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curl reformation

The chemical texture service that loosens overly curly hair into loose curls or waves is

chemical and physical changes

chemical and procedures involve changing the hair structure using:


The exterior hair structure layer that protects the hair from damage is the


The layer of the hair that provides strength and elasticity is the :

disulfide bonds

Hair bonds that cannot be broken by heat or water are:

4.5 and 5.5

The natural pH of hair is between:

client consultation

One of the most important parts of a successful texture service is the:

metallic salts

Permanent waves cannot be preformed if the hair is coated with:

sulfur atoms in two adjacent protein chains are joined together

Disulfide bonds are chemical - based side bonds that are formed when

potential of hydrogen

The measurement used to determine the hydrogen ions in a solution is :

allow penetration to the cortex layer

Chemical texturizers temporarily raise the pH of the hair by lifting the cuticle layer to :

keratin proteins

Long, coiled polypeptide chains that are part of the hairs structure are :

condition of the hair

The client record card should include a complete evaluation of the length, texture,color, and :

abrasions or signs of the scalp disease

During the hair and scalp analysis procedure, the stylist should look for:

coarse - textured hair

Hair texture that requires a longer processing or rewetting of solution to ensure complete saturation


The measurement of the number of hairs per square inch on the head is


An indication of the strength of the side bonds is :

chemical change process

The second process os a permanent wave is the :

size of the rod

In permanent waving, the size of the curl is determined by the :

straight rod

The permanent wave rod that produces a uniform curl along the entire width of the strand is a :

double -flat wrap

A wrapping technique using two endpapers, one placed under the strand and one over is the :

base section

Permanent wave rods are placed onto subsections of a panel called:

base placement also known as base control

The position of a permanent wave rod in relation to its base section is the:

half - off base placement

The technique of wrapping at a 90 - degree angle or straight out from the center is :

croquignole method

The two basic types of wrapping hair around a perm rod are the spiral method and:

piggyback wrap

A technique used to wrap extra-long hair using two rods in opposite directions is a (n)


A reduction reaction involves either the addition of hydrogen or removal of:

thioglycolic acid

A common, colorless reducing agent used in chemical texture services is :

ammonium thioglycolate

The main reducing agent in alkaline permanents is :

9.0 and 9.6

Most alkaline permanent waves have a pH between :

glyceryl monothioglycolate

main active ingredient in true acid and acid-balanced waving lotions


An exothermic chemical reaction produces:

The term pH literally means

Potential of hydrogen

Chemical texturizers raise the pH of the hair to an alkaline state in order to

soften and swell the hair shaft

Long coral polypeptides chain that make _______

97% structure of hair

Chains of amino acids linked by peptide bonds are called


chemical base sidebonds that are formed when two sulfa type chains are joined together are

disulfide bonds

Building blocks of proteins are

amino acids

Current perm wrap service only alters


Some home haircoloring products contain ________ that are not compatible with permanent waving

Metallic salt

Diameter of a single hair strand


Produce a tighter curl in the center, and looser curl on either side of the strand

Concave rods

Concave rods

Are the most common type of perm rod

Uses one end paper folded in half over the hair ends like an envelope.

Bookend wrap

Uses only one end paper, placed over the top of the strand of hair being wrapped

single flat wrap

The hair is wrapped 45 degrees beyond perpendicular to its base section

On base placement

There are two basic methods of wrapping the hair around the perm rod

croquignole and spiral

Once in the cortex, the waving solution breaks the disulfide bonds through a chemical reaction called


An _____________ chemical reaction is one that absorbs heat from its surrounding


Endothermic waves

are activated by an outside heat source (hood type hair dryer)

Uses an ingredient other than ATG as the primary reducing agent

THIO-free waves

Permanents based on sulfites are very weak and do not provide a

firm curl

The first function of permanent waving (thio) neutralization is the

deactivation, or (neutralization) harding hair to new form

Neutralization of any waving lotion that remains in the hair after processing and rinsing chemical reaction involved is called


___________radiate throughout the panels to follow the curvature of the head

curvature perm wrap

Using zigzag partings to divide base areas

weave technique

The neutralizer used with thio relaxers is an

oxidizing agent hydrogen peroxide

What is the active ingredient in all hydroxide relaxers

hydroxide ion

All hydroxide relaxers are very strong ___________


hydroxide relaxers most have a pH over

13 and can swell the hair up to twice its normal diameter

Thio relaxer is needed to swell the hair but it is the ____that breaks the disulfide bonds


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