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Anatomy and Physiology

participates in the maintenance of homeostasis by regulating and coordinating other body systems

endocrine system

why is it named ENDO-crine system?

because the endocrine system releases into systems not ducts.

chemicals that serve as the messengers of the endocrine system


protein molecules capable of binding a particular hormone and generating a cellular reponse


hormones secreted into the interstitial fluid and diffusing into capillaries normally to cells that need to send message to whole body. and make up about 90% of all hormones in our body

circulating hormones

act on cells without entering the cardiovascular system usually needed for a more precise regional area of the body.

local hormones

type of local hormone that acts on neighboring cells


type of local hormone that acts on the same cell that secreted the hormone (itself)


this type of hormone requires transport proteins to dissolve in blood plasma. Includes steroid hormones, thyroid hormones and nitric oxide.

lipid-soluble hormones

this type of hormone freely dissolves in blood plasma and includes amine hormones, peptide and protein hormones, glycoprotein hormones and eicosanoid hormones.

water-soluble hormones

lipid-soluble hormones ______ pass through cellular membranes and bind to receptors inside the cell.


True or False: receptor-hormone complex can activate or deactivate gene expression.


steroids, aldosterone, cortisol, androgens, calcitriol, testosterone, estrogens, progesterone, thyroid hormones, and gases such as nitric oxide are examples of ______ ______ hormones.

lipid soluble

Amines, peptides, proteins such as ADH and oxytocin, eicosanoids are all examples of ______ ______ hormones.

water soluble

Water-soluble hormones must ______ receptors on ______ ______.

bind, cell membrane

Water-soluble hormones bind to a receptor this causes activation of ______ ______ (s) inside the cell. these are also known as the following acronym _____.

second messenger, cAMP

The ______ ______ inside the water-soluble hormone initiates the processes the hormone was sent to promote

second messenger

Protein kinases attach a phosphate group to a new molecule that didn't have phosphate previously which can result in either an excitatory or inhibitory response. This process is called ______.


when the effect of one hormone opposes that of another hormone

antagonistic interaction

when the effect of two hormones together are greather than the effect of either hormone added together

synergistic interaction

occurs when a hormone requires another hormone to be present in order to function.

permissive interaction

this is an example of which type of hormone interaction? : thyroid hormone is required to be present for epinephrine to stimulate the breakdown of triglycerides in significant quantities

permissive interaction

five endocrine glands

pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pineal

some examples of organs not classified as endocrine glands but contain hormone producing cells

thymus, pancreas, ovaries, testes

another name for pituitary gland


stalk which is attached to the hypothalamus which the pituitary is attached to by


anterior lobe of pituitary gland


posterior lobe of pituitary gland


Neurosecretory cells in the ______ release five different hormones which stimulate secretion of ______ ______ hormones.

hypothalamus, anterior pituitary

type of cell which secretes Human growth hormone (HGH_ or somatotropin.


type of cell which secretes thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) or thyrotropin


type of cell which secretes follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and lutenizing hormone (LH)


type of cell taht secretes prolactin


type of cell that secretes adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or corticotropin and melanocyte-stimulating hormone


HGH is responsible for stimulating the secretion of ______ ______ ______ that stimulate body growth and metabolism.

insulinlike growth factor

TSH stimulates the synthesis and release of two thyroid hormones;

triiodothyronine, thyroxine (or tetraodothyrorine)

OOcyte and ovarian follicular development in women, and sperm production in men is promoted by this hormone

Follicular stimulating hormone

this hormone causes ovulation, simulates progesterone production and ovarian estrogen in females, and testosterone production in males

luteinizing hormone

this hormone controls synthesis and release of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex

adrenocorticotropic hormone

this hormone is thought ot influence brain activity

melanocyte stimulating hormone

two hormones synthesized in the hypothalamus but secreted by the neurohypophysis are

antidiuretic hormone, oxytocin

this gland's follicular cells produce thyroxine and triiodothyronine

thyroid gland

parafollicular cells lie between thyroid follicles and produce ______.


parathyroid hormone is synthesized and secreted by the ______ gland


______ is involved in calcium homeostasis and also stimulates kidneys to release calcitriol. Principal and Chief cells are responsible for the production of this hormone.

parathyroid hormone

______ glands are responsible for synthesizing and secreting over 20 different hormones


% of adrenal gland that makes up the cortex


this superficial layer of the adrenal gland, produces mineralocorticoids suchas aldosterone which affect mineral homeostasis.

Zona Glomerulosa

This layer of the adrenal gland produces glucocortcoids, hormons affecting glucose homeostasis

zona fasciculata

this layer of the adrenal gland produces weak androgens in women these androgens are converted into estrogens

zona reticularis

a modified sympathetic ganglion of the autonomic nervous system. the ______ cells produce epinephrine 80% and norepinephrine 20% and work with the sympathetic nervous system in times of stress.


These cells are most common in pancreas, produce insulin, and make up 70% of pancreatic islet cells.

beta cells

These cells make up 17% of pancreatic islet cells and produce glucagon.

alpha cells

These cells make up a small % of pancreatic islet cells and produce somatostatin

Delta Cells

These cells produce pancreatic peptide

F cells

this pancreatic hormone inhibits glucagon and insulin release


______ ______ inhibits somatostatin release, gall bladder contraction and pancreatic enzyme release.

pancreatic peptide

The Two estrogens the Ovaries produce are _____ and _____.

estradiol, estrone

In addition to estrogen, ovaries produce _______ and ______ the second which aids in childbirth.

progesterone, relaxin

These five hormones regulate the menstral cycle.

estradiol, estrone, progesterone, follicular stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone

two hormones testes produce are ______ and ______.

testosterone and inhibin

This gland is composed of neuroglia and produces melatonin, the hormone responsible for our circadian rhythm.


This gland contributes to the development and maturation of T lymphocytes and may slow the effects of aging.


the thymus produces these four hormones

thymosin, thymic humoral factor, thymic factor and thymopoietin

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