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Unit 4 Bio Test
Terms in this set (31)
cecum, colon, rectum
The large intestine consists of the ________, __________ (ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid), and the ________, which ends at the anus. The cecum contains the appendix, which is thought to aid in fighting infections.
The purpose of _________ is to ingest food and hydrolyze, or break down using water, the macromolecules carbohydrates, fats, and proteins to their subunit molecules to absorb nutrients and eliminate waste.
ingestion, digestion, absorption
__________ occurs when the mouth takes in food. ____________ involves the breakdown of larger pieces of food into smaller pieces that digestive enzymes can act on; movement of GI tract contents along the digestive tract is also important. ___________ occurs as subunit molecules cross the GI tract wall and enter cells. Elimination removes indigestible molecules and discharges them from the body.
The air and food passages, two tubes that run parallel to one another, cross in the _________, which is a hollow space at the back of the throat. The __________ is the long tube that takes food to the stomach.
When one swallows, the air passage is usually blocked off by the ____________ and food must enter the esophagus.
_____________ Are Absorbed in the Small Intestine
The walls of the small intestine have fingerlike projections called _____, where nutrient molecules are absorbed into the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems. The lymphatic capillary in a villus is called a _______. Lipoprotein molecules called chylomicrons enter lacteals. Nutrients are carried to all cells of the body by the bloodstream.
sugar, amino acid, glycerol, fatty acid molecules
The walls of the small intestine absorb the ________, ___________, _________, and ____________ that were products of digestion.
pancreas, liver, gallbladder
The three accessory organs of digestion—the _________, _________, and _______—send secretions to the duodenum via ducts.
The _________ produces pancreatic juice, which contains digestive enzymes to break down carbohydrates (pancreatic amylase), proteins (trypsin), and fats (lipase). It also secretes the hormone insulin into the blood. Insulin helps bring the level of blood glucose under control. Diabetes occurs when the _______ does not produce sufficient amounts of insulin.
The ______ produces bile, which is stored in the gallbladder. It receives blood from the small intestine by way of the hepatic portal vein. It has numerous important functions, and any malfunction of the _______ is a matter of considerable concern.
water, salts, vitamins
The large intestine absorbs ______, _____, and some ________, and it forms and stores feces. Defecation, which is ridding the body of feces, is also a function of the large intestine. The consistency of normal feces is three-fourths water and one-fourth solid wastes. Bacteria, dietary fiber, and other indigestible materials make up the solid wastes.
The organs of the ______________ ensure that oxygen enters the body and carbon dioxide leaves the body.
___________ is another term for breathing that includes both inspiration, or inhalation, and expiration, or exhalation. Gas exchange is necessary because the cells of the body carry out cellular respiration to make energy in the form of ATP.
cavities, pharynx, larynx
The nasal __________, _________, and _________ are the organs of the upper respiratory tract.
nasal cavities, auditory tube
The two ___________, which contain receptor cells, receive tear ducts from the eyes and communicate with the sinuses. The ____________ from the middle ear communicates with the nasopharynx. The nose warms and cleanses incoming air. Auditory tubes connected to the nasopharynx also connect to the middle ear. When air pressure in the middle ears equalizes with that of the pharynx, a popping sensation may be heard.
The ________, a passageway from the nasal cavities and the oral cavities and to the larynx, contains the tonsils. The ___________ takes air from the nose to the larynx and transports food from the oral cavity to the esophagus. If someone swallows and food enters the larynx, coughing occurs to dislodge the food. The Heimlich maneuver can be used to dislodge food blocking the airway.
The __________ covers the glottis, an opening to the larynx, which contains the vocal cords. The vocal cords are mucosal folds supported by elastic ligaments. A voice's high or low pitch is regulated by changing the tension on the vocal cords.
The __________ and the rest of the respiratory system are in the lower respiratory tract.
The __________, supported by C-shaped cartilaginous rings, is lined by ciliated cells, which sweep impurities up to the throat. The __________ takes air to the bronchial tree.
Two primary _________, which divide into ever-smaller bronchioles, conduct air into and within the lungs. During an asthma attack, the bronchioles constrict. Each bronchiole leads to an elongated space enclosed by air pockets called alveoli.
The ________ are paired, cone-shaped organs within the thoracic cavity. The right lung has three lobes, while the left has two lobes to allow room for the heart. Each lung is enclosed by pleurae, serous membranes that produce serous fluid.
__________, or breathing, has two phases: inspiration, which moves air into the lungs, and expiration, which moves air out of the lungs. __________ is governed by Boyle's Law, which states that at a constant temperature, the pressure of a given quantity of gas is inversely proportional to its volume.
During __________, the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract, increasing the volume of the thoracic cavity, which creates a partial vacuum in the lungs, causing air to move into the lungs. Humans inhale by negative pressure.
____________ is the passive phase of breathing. The elastic properties of the thoracic wall and lungs cause them to recoil, moving air out.
The ____________ is the organ system that plays a major role in maintaining the salt, water, and pH homeostasis of the body. Excretion is the removal of metabolic wastes from the body. It is performed by the formation and discharge of urine from the body
The ___________ are paired organs located near the small of the back, on either side of the vertebral column. The kidneys produce urine. A renal artery enters a depression in the concave side of the kidney, where a renal vein and a ureter exit the kidney
The ________ conduct urine from the kidneys to the bladder. Peristaltic contractions cause urine to enter the bladder.
The ____________ stores urine until it is expelled from the body through the urethra. The bladder wall contains rugae, which make it expandable
The _________ is a small tube that extends from the bladder to an external opening. The ________ has a different length in females than in males. In males, the _________ carries urine during urination and sperm during ejaculation.
Macroscopically, the _______ are divided into the renal cortex, renal medulla, and renal pelvis. Microscopically, __________ contain the nephrons, which filter the blood and produce urine.
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