absolute value

the difference from zero (0)

length

the standard metric unit is the meter

millimeter

about the thickness of a dime

centimeter

about the width of your pinkie

meter

about the distance from the doorknob to the floor

kilometer

about the length of eleven (11) football fields

mass

the standard metric unit is the gram

milligram

about the mass of a mosquito

gram

about the mass of a paper-clip

kilogram

about the mass of a bunch of bananas

capacity

the standard metric unit is the liter

milliliter

a small spoon holds about five (5) of these

liter

a little more than a quart

algebraic expression

a mathematical phrase that uses variables, numbers, and operation symbols

equation

a mathematical sentence with an equal sign

inequality

a mathematical sentence that contains one of the signs:

<, >, ≤, ≥

<, >, ≤, ≥

inverse operations

operations that undo each other

open sentence

an equation with one or more variables

solution of an equation

any value or values that make an equation true

solution of an inequality

any value or values that make an inequality true

variable

a letter that stands for a number

composite

a whole number greater than one that has more than two factors

exponent

shows a product of equal factors and how many times a number or a base is used as a factor

greatest common factor (GCF)

the greatest number out of two or more numbers that is the factor of all the numbers

least common multiple (LCM)

the least number out of two or more numbers that is the least of all the numbers

prime factorization

writing a composite number as the product of its prime factors

scientific notation

a number is written as the product of two factors, the first factor is greater than or equal to one and less than ten; the second power of ten

perfect squares

a number that is a square of an integer

base

when a number is written in exponential form; the number that is used as a factor

divisible

a whole number can be divided by a second whole number with a remainder of zero

factor

any of the numbers that form a product when multiplied together

power

a number that can be expressed using an exponent

prime number

a whole number with exactly two factors: one and itself

square roots

the inverse of squaring a number

relatively prime

when the GCF of two numbers is one

natural numbers

positive whole numbers

whole numbers

positive whole numbers + zero

integers

the set of positive whole numbers + their opposites + zero

rational numbers

numbers that can be written as a fraction where the denominator is not zero

irrational numbers

numbers that can not be written as a fraction or as decimals, they can go on forever without repeating

perimeter

add the outsides of the figure

circumference

pi times the diameter / two times pi times the radius

area: rectangle

length times width

area: square

side squared

area: parallelogram

base times height

area: triangle

base times height divided by two / 1/2 times base times height

area: circle

pi times the radius squared / pi times the radius times the radius

area: trapezoid

base1 plus base2 times height divided by two

edge

each segment formed by the intersection of two faces

vertex

the point of intersection of two sides of an angle or figure

face

a flat surface shaped like a polygon

base

parallel and congruent polygonal faces

prism

a three-dimensional figure with bases

pyramid

a three-dimensional figure with triangular faces that meet at one point

polyhedron

pyramids and prisms

net

a two-dimensional pattern that you can fold to form a three-dimensional figure

congruent

exactly the same

volume: cube

edge cubed / side cubed

volume: rectangular prism

length times width times height

volume: cylinder

pi times radius squared times pi

volume: triangular prism

base times height divided by two times height

surface area: cube

six times side squared

surface area: rectangular prism

two times width times length plus two times length times height plus two times width times height

surface area: cylinder

two times pi times radius times height plus two times pi times radius squared

hypotenuse

side opposite the right angle; always the longest

legs

right angle; opposite the hypotenuse

Pythagorean theorem

A squared plus B squared equals C squared

monomial

a number, a variable, or the product of a number and a variable

binomial

a polynomial with two terms

polynomial

An expression with many terms

coefficient

the number in front of a variable

constant

a number that stands alone

ratio

a comparison of two quantities

rate

a ratio that compares two quantities measured in different units

unit rate

a rate that has a denominator of 1