How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

Global Terms

STUDY
PLAY
Renaissance
the period of European history at the close of the Middle Ages and the rise of the modern world
Humanism
the doctrine emphasizing a person's capacity for self-realization through reason
Secular
worldly; not pertaining to church matters or religion; temporal
Patron
a regular customer
Perspective
the appearance of things relative to one another as determined by their distance from the viewer
Vernacular
the everyday speech of the people (as distinguished from literary language)
Utopia
an imaginary place considered to be perfect or ideal
Printing Press
invented by Johann Gutenberg in 1454; first book was Gutenberg Bible; changed private and public lives of Europeans; used for war declarations, battle accounts, treaties, propaganda; laid basis for formation of distinct political parties; enhanced literacy, people sought books on all subjects
95 Theses
95 complaints made by Martin Luther
Indulgence
the remission by the pope of the temporal punishment in purgatory that is still due for sins even after absolution
Reformation
rescuing from error and returning to a rightful course
Protestant
the Protestant churches and denominations collectively
Anglican Church
the national church of England (and all other churches in other countries that share its beliefs)
Predestination
(theology) being determined in advance
Theocracy
the belief in government by divine guidance
Counter Reformation
the reaction of the Roman Catholic Church to the Reformation reaffirming the veneration of saints and the authority of the Pope (to which Protestants objected)
Peace of Augsburg
1.German rulers decide if they are Lutheran or Catholic 2.If a German Ruler took property from the church before 1552 they can keep it 3.Bishops go to states of their religion 4.Lutheran is the only other religion
Council Of Trent
an ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church convened in Trento in three sessions between 1545 and 1563 in response to the Reformation
Heliocentric theory
Every thing revolves around the sun studied by Galelo and Copernicus
Scientific Method
a method of investigation involving observation and theory to test scientific hypotheses
Leonardo Da Vinci
Italian painter and sculptor and engineer and scientist and architect
Michaelangelo
artist known for the frescoes on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
Machiavelli
a statesman of Florence who advocated a strong central government (1469-1527)
Sir Thomas More
English statesman who opposed Henry VIII's divorce from Catherine of Aragon and was imprisoned and beheaded
William Shakespeare
English poet and dramatist considered one of the greatest English writers (1564-1616)
Jan Van Eyck
Flemish painter who was a founder of the Flemish school of painting and who pioneered modern techniques of oil painting (1390-1441)
Johann Gutenberg
German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and the first to use a press (1400-1468)
Medici Family
Florence's ruling family
Martin Luther
German monk who was one of the most important critics of the Catholic church
John Calvin
Swiss theologian (born in France) whose tenets (predestination and the irresistibility of grace and justification by faith) defined Presbyterianism (1509-1564)
King Henry VIII
Founder of the church in England and ruled England from 1509-1547. He broke the Catholic church because he couldn't get a divorce
Elizabeth I
Queen of England from 1558 to 1603
Copernicus
Polish astronomer who produced a workable model of the solar system with the sun in the center (1473-1543)
Galileo
Italian Astronomer who discovered Planetery rotation
Newton
English mathematician and physicist
Descartes
French philosopher and mathematician
Vesalius
a Flemish surgeon who is considered the father of modern anatomy (1514-1564)
Jenner
English physician who pioneered vaccination