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the period of European history at the close of the Middle Ages and the rise of the modern world


the doctrine emphasizing a person's capacity for self-realization through reason


worldly; not pertaining to church matters or religion; temporal


a regular customer


the appearance of things relative to one another as determined by their distance from the viewer


the everyday speech of the people (as distinguished from literary language)


an imaginary place considered to be perfect or ideal

Printing Press

invented by Johann Gutenberg in 1454; first book was Gutenberg Bible; changed private and public lives of Europeans; used for war declarations, battle accounts, treaties, propaganda; laid basis for formation of distinct political parties; enhanced literacy, people sought books on all subjects

95 Theses

95 complaints made by Martin Luther


the remission by the pope of the temporal punishment in purgatory that is still due for sins even after absolution


rescuing from error and returning to a rightful course


the Protestant churches and denominations collectively

Anglican Church

the national church of England (and all other churches in other countries that share its beliefs)


(theology) being determined in advance


the belief in government by divine guidance

Counter Reformation

the reaction of the Roman Catholic Church to the Reformation reaffirming the veneration of saints and the authority of the Pope (to which Protestants objected)

Peace of Augsburg

1.German rulers decide if they are Lutheran or Catholic 2.If a German Ruler took property from the church before 1552 they can keep it 3.Bishops go to states of their religion 4.Lutheran is the only other religion

Council Of Trent

an ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church convened in Trento in three sessions between 1545 and 1563 in response to the Reformation

Heliocentric theory

Every thing revolves around the sun studied by Galelo and Copernicus

Scientific Method

a method of investigation involving observation and theory to test scientific hypotheses

Leonardo Da Vinci

Italian painter and sculptor and engineer and scientist and architect


artist known for the frescoes on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel


a statesman of Florence who advocated a strong central government (1469-1527)

Sir Thomas More

English statesman who opposed Henry VIII's divorce from Catherine of Aragon and was imprisoned and beheaded

William Shakespeare

English poet and dramatist considered one of the greatest English writers (1564-1616)

Jan Van Eyck

Flemish painter who was a founder of the Flemish school of painting and who pioneered modern techniques of oil painting (1390-1441)

Johann Gutenberg

German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and the first to use a press (1400-1468)

Medici Family

Florence's ruling family

Martin Luther

German monk who was one of the most important critics of the Catholic church

John Calvin

Swiss theologian (born in France) whose tenets (predestination and the irresistibility of grace and justification by faith) defined Presbyterianism (1509-1564)

King Henry VIII

Founder of the church in England and ruled England from 1509-1547. He broke the Catholic church because he couldn't get a divorce

Elizabeth I

Queen of England from 1558 to 1603


Polish astronomer who produced a workable model of the solar system with the sun in the center (1473-1543)


Italian Astronomer who discovered Planetery rotation


English mathematician and physicist


French philosopher and mathematician


a Flemish surgeon who is considered the father of modern anatomy (1514-1564)


English physician who pioneered vaccination

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