30 terms

Cell Cycle, Mitosis and Meiosis Review

Once there was a little cell named Mito. He was a skin cell, where the competition was brutal. Cells were dying and being created every day. Mito was ready to undergo mitosis! His Mitosis supervisor, Dry, was pretty tough. "hey, kid. there ain't nothing special about your cell cycle!" he growled. mito replied proudly, "one day, someone will have a very important science test about me!" That person is me, and maybe you. So here is a review for Mitosis, Interphase, Meiosis, and more! Free of charg…

Terms in this set (...)

cell cycle
set of events during which the cell grows and divides
daughter cells
new cells produced by cell division
organelles that form the spindles
guide the chromosomes to the two sides of the cell during mitosis/meiosis
the unwound form of DNA that is found in the nucleus prior to cell division.
period of the cell cycle between cell divisions
G1 phase
part of interphase in which the cell undergoes the most growth
S phase
part of interphase when DNA is replicated
G2 phase
stage of interphase in which the cell prepares for mitosis (m phase)
cell division in which the nucleus divides into 2 nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
first phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes become visible, centrioles move to opposite ends of the cell, spindles form, and nuclear membrane breaks down
phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell and attach to the mitotic spindle
phase of mitosis in which the spindle pulls the sister chromatids to opposite ends of the cell
last phase of mitosis in which the chromatids uncoil back to chromatin, the spindle breaks down and the nuclear envelope reforms.
process by which the cytoplasm of a cell divides; in an animal cell, it is called furrowing, in a plant cell the cell plate forms
cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms- creates four new sex cells with a haploid amount of chromosomes that are genetically different
a cell with one set of chromosomes
a cell with two sets of chromosomes; twice the haploid number
cells produced by meiosis; another name for sex cells
homologous chromosomes
a pair of chromosomes, one from each parent, that have relatively similar size and genes
prophase I
first stage of meiosis I, where homologous chromosomes pair together and crossing over occurs
crossing over
when homologous chromosomes swap genes with each other, leading to genetic diversity
metaphase I
second stage of meiosis I in which chromosomes line up with their homologous pair
independent assortment
during metaphase I, the homologous pairs randomly align along the cell's equator, leading to genetic diversity
anaphase I
third stage of meiosis I in which homologous chromosomes are separated to opposite ends of the cell
telophase I
fourth phase of meiosis I, similar to mitotic telophase
prophase II
The first phase of meiosis II. Prophase II is identical to mitotic prophase.
metaphase II
second stage of meiosis II in which the chromosomes line up across the cell.
anaphase II
The third phase of meiosis II. The sister chromatids are spearated at their centromeres and pulled to opposite sides of the cell. The number of chromosmes was reduced by half during meiosis I.
telophase II
The fourth and final phase of meiosis II. Telophase II is identical to mitotic telophase