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LAP 5 bio vocab
Terms in this set (41)
series of events in which a cell grows, prepares for division, and divides to form two daughter cells
period of the cell cycle between cell divisions. 3 parts:
part of eukaryotic cell division during which the cell nucleus divides
division of the cytoplasm to form 2 separate daughter cells
threadlike structure of DNA and protein that contains genetic information
substance found in eukaryotes chromosomes that consists of DNA tightly coiled around histones
first and longest phase of mitosis in which the genetic material inside the nucleus condenses and the chromosomes become visible
2 identical parts of a duplocated chromosome
region of a chromosome where the 2 sister chromatids attach
cytoskeletal structure of eukaryotic cells that forms during cell division to separate sister chromatids between daughter cells.
the second, shortest phase of mitosis in which Spindle fibers connect the sister centromeres to the two poles of the spindle.
cell division stage in which the chromosomes move away from one another to opposite poles of the spindle
phase of mitosis in which the distinct individual chromosomes begin to spread out into a tangle of chromatin
one of a family of proteins that regulates the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells
enzyme to which cyclin binds
disorder in which some of the body's cells lose the ability to control growth
any substance that can cause cancer
a cell programed to die
unspecialized cell that can give rise to one or more types of specialized cells
macromolecules containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus
The coiled (spiral) structure of a double-stranded DNA molecule linked by hydrogen bonds
a basic unit of DNA packaging in eukaryotes, consisting of a segment of DNA wound in sequence around eight histone protein cores
a molecule of DNA, that serves as a pattern for the synthesis of a macromolecule, ex: RNA
normal process of DNA synthesis , 1/2 from the old DNA strand and 1/2 from the new DNA strand
principal enzyme involved in DNA replication
during DNA replication, short, newly synthesized DNA fragments that are formed on the lagging template strand
(ribonucleic acid) a nucleic acid that is generally single stranded and plays a role in transferring information from DNA to protein-forming system of the cell.
Structure: a molecule consisting of a long linear chain of nucleotides.
carries copies of instructions for assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell
combines with proteins to form ribosomes
carries each amino acid to a ribosome during protein synthesis
synthesis of an RNA molecule from a DNA template
process by which the sequence of basis of an messenger RNA is converted onto the sequence of amino acids of a protein
enzyme that links together the growing chain of RNA into a cell to inhibit gene expression
term used to describe any mechanism used by a cell to increase or decrease the production of specific gene products (protein or RNA)....
(includes transcription, RNA processing and transport, translation)
in prokaryotes, a group of adjacent genes that share a common operator and promoter and are transcribed into a single messenger RNA
a change in the genetic material of a cell
chemical or physical agents in the environment that interact with DNA and may cause a mutation
The first stage of interphase in which the somatic cell grows because of increased messenger RNA, protein syntheses, organelle production, and increased cytoplasmic volume.
(In cell cycle, Gap 1 phase is after cytokinesis and before Synthesis phase)
The production of an organic compound in a living thing, especially as aided by enzymes.
The (final) stage of interphase in which the eukaryotic somatic cell resumes growth following DNA synthesis prior to cell division
A star-shaped structure formed in the cytoplasm of a cell and having ray like fibers that surround the centrioles during mitosis
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