segment formed by the intersection of two faces
vertex
the point of intersection of two sides of an angle or figure
face
a flat surface shaped like a polygon
base
parallel and congruent polygonal faces
prism
a three-dimensional figure with bases
pyramid
a three-dimensional figure with triangular faces that meet at one point
polyhedron
pyramids and prisms
net
a two-dimensional pattern that you can fold to form a three-dimensional figure
congruent
exactly the same
volume: cube
edge cubed / side cubed
volume: rectangular prism
length times width times height
volume: cylinder
pi times radius squared times pi
volume: triangular prism
base times height divided by two times height
surface area: cube
six times side squared
surface area: rectangular prism
two times width times length plus two times length times height plus two times width times height
surface area: cylinder
two times pi times radius times height plus two times pi times radius squared
hypotenuse
side opposite the right angle; always the longest
legs
right angle; opposite the hypotenuse
Pythagorean theorem
A squared plus B squared equals C squared
monomial
a number, a variable, or the product of a number and a variable
binomial
a polynomial with two terms
polynomial
An expression with many terms
coefficient
the number in front of a variable
constant
a number that stands alone
ratio
a comparison of two quantities
rate
a ratio that compares two quantities measured in different units
unit rate
a rate that has a denominator of 1