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Drugs and Society Ch 5
Terms in this set (40)
drugs with analgesic, pain reducing, properties that act in the brain like opium
general term technically referring to opiate-related or opiate-derived drugs. Ofter mistakenly used to include several other illicit drug categories
4 categories of opiods
1) the three natural compounds directly extracted from opium: morphine, codeine, thebaine.
2) derivative compounds created by making chemical composition changes to morphine
3) derivative compounds created by making chemical composition changes to codeine or thebaine
4) synthetic versions made in a lab
analgesic and euphoriant drug acquired from the dried juice of the opium poppy
history of opium
first written record in 3rd century BC but evidence of earlier around 1200 BC.
uses were mainly medical at the time.
Paracelsus introduced medical drink laudanum made of opium, wine and spices.
Thomas Sydenham in 1680 made similar drink.
popularity of drinking opium led it to be recreational
British loved China's tea and wanted to trade it for opium but China wasn't having it so they started smuggling it and things got out of hand. in 1839 China tried to make a statement by confiscating a shipment and publicly burning it so British declared war. 1842 British win and China has to open boarders
1821 wrote a book that led to the creative revolution of opium
Opium in Britain
The amount used was not a problem but the focus was on the means of administration. Smoking was tacky, drinking was classy.
Opium in America
1800s coexisted with other recreational drugs. There was still a strong anti-smoking prejudice against the Chinese. in 1875 San Fransisco banned the smoking but not drinking opium and the Federal government quickly followed. The 20th century brought demand for regulation.
Friedrich Wilhelm Adam Serturner
first to isolate active ingredient of opium
major active ingredient of opium. ten percent
major active ingredient of opium. used to treat coughing. point five percent of weight
major active ingredient of opium. point 2 percent of weight
1898. chemical derivative of morphine. approximately three times as potent and major drug of abuse. it is more fat soluble so more easily absorbed in the brain
opioid use and heroine abuse after 1914
Harrison act made opioid abusers scum.
required doctors to register and pay a fee to prescribe. In 1920 it became illegal to prescribe for nonmedical reasons making heroine illegal and expensive. Changed demographic to white adult males whose drug supply was controlled by sophisticated crime organizations
heroine abuse in 1960 and 70
1961 crack down on smuggling brought shortage, more crime, less pure heroine and expensive.
The hippies got into it.
Then the soldiers. Nom had much cheaper and more pure heroine
heroin and other opioids since 1980s
1985 black tar.
synthetic forms became popular on the streets.
fentanyl and other designer drugs were technically legal due to loop holes.
the U.S started getting heroin from south america in the mid 90s which was much cheaper and more pure so abuse and deaths rose.
new purity lead to less IV administration and snorted and smoked which prevented HIV but still had risk of dependence and overdoes.
Easier routes made use of heroin rise in young adults
intensity of effects depend on
quantity and purity.
route of administration.
interval between doses.
degree of tolerance.
setting and expectations.
effects of heroin on body
IV has immediate tingling and warm feeling in lower abdomen. Intense rush followed by state of tranquil drowsiness with decreased sex drive that lasts 3-4 hours. The first time may be unpleasant due to nausea and vomiting.
physiological effects of heroin
sudden release of histamine causing itching and red eyes.
depression of breathing and blood pressure.
slowing of gastrointestinal tract
opioids in the brain
activation of receptors in the brain that are specifically sensitive to morphine. These receptors are located in the spinal cord and brain and are probably there becasue of morphine like chemicals we produce known as endorphins.
pure antagonists for morphine and other opioids. Brand name Narcan. used to treat overdoses and only has an effect if morphine or other opioids are already in the body
endogenous opioid peptides
aka endorphines. chemicals produced inside the body that mimic the effects of opioid drugs.
long-lasting form of haloxone
tolerance and withdrawal
gastrointestinal effects don't show much tolerance but pupillary responses subside. The greatest tolerance in analgesia, euphoria, and respiratory depression.
Withdrawal symptom severity depend on dose. it has the opposite effect of the drug so decreases endorphin release and production but many factors contribute to dependence.
lethality of heroin abuse
long term toxicity is low becasue body isn't harmed from chronic use. The practice of abuse is the most dangerous factors.
dangers of the practice of heroin abuse
it has a small lethal to effective dose ratio.
combing with other drugs has adverse effects.
conditional tolerance is common and new environment can cause overdose.
deaths by sudden release of histamine or allergic reactions to filler or HIV.
synthetic heroin contains MPTP causing Parkinson's
taking heroin on occasional basis
treatment for heroin abuse
must be effective for short term withdrawal effects and long term cravings
process of drug withdrawal in which the body is allowed to rid itself of chemical effects of the drug in the bloodstream.
synthetic opioid useful for reducing pain
synthetic opioid useful in treating heroin abuse
treatment for heroine abusers in which heroine is replaced by long term intake of methadone.
brand name orlaam. treatment of heroine abuse only need to receive three times a week vs once a day
brand name subutex. treatment of heroin abuse three times weekly and can be prescribed by physicans
living environment for individuals in treatment for heroin and other drug abuse to learn social and psychological skills needed to live drug free
combo of detox, psychotherapy and group support
medical use of opioids
relief of pain.
treatment of diarrhea.
popular non-narcotic ingredient used in over the counter remedies. DM
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