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Deformation 2 Review
Terms in this set (53)
How old is the earth?
4.6 billion years old
What are the compositional layers of the earth from the outside to the inside?
Crust and mantle
What are the structural layers of the earth from the outside to the inside?
lithosphere, asthenosphere, and mesosphere
What are the two main elements that make up the crust?
Oxygen and Silicon
What are the two main elements that make up the mantle?
Oxygen and Silicon
What are the two main elements that make up the inner and outer cores?
Iron and Nickel
What is the main igneous rock that makes up the bedrock of the oceanic crust?
What is the main igneous rock that makes up the bedrock of the continental crust?
Structurally, the crust and upper mantle of the earth are called the
Structurally, the middle mantle of the earth on which the tectonic plates move is called the
Compare and contrast oceanic and continental crust
the oceanic crust is more dense than the continental crust. The continental crust is much thicker than the oceanic crust. Both the oceanic crust and the continental crust are less dense than the mantle.
Which layer of the earth represents 80% of the volume?
Which layer of the earth is responsible for the magnetosphere?
The inner core
What type of waves are seismic P waves? what can they move through?
Compression waves, move through a solid quickly and slowly through a liquid, and are the fastest waves
What type of waves are seismic S waves? what can they move through?
Transverse waves, they can move through a solid, but not through a liquid and not as fast as P waves
What type of waves are seismic L waves? what are the two types of waves, and where do they travel on?
Surface waves, two types of surface waves are love and Rayleigh, L waves are the slowest waves because they travel on the surface of the earth
Which type of seismic wave is the most damaging
Breaking, bending, tilting, and folding rock
stress that stretches rock so that it becomes thinner in the middle
Downward fold in the rock layers
Type of stress caused when rock is torn apart in two opposite directions
Type is stress that squeezes or shortens a body
Crack in the rock layers (NO MOVEMENT)
a break or crack along which rocks move
Bend in rock layers
An upward fold
What are the three types of stress?
Compression, tension, and shear
Which type of stress causes a normal fault?
Which type of stress causes a reverse fault?
Which type of stress causes a strike-slip fault
What type of mountain forms from the magma that reaches the earth's surface?
The most common type of mountains and the largest mountains on Earth are
This type of mountain occurs when a fault block is raised or tilted
numerical scale for expressing the magnitude of an earthquake. Logarithmic scale from 1-10
Scale of intensity (how it is felt) of an earthquake
The point inside the earth where the break and movement occur
Point on the surface of the earth directly above the focus of the earthquake
Determines the distance from the earthquakes
A large, ocean wave that is created when an earthquake occurs below the ocean floor
Magnitude of an earthquake is (Blank), while the intensity is (Blank)
how strong the earthquake actually is at the focus, how the earthquake is felt by people and how it impacts structures
Molten particles that are hurled from a volcano and harden as the they hit they ground (can be dust to rock size)
Pyroclastics that are very fine (less than 2 mm)
Pyroclastics over 1 meter
Pit at the top of a volcano
Magma that reaches earth's surface
Molten rock beneath the earth's surface
Has not had an eruption at least 10,000 years and is not expected to erupt again in a comparable time scale of the future.
is an active volcano that is not erupting, but could erupt again
had at least one eruption during that past 10,000 years, might be erupting or dormant
Felsic (silicic) lava
Thick, light colored and gaseous
Mafic (basaltic) lava
Thin, and dark colored
Weak spot in earth's crust where magma reaches surface
Largest volcano in central Texas. 79 million year old bump in the ground, give or take a million years in either side is solid black basalt.
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