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test # 4 at palomar

five common myths about mental illness

people with psychological disorders act in bizarre ways
mental disorders are a sign of personal weakness
mentally ill people are often dangerous and unpredictable
a person who has been mentally ill never fully recovers
most mentally ill individuals can work at only low-level jobs

studying psychological disorders

Abnormal behavior: patterns of emotion, thought and action considered pathological for one or more of four reasons:

initial understanding of abnormal behavior

in ancient times people believed demons were the cause of abnormal behavior and boring holes in the skull (trephining) allowed evil spirits to escape
asylums- initially good intentions; but many resulted in inhumane conditions
in the 1970's, Pinel and others emphasized disease and physical illness, which led to the medical model and later to modern psychiatry

seven psychological perspectives of abnormal behavior

sociocultural, behavioral, evolutionary, humanistic, psychoanalytical/psychodynamic, cognitive, biological


classification system developed by the American psychiatry association used to name and describe abnormal behavior:
neurosis: outmoded term for disorders characterized by unrealistic anxiety and other associated problems; less severe disruptions than psychosis
psychosis: serious mental disorders characterized by extreme mental disruption and defective or lost contact with reality
insanity: legal term applied when people cannot be held responsible for their actions, or are judged incompetent to manage their own affairs because of mental illness

main categories for DSM-IV-TR

1. anxiety disorders
2 mood disorders
3 schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders
4 dissociative disorders
5 personality disorders
6 substance related disorders
7 somatoform disorders
8 factitious disorder

main categories for DSM-IV-TR

9 sexual and gender identity disorders
10 eating disorders
11 sleep disorders
12 impulse control disorders
13 adjustment disorders
14 delirium, dementia, amnestic and other cognitive disorders
15 mental disorders due to general medical conditions
16 other conditions that may be a focus of clinical attention

dsm five axes ( guidelines for making a decision about symptoms)

Axis I current clinical disorders
Axis II personality disorders and mental retardation
Axis III general medical information
Axis IV psychosocial and environmental problems
Axis V global assessment of functioning

anxiety disorders

overwhelming apprehension and fear accompanied by autonomic nervous system arousal
five major types:
generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder phobias, obsessive compulsive disorder,ptsd

five types of anxiety

1 generalized anxiety disorder-persistent uncontrollable and free floating anxiety
2 panic disorder- sudden and inexplicable panic attacks
3 phobias-intense, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation
4 obsessive-compulsive disorder: intrusive, repetitive, fearful thoughts (obsessions), with urges to perform repetitive , ritualistic behaviors (compulsions)

Mood disorders

characterized by extreme disturbances in emotional states
two main types of mood disorders:
Major Depressive Disorder: long-lasting depressed mood that interferes with the ability to function, feel pleasure, or maintain an interest in life
Bipolar Disorder: repeated episodes of mania and depression

explanation of mood disorders

Biological-brain functioning, neurotransmitter imbalances, genetics and evolution
psychosocial-environmental stressors, disturbed
interpersonal relationship, faulty thinking, poor-self concept, learned helplessness, faulty attributions

depressive explanatory style

depressive explanatory style- bad events- internal, stable, global depressive explanatory style-good events-external, unstable, specific
optimistic explanatory style-bad event-external, unstable, specific optimistic explanatory style-good event-internal, stable, global


group of severe disorders, involving major disturbances in perception, language, thought emotion and behavior( a general loss of contact with reality) a more devastating disorder, affects about 1% of the population, emerges between 18-25 for men; 27-45 for women

schizophrenia: areas of disturbances

perception: senses may be enhanced or blunted, hallucinations-false, imaginary sensory perceptions that occur without external stimuli (most common auditory)
languages and thought-disorganized or bizarre thoughts and logic
word salad; neologisms
delusions: mistaken beliefs based on misrepresentations of reality

schizophrenia: areas of disturbance 2

emotion: exaggerated and fluctuate rapidly, blunted or decreased intensity, flattened effect
behavior: social withdrawal, unusual actions with a special meaning, cataleptic, waxy flexibility

subtypes of schizophrenia

paranoid: delusions(persecution or grandeur) and hallucinations(hearing voices)
catatonic-motor disturbances(immobility or agitated, purposeless activity) and echo speech (repeating the speech of others)
disorganized-incoherent speech, flat or exaggerated emotions and social withdrawal
undifferentiated-varied symptoms that meet the criteria for schizophrenia but do not fall into any of the other subtypes
residual-no longer meets the full criteria for schizophrenia but still shows some symptoms

schizophrenia methods of classification

positive symptoms: adding or exaggerating a symptom such as delusions, hallucinations not positive as in good positive as in adding a behavior
negative symptoms-loss or absences, impaired attention, limited or toneless speech, flat or blunted affect, social withdrawal

substance-related disorder

abuse of, dependence on, a mood- or behavior-altering drug
two general groups- substance abuse-interferes with social and occupational functioning
substance dependence-causes physical reactions, such as tolerance and withdrawal

substance related disorders 2

people with substance related disorders also commonly suffer from other psychological disorders, a condition know as comorbidity

dissociative disorders

splitting apart of experience from memory and consciousness
types of dissociative disorders:
dissociative amnesia
dissociative fugue
depersonalization disorder
dissociative identity disorder (DID)

dissociative disorders 2

best know dissociative disorder:
DID presence of 2 or more distinct personality symptoms in the same person at different times previously known as multiple personality disorder

personality disorders

inflexible, maladaptive personality traits causing significant impairment of social and occupational functioning
two types of personality disorders:
antisocial personality disorder
borderline personality disorder

personality disorders 2

antisocial personality disorder: profound disregard for and violation of the rights of others
key traits: egocentrism, lack of conscience, impulsive behavior, and superficial charm

personality disorders 3

borderline personality disorder: impulsivity and stability in mood, relationships, and self image along with impulsive and self destructive behavior
see the world in black and white has relationship problems

gender and psychological disorders

gender and cultural
cultural general symptoms for depression such as sad effect, lack of energy
women more often depressed why? combination of biological psychological a social forces...biopsychosocial model

chapter 15



techniques employed to improve psychological functioning and promote adjustment to life

three major approaches to therapy

insight: personal understanding
behavioral: maladaptive behaviors
biomedical: mental illness and medical treatments such as drugs

insight therapy definition

variety of therapies seeking to improve psychological functioning by increasing awareness of underlying motives and improvement in thoughts, feelings and behaviors...

types of insight therapy

group, family and marital therapies


Freudian therapy designed to bring the unconscious conflicts into consciousness

5 major techniques of psychoanalysis

association, dream analysis, analyzing resistance, analyzing transference, interpretation

major criticism of psychoanalysis

limited applicability
lack of scientific credibility

modern psychodynamic therapy

Neo-Freudians-a briefer, more directive, and more modern form of psychoanalysis focusing more on the conscious processes and current problems

cognitive therapy

therapy that treats problem behaviors and mental processes by focusing on faulty thought processes and beliefs-self talk-internal dialogue; the things people say to themselves when they interpret events

cognitive restructuring

process in cognitive therapy to change thoughts or inappropriate interpretations

cognitive behavioral therapy

combines cognitive therapy-changing faulty thoughts and with behavior therapy-changing faulty behaviors

rational emotive behavioral therapy (REBT)

cognitive therapy to eliminate emotional problems through rational examination of irrational beliefs (musts and should)


activating, belief, consequences, disputing

Beck's cognitive therapy

selective perception; focuses on the negative
overgeneralization- applies to everything
magnification- any personal flaw is exaggerated
all or none black and white thinking

explaining cognitive therapy-highly effective for:

depression, bulimia, anger mgmt., addiction, procrastination, some forms of schizophrenia, insomnia

explaining cognitive therapy-criticisms

ignoring unconscious, overemphasis on rationality, minimizing the importance of the past, uses behavior techniques rather than changing cognitive structure

humanistic therapies

maximizes personal growth through affective restructuring (emotional adjustment)

humanistic therapies key assumptions:

problems= blockage or disruption of normal growth potential which leads to a defective self concept

Rogers's client-centered therapy

emphasizes clients natural tendency to become healthy and productive
techniques include- empathy, unconditional positive regard, genuineness, active listening

evaluating humanistic therapies support

evidence of success efficacy

evaluating humanistic therapies-criticisms

core concept are difficult to empirically test, data on outcomes rely on self reports of clients, and mixed results on specific therapeutic techniques

group, family and marital therapies

group therapy: a number of people meet together to work toward a therapeutic goal
family and marital therapy: work to change maladaptive family and couple interaction patterns

behavior therapies

group of techniques based on learning principles used to change maladaptive behaviors

three foundations of behavioral therapy

classical conditioning, operant conditioning, observational learning

classical conditioning

systematic desensitization: gradual process of extinguishing a learned fear or phobia by working through a hierarchy of fearful stimuli while remaining relaxed

aversion therapy

pairing an aversive unpleasant stimulus with a maladaptive behavior ex. anabuse and alcohol

operant conditioning

operant conditioning techniques used to INCREASE adaptive behaviors such as through shaping: successive approximations of target behavior are rewarded; includes role-playing, behavior rehearsal, assertiveness training
tokens: symbolic rewards used to immediately reinforce behavior

operant conditioning 2

operant conditioning techniques to DECREASE maladaptive behaviors
extinction: withdrawal of attention
punishment: adding or taking away something (time out)

observational learning

modeling: watching and imitating models that demonstrate desirable behaviors
participant modeling: combining live modeling with direct and gradual practice

evaluating behavior therapies support-

phobias, ocd, eating disorders, autism, intellectual disabilities, delinquency

evaluating behavioral therapies criticisms-

generalizability to the real world outside of therap
ethics-related to control

biomedical therapies

uses physiological interventions such as drugs to treat psychological disorders

three forms of biomedical therapies

psychopharmacology, electroconvulsive therapy ECT, psychosurgery


4 major categories of drugs:
antianxiety: increases relaxation, reduces anxiety and muscle tension
antipsychotic: treats hallucinations and other symptoms of psychosis
mood stabilizer: treats manic episodes and depression
antidepressants: treats symptoms of depression

electoconvulsive therapy

biomedical therapy based on passing electrical current through the brain
used almost exclusively when other methods have failed,
likely affects mood controlling neurotransmitters


surgical alteration of the brain to bring about desirable behavior, cognitive, or emotional changes generally used when patients have not responded to other forms of therapy
lobotomy=outmoded medical procedures for mental disorders that involved cutting nerves between the frontal lobes and the thalamus and the hypothalamus
cingulotomy- limited but still being done; destroy part of the cingulum which is part of the limbic system and associated with emotion

evaluating biomedical therapies

psychopharmacology: may provide relief not a cure, physical dependence, side and long term effects, tardive dyskinesia movement disorder involving facial muscles, tongue and limbs; possible long term use antipsychotic medications, overuse
ECT and psychosurgery
ECT is controversial; seizures, memory loss
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation may replace
psychosurgery is controversial, with potentially serious or fatal side effects

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