101 terms

Human Communication Final


Terms in this set (...)

Communication is derived from the Greek word meaning "to make common".
More communication is always better than less communication.
The classical figure who exerted the most influence on persuasive speaking was Aristotle.
There is evidence to support the idea that "Great communicators are born, not made."
Technologies of mass communication have been around for centuries.
What is noise?
In Shannon and Weaver's basic model, _____ was a literal reference to static in the phone line. We might think of as anything that interferes with the communication process, and this might range from physical distractions (e.g., a buzzing light fixture or physical tics) to cultural differences (e.g., varying levels of education or cultural traditions that impede understanding).
What is channel?
The _________ is the medium in which the message circulates. Some scholars describe this as mainly corresponding to the human senses, and so you may see references to the "tactile" (which refers to the medium of touch) or the "visual." Others prefer to describe it using a more technological than physical language, and so the reference may be to the air through which messages pass, or the electronic signals into which messages are converted.
What is attribution theory?
Fritz Heider first articulated this theory, one of the leading theories of meaning interpretation.Sometimes referred to as "naïve psychology," is mainly concerned with the perceived causes of human behavior. This theory studies the processes through which each of us comes to understand the behavior of other people.
What is cognitive theory?
___________ theories of human communication involve the study of these mental processes. Researchers in this fast-growing area seek to know how we manage the information in our minds, how we organize it to specify our actions, and how our interactions with others shape our thinking to produce adaptive responses.
John Greene has offered one influential account of communication. His action assembly theory proposes that a person commands both contentknowledge (we know about things) and proceduralknowledge (we know how to do things).
What is rapid thought?
Listeners can process information at a rate of about 500 words per minute, while most speakers can only speak around 125 words per minute. Therefore, listeners are prone to the inevitable problem of their minds wandering to other matters.
What is physical noise?
refers to environmental sounds that hinder the communication process. These are what most people think of when referring to "noise." Interference such as a loud siren, construction equipment, or people talking loudly can cause the communication process to break down.
What is physiological noise?
pertains to things related to our body that can hinder the communication process. To be effective communicators, our basic needs must be met. It becomes difficult to focus as a listener if we are hungry, too hot, too cold, or sleep deprived.
What is psychological noise?
anything pertaining to the mind or thought processes that hinder the communication process. may include such things as defensiveness, hostility, preoccupation, or prejudice against the speaker's race, religion, gender. A common problem in American culture is egocentrism, or self-centered thinking.
What is semantic noise?
when the sender's interpretation of the language being used differs from the receiver's interpretation. Those for whom English is a second language might have trouble interpreting some of the slang used in our culture.
How to become a better listener?
There are differences between hearing and listening.
Listening is a choice.
There are benefits to having a positive attitude and being motivated.
Listening skills take time to develop.
What are the active listening techniques?
Show that you are listening by providing encouraging feedback
Ask for clarification when necessary
Listen for main ideas and try to avoid extraneous details
Take notes
Repeat information
Utilize mnemonic devices
Utilize visualization techniques
What are the obstacles to effective listening?
rapid thought
message overload
cultural differences
gender differences
different types of noise
What is anxiety?
something that most people experience in any high-risk communicative situation. However, for some people, this can be such a major problem that it hinders them from reaching their full potential professionally and personally.
What is ethics?
Ethics has to do with my religious beliefs
Being ethical is doing what the law requires
Ethics consists of the standards of behavior our society accepts
What is ethical standards?
____________ should be supported by consistent and well-founded reasons. This refers to well-based standards of right and wrong that prescribe what human beings ought to do, usually in terms of obligations.
What is ethical decisions?
The Golden Rule Standard
The Professional Ethic
Immanuel Kant's Categorical Imperative
The "60 Minutes" Test
The Utilitarian Rule
What is ethical relativism?
the awareness that different societies have different moral beliefs and that beliefs are deeply influenced by culture.
What is Co-cultures?
A difference from mainstream U.S. culture includes the fact that many Native American and Asian American cultures value silence, while African American and European American cultures often place a high value on verbal skills. Thus, you can see how the African-American and European-American societies might interpret silence as a sign of weakness or dislike.
What is the transactional model?
transfers basic elements from the Shannon-Weaver model, but, unlike the Shannon-Weaver model, emphasizes the interaction at the heart of the communicative process. When we talk, we not only respond back and forth, but we shape and alter future interactions by our prior interactions.
What is the shannon-weaver model?
___________ model is straightforward. It imagines communication as a linear (left-to-right) process, where the sender encodes a message, which is transmitted through a channel, potentially interfered with by noise, and then decoded at the other end.
What is trait theory?
The messages we create often have something to do with the kind of person we are, and this observation forms the basis for ____________ of human communication. To a greater or lesser degree, we may possess traits that either facilitate or hinder message production.
What is cognitive dissonance?
Among the most influential theories of information organization is _______________, devised by Leon Festinger. Cognitive dissonance theory aims to solve one of the oldest riddles regarding persuasion, which centers on something called counter-attitudinal advocacy (or CAA for short).
What is social constructivism?
The quote from Stephen Littlejohn on the first page of this section offers a central insight into a ___________ theory of communication. Perhaps the most famous elaboration of this theory is contained in Peter Berger and Thomas Luckmann's book, The Social Construction of Reality. the theory simply insists that our knowledge of the world mainly derives from our interaction. The constructivists would say that knowledge is socially produced, that our apparently objective theories are heavily value-laden, and that even the most elaborate knowledge we share is locally contextual.
What is self-concept?
______________ is based on a set of relatively stable perceptions each of us holds about ourselves. It includes such things as our physical features, the roles we assume, the ways we interact with others, our talents, our mental abilities, and our emotional states. It not only reflects how we view ourselves but also determines what we perceive as making us similar or different from others.
What is self-esteem?
____________ is the prevailing attitude one holds about one's self-concept
What is Perceived self?
The self-concept is like a mental mirror that reflects how we imagine ourselves
What is presenting self?
_______________ which may in some cases be a fiction contrived to hide the real self. The presenting self is defined in this lesson as the way we present ourselves to fit into a situation or environment.
What is Ideal self?
Identity management refers to the communication strategies used by people who want to manage other people's impressions of them. It involves the manipulation of manner, appearance, and setting
The self-concept is subjective.
The kind of person you believe yourself to be is referred to as the __________.
Percieved self
The face you try to show to others is referred to as the __________________.
Ideal self
The _____________is the person we choose to be because we think it is the person others expect us to be.
Presenting self
The self-concept is influenced by significant others from the past and the present.
What is self disclosure?
_________________ is the willingness to share information, attitudes, and feelings that give others insight into who you really are.
The communication styles that emerge from our habits of self-disclosure are
open, blind, hidden and closed
What is perception checking?
means to more meaningful interpretations of human behavior. It involves the description of a behavior, multiple interpretations of the behavior, and a request for information that can help you correctly interpret the behavior.
Our perceptions of a person, object or event depends more upon the person, object or event than it depends upon the mind of the observer.
We tend to assume others are like us.
People who think highly of themselves tend to think highly of others.
We are influenced by what is most obvious.
We cling to first impressions.
What are the stages of development during the coming together phase?
What are the stages of development during the coming apart phase?
What is communication climate?
develops automatically in relationships and reflects the feelings of the participants. Jack Gibb, a communication theorist, best known for the Gibb Categories, identifies defensive behaviors and supportive behaviors that lead respectively to negative and positive communication.
We tend not to express our emotions effectively because
Social roles
The inability to recognize emotions
Fear of self-disclosure
Two things that distinguish facilitative emotions from debilitative emotions are
Intensity and duration
Win-win problem solving is seldom used because
There is a lack of awareness of it
Emotional reflexes prevent constructive solutions
It requires both people's cooperation
All of the following are true about conflict except
Conflict is natural
All relationships experience conflict
Conflict can be beneficial
Conflict draws our attention to the need for change in our relationships
Facilitative emotions
Contribute to effective communication
Visuals can help:
the speaker to remember his/her speech
the audience members to remember the information contained in the speech
the speaker to stay organized
The following is a good resource for gathering ideas and information for a presentation
Face-to-face interviews
Television programs
Professional organizations
Clear organization is important because
It enhances the speaker's credibility (speaker appears more knowledgeable, organized, prepared, etc.)
It increases audience retention (the amount of information that the audience remembers)
The number of main points recommended to include in a speech is
3 to 5
Types of small groups
social groups
learning groups
problem solving groups
self help groups
Stages of group development
Different types of small group communications
star communication
circle communication
wheel communication
Which stage of group development is characterized by conflict?
Why is conflict essential in communication?
It draws attention to the unsatisfied needs of the people involved in the communication
Why do some people hate group work?
because they have not been trained to communicate effectively in groups
because equal participation among group members is unlikely
What sequence of stages do groups move through in their development?
Forming, storming, norming and performing
How are the types of group communication defined?
Groups are defined by purpose
Groups are defined by the number of people in them
What is reflected appraisal?
The process of seeing ourselves through the eyes of others as well as in terms of our own images of an ideal self
What is open self?
negotiable self-concept. People with this self-concept discover themselves and their potential through their interactions with others. Their self-concept reflects their relationships. They continue to expose themselves to new experiences, even after developing a sense of who they are. An this self- concept is constantly evolving.
What is closed self?
self-concept that is nonnegotiable. People with this self-concept, after developing a sense of self, consistently make choices and establish relationships that reinforce their existing image of themselves. They re-create the same experiences in their lives as they reinforce existing attitudes and images of themselves.
What is a topical pattern?
divides the subject into three to five key areas and offers a running theme throughout.
What is a spatial pattern?
relies on space, direction, or locale for an organizing principle
What is chronological pattern?
arranges material according to a sequence in time.
What are the obstacles to effective learning?
Rapid Thought
Physical Noise
Message Overload
Physiological Noise
Cultural Differences
Psychological Noise
Gender Differences
Semantic Noise
What are the things people change during identity management strategies?
What is the cause-effect pattern?
used to show that certain events are a result of certain actions or situations
What is problem- solution pattern?
used to highlight a problem, to suggest several possible solutions and to propose the best solution based on stated criteria.
What is Monroe's motivated sequence?
a very popular three-step sequence that offers, among other things, a successful approach in advertising. This approach begins be establishing an unfulfilled need (in some cases described as a problem). The next step offers a means of satisfying the need (perhaps described as a means of solving the problem). The last step offers a visualization of the situation once the need is satisfied.
What are the comparative advantages?
compares several options and goes on to explain how one is superior to the others.
Mostly found in small group communication, this pattern has no designated leader.
Circle Diagram
This pattern suggests that members strive to communicate equally with each other.
Star Diagram
Associated with large group communication, this pattern allows for the quick problem solving.
Y diagram
What is the most effective of all small group communication patterns with a central leader.
Wheel Diagram
The larger this pattern is, the more likely message content will be lost in transmission.
Chain Diagram
What is employment interviews?
conducted to evaluate the match between an organization and a potential employee.
What is informational .interviews?
conducted to gather information for a variety of reasons.
What is positive visualization?
a technique used to enhance success in a variety of situations by teaching people to visualize themselves positively.
What is mnemonic devices?
memory aids that create patterns that help you remember what you've heard.
What was the melting pot metaphor?
encouraged newcomers to melt into the mainstream by surrendering any ways that made them different from native-born citens
What is ethnocentrism?
a perspective based on the assumption that our culture and its norms are the only right ones.
What are the different types of windows in the Johari Window?
Describe the open widow in the Johari Window?
contains information that is known both to ourselves and to others
Describe the blind area in the Johari window?
contains perceptions of us that others have but we don't.
Describe the hidden area in Johari Window?
contains information and perceptions that we have about ourselves but choose not to reveal to others.
Describe the unknown area in Johari Window?
made up of information about ourselves that niether we nor others know.
What is self-fulfilling prophecies?
expectations or judgments of ourselves that we bring about through our own actions.
What is social comparison?
our rating of ourselves relative to other with respect to our talents, abilities, qualities, and so forth.
Which type of interview question gives the interviewer the most control over the interview?
Which of the following were identified as the stages of the interview process?
Opening, body, and closing
Interviews are defined and categorized according to
The 70/30 rule of interviewing defines
Guidelines about speaking time for the interviewer and the interviewee
The employment interview is an example of which type of interview?