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Endocrine System chapter 18

Anatomy and Physiology
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participates in the maintenance of homeostasis by regulating and coordinating other body systems
endocrine system
why is it named ENDO-crine system?
because the endocrine system releases into systems not ducts.
chemicals that serve as the messengers of the endocrine system
hormones
protein molecules capable of binding a particular hormone and generating a cellular reponse
receptor
hormones secreted into the interstitial fluid and diffusing into capillaries normally to cells that need to send message to whole body. and make up about 90% of all hormones in our body
circulating hormones
act on cells without entering the cardiovascular system usually needed for a more precise regional area of the body.
local hormones
type of local hormone that acts on neighboring cells
paracrine
type of local hormone that acts on the same cell that secreted the hormone (itself)
autocrine
this type of hormone requires transport proteins to dissolve in blood plasma. Includes steroid hormones, thyroid hormones and nitric oxide.
lipid-soluble hormones
this type of hormone freely dissolves in blood plasma and includes amine hormones, peptide and protein hormones, glycoprotein hormones and eicosanoid hormones.
water-soluble hormones
lipid-soluble hormones ______ pass through cellular membranes and bind to receptors inside the cell.
can
True or False: receptor-hormone complex can activate or deactivate gene expression.
true
steroids, aldosterone, cortisol, androgens, calcitriol, testosterone, estrogens, progesterone, thyroid hormones, and gases such as nitric oxide are examples of ______ ______ hormones.
lipid soluble
Amines, peptides, proteins such as ADH and oxytocin, eicosanoids are all examples of ______ ______ hormones.
water soluble
Water-soluble hormones must ______ receptors on ______ ______.
bind, cell membrane
Water-soluble hormones bind to a receptor this causes activation of ______ ______ (s) inside the cell. these are also known as the following acronym _____.
second messenger, cAMP
The ______ ______ inside the water-soluble hormone initiates the processes the hormone was sent to promote
second messenger
Protein kinases attach a phosphate group to a new molecule that didn't have phosphate previously which can result in either an excitatory or inhibitory response. This process is called ______.
phosphorylation
when the effect of one hormone opposes that of another hormone
antagonistic interaction
when the effect of two hormones together are greather than the effect of either hormone added together
synergistic interaction
occurs when a hormone requires another hormone to be present in order to function.
permissive interaction
this is an example of which type of hormone interaction? : thyroid hormone is required to be present for epinephrine to stimulate the breakdown of triglycerides in significant quantities
permissive interaction
five endocrine glands
pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pineal
some examples of organs not classified as endocrine glands but contain hormone producing cells
thymus, pancreas, ovaries, testes
another name for pituitary gland
hypophysis
stalk which is attached to the hypothalamus which the pituitary is attached to by
infundibulum
anterior lobe of pituitary gland
adenohypophysis
posterior lobe of pituitary gland
neurophypophysis
Neurosecretory cells in the ______ release five different hormones which stimulate secretion of ______ ______ hormones.
hypothalamus, anterior pituitary
type of cell which secretes Human growth hormone (HGH_ or somatotropin.
somatotroph
type of cell which secretes thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) or thyrotropin
thyrotroph
type of cell which secretes follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and lutenizing hormone (LH)
gonadotroph
type of cell taht secretes prolactin
lactotroph
type of cell that secretes adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or corticotropin and melanocyte-stimulating hormone
corticotroph
HGH is responsible for stimulating the secretion of ______ ______ ______ that stimulate body growth and metabolism.
insulinlike growth factor
TSH stimulates the synthesis and release of two thyroid hormones;
triiodothyronine, thyroxine (or tetraodothyrorine)
OOcyte and ovarian follicular development in women, and sperm production in men is promoted by this hormone
Follicular stimulating hormone
this hormone causes ovulation, simulates progesterone production and ovarian estrogen in females, and testosterone production in males
luteinizing hormone
this hormone controls synthesis and release of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex
adrenocorticotropic hormone
this hormone is thought ot influence brain activity
melanocyte stimulating hormone
two hormones synthesized in the hypothalamus but secreted by the neurohypophysis are
antidiuretic hormone, oxytocin
this gland's follicular cells produce thyroxine and triiodothyronine
thyroid gland
parafollicular cells lie between thyroid follicles and produce ______.
calcitonin
parathyroid hormone is synthesized and secreted by the ______ gland
parathyroid
______ is involved in calcium homeostasis and also stimulates kidneys to release calcitriol. Principal and Chief cells are responsible for the production of this hormone.
parathyroid hormone
______ glands are responsible for synthesizing and secreting over 20 different hormones
adrenal
% of adrenal gland that makes up the cortex
90%
this superficial layer of the adrenal gland, produces mineralocorticoids suchas aldosterone which affect mineral homeostasis.
Zona Glomerulosa
This layer of the adrenal gland produces glucocortcoids, hormons affecting glucose homeostasis
zona fasciculata
this layer of the adrenal gland produces weak androgens in women these androgens are converted into estrogens
zona reticularis
a modified sympathetic ganglion of the autonomic nervous system. the ______ cells produce epinephrine 80% and norepinephrine 20% and work with the sympathetic nervous system in times of stress.
chromaffin
These cells are most common in pancreas, produce insulin, and make up 70% of pancreatic islet cells.
beta cells
These cells make up 17% of pancreatic islet cells and produce glucagon.
alpha cells
These cells make up a small % of pancreatic islet cells and produce somatostatin
Delta Cells
These cells produce pancreatic peptide
F cells
this pancreatic hormone inhibits glucagon and insulin release
somatostatin
______ ______ inhibits somatostatin release, gall bladder contraction and pancreatic enzyme release.
pancreatic peptide
The Two estrogens the Ovaries produce are _____ and _____.
estradiol, estrone
In addition to estrogen, ovaries produce _______ and ______ the second which aids in childbirth.
progesterone, relaxin
These five hormones regulate the menstral cycle.
estradiol, estrone, progesterone, follicular stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone
two hormones testes produce are ______ and ______.
testosterone and inhibin
This gland is composed of neuroglia and produces melatonin, the hormone responsible for our circadian rhythm.
pineal
This gland contributes to the development and maturation of T lymphocytes and may slow the effects of aging.
thymus
the thymus produces these four hormones
thymosin, thymic humoral factor, thymic factor and thymopoietin