Chap. 12 and 13 Vocab
Terms in this set (42)
Shape of DNA
A length of DNA wound twice around a spool of histone proteins
would produce two copies that each contained one of the original strands and one new strand.
Enzyme involved in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule
DNA fragment that is synthesized in short stretches on the lagging strand
A single-stranded nucleic acid that passes along genetic messages
RNA that copies the coded message from DNA in the nucleus and carries the message into the cytoplasm
type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes
type of RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis
DNA to RNA
Enzyme that links together the growing chain of ribonucleotides during transcription.
Sequence of DNA that is not involved in coding for a protein
Expressed sequence of DNA; codes for a protein
a sequence of three nucleotides that together form a unit of genetic code in a DNA or RNA molecule.
Process by which mRNA is decoded and a protein is produced
ability of an organism to control which genes are transcribed in response to the environment
group of genes operating together
A change in a gene or chromosome.
A chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes a mutation.
The breeding of organisms for desired characteristics
Continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics
Cross between an organism with an unknown genotype and an organism with a recessive phenotype
Process of making changes in the DNA code of living organisms
All the genetic information in an organism; all of an organism's chromosomes.
Enzyme that cuts DNA at a sequence of nucleotides
Method of separating various lengths of DNA strands by applying an electrical current to a gel
DNA produced by combining DNA from different sources
A small ring of DNA that carries accessory genes separate from those of the bacterial chromosome
an enzyme that eventually joins the sugar-phosphate backbones of the Okazaki fragments
The transfer of a DNA segment from a nonfunctional donor cell to that of a functional recipient cell
A process in which a cell, cell product, or organism is copied from an original source.
Polymerase chain reaction
A method of producing thousands of copies of DNA segment using the enzyme DNA polymerase
Organisms that contain functional recombinant DNA from a different organism
analysis of fragments of DNA as a form of identification
application of mathematics and computer science to store, retrieve, and analyze biological data
research tool used to study gene expression
Single nucleotide polymorphism
variation in a DNA sequence occurring when a single nucleotide in a genome is altered
Area of linked genetic variations in the human genome
The study of how genetic inheritance affects the body's response to drugs
The alteration of the genes of a person afflicted with a genetic disease
study of whole genomes, including genes and their functions
study of the structure and function of proteins in the human body
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