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Once an apparatus is placed in service it should be tested at least how often to ensure it will continue perform properly under emergency conditions?

At least yearly

What industry requires the apparatus is tested yearly to adjust the rates in its jurisdiction?

Insurance Industry

Apparatus tests can be grouped into what two groups of tests?

- Preservice tests
- Service tests

These tests assure the purchaser that the pump and pump components will operate properly under normal use. These tests can be grouped into the categories of manufacturer's tests, certification tests, and acceptance tests.

Preservice tests

What NFPA standards are used for most apparatus bid specifications?

- NFPA 1901 Auto fire apparatus
- NFPA 1906 Wildland apparatus

Who generally performs manufacturer's and certification tests?

- Manufacturer
- Underwriters Laboratories personnel

If NFPA 1901 is included in the bid specifications, what are the other two tests, other than the pump certifications tests, are to be performed?

- Road test
- Hydrostatic test

At a minimum, to meet the NFPA 1901 road test, what criteria must the apparatus be able to meet?

- accelerate to 35mph from a standing start within 25 seconds.
- Achieve a minimum top speed of 50 mph.
- Come to a full stop from 20mph within 35 feet.
- Apparatus parking break must conform to the specifications listed by the braking system manufacturer.

What is the hydrostatic test to determine?

Whether the pump and pump piping can withstand pressures normally encountered during fire fighting operations.

Pumps are tested hydrostatically at ___psi for _ minutes.

250 psi; 3

Test performed to make sure that the fire pump system operates in the manner for which it was designed after the pump and components are installed on the apparatus chassis.

Pump Certification Tests

Who conducts apparatus pump certification tests?

An independent testing organization such as Underwriters Laboratories

Where are the results the pump certification test results required to be placed?

Stamped into a plate that is affixed to the pump panel of the apparatus.

What pump certification tests does NFPA 1901 require for apparatus with 750 gpm pumps or larger?

- Pumping test
- Pumping Engine overload test
- Pressure control system test
- Priming device test
-Vacuum test
- Water tank-to-pump test
- Internal intake pressure relief valve test

According to NFPA 1901, apparatus with a pump capacity less than 750 gpm are require to do all the same tests as pumps larger, accept?

Pumping Engine Overload Test

The certification pumping test requires the pumped to be operated for _ hours, while the service pumping test requires only __ minutes of operation.

3 hours; 40 min

Test conducted to assure the purchaser that the apparatus meets bid specifications at the time of delivery.

Acceptance tests

An important acceptance issue arises when the jurisdiction purchasing the apparatus is located at an alititude in excess of ____ feet above sea level.

2,000 ft

The requirements for fire department service testing are contained in what NFPA standard?

NFPA 1911

What are the service tests contained in NFPA 1911 that a driver/operator should know to perform?

- Engine speed test
- Priming Device test
- Vacuum test
- Pumping test
- Overload test
- Pressure control test
- Gauge and flow meter test
- Tank-to-pump flow rate test
- Internal intake pressure relief valve test

When conducting the annual service tests from a static water source, what are the source requirements?

- Water at least 4ft deep
- Strainer must be submerged at least 2 feet.
- Surface of the water source can be no more than 10ft below the centerline of the pump intake
- 20' of hard intake hose should be used.

When conducting apparatus service tests, what should the air and water temperatures be for the test?

air temp of 0-100 degrees F
water temp of 35-90 degrees F

Altitude affects the pump's performance: lifting ability drops about 1 foot per ____ft increase in altitude.

1,000 ft

While pump testing, scribe a mark on the hose at the couplings, and regularly check the couplings to make sure the the hose is not pulling from them. How far must your scribe move from the coupling before you stop the test and replace that piece of hose?


Pump service tests are to be conducted at what net pump discharge pressures?

150, 165(overload), 200, 250 psi

NFPA 1911 requires that all gauges must have been calibrated within how many days of testing?

60 days

This reads the flow directly in gallons per minute, may be used instead of a pitot gauge to determine the flow from the nozzles.


The vacuum test is performed to check what?

- Priming Device
- Pump
- Hard intake hose for air leaks

In the vacuum test, if the apparatus is unable to reach __inches of mercury, the apparatus should be removed from service and repaired as soon as possible.

22 inches

The pumping test checks the overall condition of what?

Engine and pump

Any gauges that are off by more than what, should be re-calibrated, repaired, or replaced?

10 psi

The flow measured from the nozzle and the reading on a flowmeter should not be off by more than what percent?


NFPA 1901 states that the piping should be sized so that pumpers with a capacity of 500gpm or less be capable of flowing ___gpm from their booster tank.


Pumpers with capacities greater than 500gpm should be able to flow at least ___gpm from their booster tank.


Foam proportioning systems and equipment are generally checked for proper operation by one of what two ways?

-Testing the foam-to-water solution concentration that systems and equipment produce.
- Testing the rate at which foam concentrate is consumed in proportion to a known flow of water through the system.

NFPA 1901 requires foam systems accuracy testing to be performed when?

Prior to the apparatus being delivered from the manufacturer.

What four methods does NFPA1901 provide for testing foam proportioning systems for calibration accuracy?

-Foam concentrate displacement method
-Foam concentrate pump discharge volume method
- Foam solution refractivity testing
- Foam system conductivity testing

Device that operates on the principle of measuring the velocity of light that travels through a medium.


Foam solution refractometer testing is not accurate for what types of foam?

synthetic-based foams

What type of foam is refractometer testing used on to test the quality of the foam solution?

protein and fluoro-protein foams

What type of testing is used to test the quality of synthetic based foams that are produced by foam proportioning equipment and systems

Foam Solution Conductivity Testing

The ability of a substance to conduct an electrical current.


The three methods of performing conductivity testing on foam solution.

- Direct reading conductivity testing
- Conductivity comparison testing
- Conductivity calibration curve testing

Test performed by using a handheld, temperature-compensated conductivity meter.

Conductivity calibration curve test

On the fire ground, the primary objective of the driver/operator is to do what?

Provide fire suppression crews with water in sufficient volume and at the pressure needed to achieve efficient fire control and/or extinguishment.

What is the primary determinant of friction loss?

The volume of water flowing per minute.

Factors that can cause friction loss?

- Hose condition
- Coupling condition
- Kinks
- Volume of water being flowed

Combined, friction loss and elevation pressure loss are referred to as what?

Total pressure loss

Coefficient of 1 3/4" w/ 1 1/2" couplings


Coefficient of 2 1/2" hose


Coefficient of 5" hose


Assumed friction loss for all master stream appliances?

25 psi

Assumed friction loss for appliances other than master streams?

10 psi

The pressure waters exerts per foot of elevation ?


Formula for calculating elevation loss or gain?

Elevation Pressure = 0.5 x height

When two hoselines of equal length are siamesed to supply a fire stream the friction loss is approximately what percentage of a single hoseline at the same nozzle pressure?


When three hoselines of equal length are trimesed to supply a fire stream the friction loss is approximately what percentage of a single hoseline at the same nozzle pressure?


Since master streams require large amounts of water, how are they generally supplied to reach these large volumes of water?

-multiple hoselines
-siamesed hoselines
-single LDH

In reference to friction loss, how are aerial devices with waterways treated?

The same as master stream devices using friction loss of 25psi with elevation being calculated separately.

Formula for pump discharge pressure.


That pumper connected to the water supply at the beginning of the relay operation, and should be the engine with the largest pump capacity.

Source Pumper (supply pumper)

Pumper or pumpers connected within the relay that recives water form the source pumper or another relay pumper, boosts the pressure, and then supplies water to the next appararus in the relay.

Relay pumper (In-line Pumper)

Engine or other pumping apparatus located at the fire scene that will be recieving water from the relay and supplying atack lines and appliances as needed for fire suppression.

Attack Pumper

Large diameter hose ranges in what sizes? What are the most common sizes?

3-12 inches with 4" and 5" being the most common

These valves are intended to enhance firefighter safety and reduce the possibility of damge to the pump and discharge hoselinescaused by water hammer when valves are closed too quickly or intake pressures otherwise rise dramatically.

Intake Pressure Relief Valves, also called Relay Relief Valves

Pumpers with adjustable intake relief valves should be adjusted so that they are set to what?

Within 10psi of the static pressure of the water supply system or 10psi above the discharge pressure of the previous pumper in the relay.

In the most basic sense, a relauy operation is based on what two things?

- The amount of wate required at the emergency scene.
- The distance from the emergency scene to the water source.

If it is desirable to increase the amount of water flow through a relay, one of what three things can be done?

-Increase the size of the hose or number of hoselines used in the relay.
- Increase the pump discharge pressure of the pumpers operating in the relay.
- Increase the number of pumpers in the relay.

Where should the largest hose in the relay be laid?

At the begining of the operation

If departments purchase hose that are designed for higher standard pressures, the hiose should not be pumped at pressures that exceed what?

90% of the anual service test pressure

What are the two basic designs for relay pumping operations?

- Maximum Distance Relay Method
- Constant Pressure Relay method

Relay method that involves flowing a predetermined volume of water for the maximum distance that it can be pumped through a particular hoselay.

Maximum Distance Relay Method

Pumpers are rated to flow their maximum volume at ___psi, 70% at ___psi, and 50% at ___psi.

150 psi; 200 psi; 250 psi

The relay method that provides the maximum flow available from a particular relay setup by using a constant pressure in the system.

Constant Pressure Relay Method

What are several advantages in using constant pressure relay?

- It speeds relay activation.
- It requires no complicated calculations
- Radio traffic and confusion between pump operators are reduced.
-The attack pumper driver operator is able to govern fire lines easier.
- Operators in the relay only have to guide and adjust pressure to one constant figure.

In relay operations, as a rule, the largest capacity pumper should be used where?

At the source

In relay operations it is most desirable to maintain an intake pressure of what?

20-30 psi

if a relay pumper is recieving an intake pressure greater than 50 psi, what should be done?

The valve to the jumpline should be adjusted to limit the residual pressure to 50psi.

What device is essential when operating in a relay due to the cumulative nature of pressure increases when changes in flow occur.

Automatic Pressure Control Device

If an attack pumper is equipped with a readily adjustableintake relief valve, set it between __-__psi to establish a stable operating condition.


In relay operations as long as pressures do not drop below __psi or above ___psi no action should be required.

10psi ; 100psi

With all the activity on the fire scene, too much radio traffic when setting up a relay can interfere with fireground comunications. What are two other options instead of radio use?

- When pumpers are within sight of each other, hand signals can be used.
- In extreme cases, messengers on foot can still be effective.

What is the most commonly used fire extinguishing agent?


Below what temperature does what exist in a solid form?

32 ℉

Water is it's heaviest close to it's ________ ______, and lightest close to its _______ ______.

Freezing point; boiling point

Ordinary fresh water is generally considered to weigh?

62.5 lb/ft3 or 8.33 lb/gal

A measure of the heat-absorbing capacity of a substance.

Specific Heat

Between 32℉ an 212℉ water exists in what state?


Above what temperature does water covert to Gas?

212 ℉

The primary way water extinguishes is by _______.


Specific gravity determines whether water will do what on the surface on another liquid, or visa versa?


The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water 1℉.


The specific Heat of a substance is a ratio between what two things?

The heat needed to raise the temperature of a specified quantity of a material and the heat needed to raise the temperature of an identical amount of water the same number of degrees.

The temperature at which a liquid absorbs enough heat to change to vapor.

Boiling Point

At 212℉ water expands how many times its original volume?

1,700 times

Water absorbs ____ times as much heat as does an equal amount of carbon dioxide.


The specific gravity of water.


The quantity of heat absorbed by a substance when it changes from liquid to a vapor.

Latent heat of Vaporization

Vaporization does not completely occur when water reaches 212℉, each pound of water requires an additional ______ of heat to completely convert into steam.

970 BTU

The speed with which water absorbs heat increases in proportion to what?

The water surface area exposed to the heat.

The tendency of a liquid to possess internal resistance to flow.


The density of a liquid in relation to water.

Specific gravity

A force per unit of area.


Weight of one cubic foot of water?

62.5 pounds

The speed at which this fluid travels through a hose.


Fluid pressure at a point in a fluid at rest is the same intensity in all directions.

Second Principle of Pressure

The pressure of a liquid in an open vessel is proportional to its depth.

Fourth Principle of Pressure

A simple measure of of weight and is usually expressed in pounds or kilograms.


1 inch3 by 1 ft tall exerts a pressure of what at it's base?

0.434 lbs

Fluid pressure is perpendicular to any surface on which it acts.

First Principle of Pressure

Pressure applied to a confined fluid from without is transmitted equally in all directions.

Third Principle of Pressure

The pressure of a liquid in an open vessel is proportional to the density of the liquid.

Fifth Principle of Pressure

Mercury is __.__ times denser than water.


At sea level the atmosphere exerts what pressure?

14.7 PSI

At sea level a column of mercury is how tall?

29.9 inches tall


Pounds per square inch absolute

Absolute Zero pressure.

Absolute Vacuum

The pressure of a liquid on the bottom of a vessel is independent of the shape of the vessel.

Sixth Principle of Pressure

A pressure of 1psi makes a column of mercury about _.__ inches tall.



Pounds per square inch gauge

Any pressure less than actual pressure.


The fire service refers to the height of a water supply above the discharge orifice as what?


Stored potential energy available to force water through pipe, fittings, fire hose, and adapters.

Static pressure

That pressure found in a water distribution system during normal consumption demands.

Normal operating pressure

The forward velocity flow pressure can be measured by using what?

Pitot tube and Gauge

The center line of the pump or the bottom of a static water supply source above or below ground level.


Atmospheric pressure _____ as height above sea level increases.


Means at rest or without motion.


Part of the total available pressure not used to overcome friction loss or gravity while forcing water through pipe, fittings, fire hose and adapters.

Residual Pressure

Forward velocity pressure at a discharge opening while water is flowing.

Flow Pressure

The position of an object above or below sea level.


Above sea level, atmospheric pressure decreases approximately _._psi for every ____ft.

0.5psi ; 1000ft

Both pressure loss and pressure gain are referred to as What?

Elevation pressure

The friction loss in old hose may be as much as ___ greater than in new hose.


For the same discharge, friction loss varies inversely as the fifth power of the diameter of the hose.

Third Principle of Friction Loss

For a given flow velocity, friction loss is approximately the same, regardless of the pressure on the water.

Fourth Principle of Friction Loss

When the diameter of the hose doubles, the area of thee hose opening increases approximately ____ times.


The total pressure lost while forcing water through pipe, fittings, fire hose, and adapters.

Friction loss

If all other conditions are the same, friction loss varies directly with the length of the hose or pipe.

First Principle of Friction Loss

When hoses are the same size, friction loss varies approximately with the square of the increases in the velocity of the flow.

Second Principle of Friction Loss

With water being virtually incompressible, it requires _____psi to reduce it's volume by 1%.

30,000 psi

When the velocity or speed of a stream increases beyond it's practical limits and the friction becomes so great it causes agitation or turbulence.

Critical Velocity

What three characteristics of hose layouts cause friction loss?

- Hose length
-Hose diameter
-sharp bends (kinks) in the hose

Suddenly stopping water moving through a hose or pipe results in and energy surge being transmitted in the opposite direction. This surge is referred to as what?

Water Hammer

Three methods of moving water in a system.

-direct pumping system
-Gravity system
-combination system

When a fire hydrant receives water from two r more directions is said to have a what?

Circulating Feed
Looped Line

Large pipes, with relatively widespread spacing, that convey large quantities of water to various points of the system for local distribution to the smaller mains.

Primary feeders

Realistically, a hose larger than _inches in diameter cannot be used for handlines.

3 inches

What are the four fundamental components of a Water system?

-Source of water supply.
-Means of moving water.
-Water processing or treatment facility.
-Water distribution system, including storage.

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