64 terms

psychology in action chapter 14 and 15

test # 4 at palomar
five common myths about mental illness
people with psychological disorders act in bizarre ways
mental disorders are a sign of personal weakness
mentally ill people are often dangerous and unpredictable
a person who has been mentally ill never fully recovers
most mentally ill individuals can work at only low-level jobs
studying psychological disorders
Abnormal behavior: patterns of emotion, thought and action considered pathological for one or more of four reasons:
initial understanding of abnormal behavior
in ancient times people believed demons were the cause of abnormal behavior and boring holes in the skull (trephining) allowed evil spirits to escape
asylums- initially good intentions; but many resulted in inhumane conditions
in the 1970's, Pinel and others emphasized disease and physical illness, which led to the medical model and later to modern psychiatry
seven psychological perspectives of abnormal behavior
sociocultural, behavioral, evolutionary, humanistic, psychoanalytical/psychodynamic, cognitive, biological
classification system developed by the American psychiatry association used to name and describe abnormal behavior:
neurosis: outmoded term for disorders characterized by unrealistic anxiety and other associated problems; less severe disruptions than psychosis
psychosis: serious mental disorders characterized by extreme mental disruption and defective or lost contact with reality
insanity: legal term applied when people cannot be held responsible for their actions, or are judged incompetent to manage their own affairs because of mental illness
main categories for DSM-IV-TR
1. anxiety disorders
2 mood disorders
3 schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders
4 dissociative disorders
5 personality disorders
6 substance related disorders
7 somatoform disorders
8 factitious disorder
main categories for DSM-IV-TR
9 sexual and gender identity disorders
10 eating disorders
11 sleep disorders
12 impulse control disorders
13 adjustment disorders
14 delirium, dementia, amnestic and other cognitive disorders
15 mental disorders due to general medical conditions
16 other conditions that may be a focus of clinical attention
dsm five axes ( guidelines for making a decision about symptoms)
Axis I current clinical disorders
Axis II personality disorders and mental retardation
Axis III general medical information
Axis IV psychosocial and environmental problems
Axis V global assessment of functioning
anxiety disorders
overwhelming apprehension and fear accompanied by autonomic nervous system arousal
five major types:
generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder phobias, obsessive compulsive disorder,ptsd
five types of anxiety
1 generalized anxiety disorder-persistent uncontrollable and free floating anxiety
2 panic disorder- sudden and inexplicable panic attacks
3 phobias-intense, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation
4 obsessive-compulsive disorder: intrusive, repetitive, fearful thoughts (obsessions), with urges to perform repetitive , ritualistic behaviors (compulsions)
Mood disorders
characterized by extreme disturbances in emotional states
two main types of mood disorders:
Major Depressive Disorder: long-lasting depressed mood that interferes with the ability to function, feel pleasure, or maintain an interest in life
Bipolar Disorder: repeated episodes of mania and depression
explanation of mood disorders
Biological-brain functioning, neurotransmitter imbalances, genetics and evolution
psychosocial-environmental stressors, disturbed
interpersonal relationship, faulty thinking, poor-self concept, learned helplessness, faulty attributions
depressive explanatory style
depressive explanatory style- bad events- internal, stable, global depressive explanatory style-good events-external, unstable, specific
optimistic explanatory style-bad event-external, unstable, specific optimistic explanatory style-good event-internal, stable, global
group of severe disorders, involving major disturbances in perception, language, thought emotion and behavior( a general loss of contact with reality) a more devastating disorder, affects about 1% of the population, emerges between 18-25 for men; 27-45 for women
schizophrenia: areas of disturbances
perception: senses may be enhanced or blunted, hallucinations-false, imaginary sensory perceptions that occur without external stimuli (most common auditory)
languages and thought-disorganized or bizarre thoughts and logic
word salad; neologisms
delusions: mistaken beliefs based on misrepresentations of reality
schizophrenia: areas of disturbance 2
emotion: exaggerated and fluctuate rapidly, blunted or decreased intensity, flattened effect
behavior: social withdrawal, unusual actions with a special meaning, cataleptic, waxy flexibility
subtypes of schizophrenia
paranoid: delusions(persecution or grandeur) and hallucinations(hearing voices)
catatonic-motor disturbances(immobility or agitated, purposeless activity) and echo speech (repeating the speech of others)
disorganized-incoherent speech, flat or exaggerated emotions and social withdrawal
undifferentiated-varied symptoms that meet the criteria for schizophrenia but do not fall into any of the other subtypes
residual-no longer meets the full criteria for schizophrenia but still shows some symptoms
schizophrenia methods of classification
positive symptoms: adding or exaggerating a symptom such as delusions, hallucinations not positive as in good positive as in adding a behavior
negative symptoms-loss or absences, impaired attention, limited or toneless speech, flat or blunted affect, social withdrawal
substance-related disorder
abuse of, dependence on, a mood- or behavior-altering drug
two general groups- substance abuse-interferes with social and occupational functioning
substance dependence-causes physical reactions, such as tolerance and withdrawal
substance related disorders 2
people with substance related disorders also commonly suffer from other psychological disorders, a condition know as comorbidity
dissociative disorders
splitting apart of experience from memory and consciousness
types of dissociative disorders:
dissociative amnesia
dissociative fugue
depersonalization disorder
dissociative identity disorder (DID)
dissociative disorders 2
best know dissociative disorder:
DID presence of 2 or more distinct personality symptoms in the same person at different times previously known as multiple personality disorder
personality disorders
inflexible, maladaptive personality traits causing significant impairment of social and occupational functioning
two types of personality disorders:
antisocial personality disorder
borderline personality disorder
personality disorders 2
antisocial personality disorder: profound disregard for and violation of the rights of others
key traits: egocentrism, lack of conscience, impulsive behavior, and superficial charm
personality disorders 3
borderline personality disorder: impulsivity and stability in mood, relationships, and self image along with impulsive and self destructive behavior
see the world in black and white has relationship problems
gender and psychological disorders
gender and cultural
cultural general symptoms for depression such as sad effect, lack of energy
women more often depressed why? combination of biological psychological a social forces...biopsychosocial model
chapter 15
techniques employed to improve psychological functioning and promote adjustment to life
three major approaches to therapy
insight: personal understanding
behavioral: maladaptive behaviors
biomedical: mental illness and medical treatments such as drugs
insight therapy definition
variety of therapies seeking to improve psychological functioning by increasing awareness of underlying motives and improvement in thoughts, feelings and behaviors...
types of insight therapy
group, family and marital therapies
Freudian therapy designed to bring the unconscious conflicts into consciousness
5 major techniques of psychoanalysis
association, dream analysis, analyzing resistance, analyzing transference, interpretation
major criticism of psychoanalysis
limited applicability
lack of scientific credibility
modern psychodynamic therapy
Neo-Freudians-a briefer, more directive, and more modern form of psychoanalysis focusing more on the conscious processes and current problems
cognitive therapy
therapy that treats problem behaviors and mental processes by focusing on faulty thought processes and beliefs-self talk-internal dialogue; the things people say to themselves when they interpret events
cognitive restructuring
process in cognitive therapy to change thoughts or inappropriate interpretations
cognitive behavioral therapy
combines cognitive therapy-changing faulty thoughts and with behavior therapy-changing faulty behaviors
rational emotive behavioral therapy (REBT)
cognitive therapy to eliminate emotional problems through rational examination of irrational beliefs (musts and should)
activating, belief, consequences, disputing
Beck's cognitive therapy
selective perception; focuses on the negative
overgeneralization- applies to everything
magnification- any personal flaw is exaggerated
all or none black and white thinking
explaining cognitive therapy-highly effective for:
depression, bulimia, anger mgmt., addiction, procrastination, some forms of schizophrenia, insomnia
explaining cognitive therapy-criticisms
ignoring unconscious, overemphasis on rationality, minimizing the importance of the past, uses behavior techniques rather than changing cognitive structure
humanistic therapies
maximizes personal growth through affective restructuring (emotional adjustment)
humanistic therapies key assumptions:
problems= blockage or disruption of normal growth potential which leads to a defective self concept
Rogers's client-centered therapy
emphasizes clients natural tendency to become healthy and productive
techniques include- empathy, unconditional positive regard, genuineness, active listening
evaluating humanistic therapies support
evidence of success efficacy
evaluating humanistic therapies-criticisms
core concept are difficult to empirically test, data on outcomes rely on self reports of clients, and mixed results on specific therapeutic techniques
group, family and marital therapies
group therapy: a number of people meet together to work toward a therapeutic goal
family and marital therapy: work to change maladaptive family and couple interaction patterns
behavior therapies
group of techniques based on learning principles used to change maladaptive behaviors
three foundations of behavioral therapy
classical conditioning, operant conditioning, observational learning
classical conditioning
systematic desensitization: gradual process of extinguishing a learned fear or phobia by working through a hierarchy of fearful stimuli while remaining relaxed
aversion therapy
pairing an aversive unpleasant stimulus with a maladaptive behavior ex. anabuse and alcohol
operant conditioning
operant conditioning techniques used to INCREASE adaptive behaviors such as through shaping: successive approximations of target behavior are rewarded; includes role-playing, behavior rehearsal, assertiveness training
tokens: symbolic rewards used to immediately reinforce behavior
operant conditioning 2
operant conditioning techniques to DECREASE maladaptive behaviors
extinction: withdrawal of attention
punishment: adding or taking away something (time out)
observational learning
modeling: watching and imitating models that demonstrate desirable behaviors
participant modeling: combining live modeling with direct and gradual practice
evaluating behavior therapies support-
phobias, ocd, eating disorders, autism, intellectual disabilities, delinquency
evaluating behavioral therapies criticisms-
generalizability to the real world outside of therap
ethics-related to control
biomedical therapies
uses physiological interventions such as drugs to treat psychological disorders
three forms of biomedical therapies
psychopharmacology, electroconvulsive therapy ECT, psychosurgery
4 major categories of drugs:
antianxiety: increases relaxation, reduces anxiety and muscle tension
antipsychotic: treats hallucinations and other symptoms of psychosis
mood stabilizer: treats manic episodes and depression
antidepressants: treats symptoms of depression
electoconvulsive therapy
biomedical therapy based on passing electrical current through the brain
used almost exclusively when other methods have failed,
likely affects mood controlling neurotransmitters
surgical alteration of the brain to bring about desirable behavior, cognitive, or emotional changes generally used when patients have not responded to other forms of therapy
lobotomy=outmoded medical procedures for mental disorders that involved cutting nerves between the frontal lobes and the thalamus and the hypothalamus
cingulotomy- limited but still being done; destroy part of the cingulum which is part of the limbic system and associated with emotion
evaluating biomedical therapies
psychopharmacology: may provide relief not a cure, physical dependence, side and long term effects, tardive dyskinesia movement disorder involving facial muscles, tongue and limbs; possible long term use antipsychotic medications, overuse
ECT and psychosurgery
ECT is controversial; seizures, memory loss
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation may replace
psychosurgery is controversial, with potentially serious or fatal side effects