35 terms

WORLD HISTORY 11/28 TEST

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Justinian
Byzantine emperor (527-565) who held the eastern frontier of his empire against the Persians and reconquered former Roman territories in Africa, Italy, and Spain.
Justinian Code
Laws of roman empire compiled in four-part collection.
Cyrillic Alphabet
the alphabet based principally on the Greek uncials that was originally used for writing Old Church Slavonic
Byzantine empire
was the continuation of the Roman Empire in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Orthodox christianity
The form of Christianity maintained by the Eastern Orthodox Church. Orthodox means "correct in teaching"; Orthodox Christians consider the Roman Catholic Church and the Protestant churches to be incorrect in some teachings, including the relations between the persons of the Trinity.
The hippodrome/riots
On January 13, 532, a tense and angry populace arrived at the Hippodrome for the races. ... By the end of the day, at race 22, the partisan chants had changed from "Blue" or "Green" to a unified Nίκα ("Nika", meaning "Win!!" "Victory!" or "Conquer!"), and the crowds broke out and began to assault the palace.
Kiev
Kiev is the capital city of Ukraine, known for its religious architecture, secular monuments and history museums. The 11th-century Kiev is a monastery and pilgrimage site with several gold-domed churches. It's known for its catacombs lined with the burial chambers of Orthodox monks, and a collection of gold objects from ancient Scythian times.
Kublai khan
Mongolian emperor of China and grandson of Genghis Khanwho completed his grandfather's conquest of China; he establish the Yuan dynasty and built a great capital on the site of modern Beijing where he received Marco Polo (1216-1294) Synonyms: Kubla Khan, Kublai Kaan Example of: emperor. the male ruler of an empire.
Mongols
The Mongols were one of many nomadic groups who lived in the vast open grassland planes of Eurasia: the Steppe. The Mongols (and most other nomads) frequently fought amongst each other for power and rarely unified under a single leader. Mongol society emphasized hunting, horseback riding, and archery as skills that all successful people (women included) needed to master. Culturally, Mongols absorbed behaviors and language from other steppe tribes and their larger, settled neighbors (most notably the Chinese and the Koreans to the south and southeast.) The Mongols were respected for their incredible ferocity in battle and their incredible ability to survive on little to no supplies.
The silk road
an ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean (4,000 miles); followed by Marco Polo in the 13th century to reach Cathay
Daimyo
The daimyō were powerful Japanese feudal lords who, until their decline in the early Meiji period, ruled most of Japan from their vast, hereditary land holdings.
Chivalry
the medieval knightly system with its religious, moral, and social code.
The feudal system in western europe
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries. Broadly defined, it was a way of structuring society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour.
Charlamagne
Charlemagne (c.742-814), also known as Karl and Charles the Great, was a medieval emperor who ruled much of Western Europe from 768 to 814. In 771, Charlemagne became king of the Franks, a Germanic tribe in present-day Belgium, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and western Germany. He embarked on a mission to unite all Germanic peoples into one kingdom, and convert his subjects to Christianity. A skilled military strategist, he spent much of his reign engaged in warfare in order to accomplish his goals.
Charles martel
Charles Martel, Latin Carolus Martellus, German Karl Martell (born c. 688—died Oct. 22, 741, Quierzy-sur-Oise [France]), mayor of the palace of Austrasia (the eastern part of the Frankish kingdom) from 715 to 741. He reunited and ruled the entire Frankish realm and stemmed the Muslim invasion at Poitiers in 732. His byname, Martel, means "the hammer."
Battle of tours
At the Battle of Tours near Poitiers, France, Frankish leader Charles Martel, a Christian, defeats a large army of Spanish Moors, halting the Muslim advance into Western Europe. Abd-ar-Rahman, the Muslim governor of Cordoba, was killed in the fighting, and the Moors retreated from Gaul, never to return in such force.
The treaty of verdun
The Treaty of Verdun, signed in August 843, was the first of the treaties that divided the Carolingian Empire into three kingdoms among the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious, who was the son of Charlemagne. The treaty, signed in Verdun-sur-Meuse, ended the three-year Carolingian Civil War.
Canon law
the body of codified ecclesiastical law, especially of the Roman Catholic Church as promulgated in ecclesiastical councils and by the pope.
Examples of sacraments
Baptism.
Eucharist.
Confirmation.
Reconciliation.
Anointing of the sick.
Marriage.
Holy orders.
Lay investiture
Investiture Controversy, conflict during the late 11th and the early 12th century involving the monarchies of what would later be called the Holy Roman Empire (the union of Germany, Burgundy, and much of Italy; see Researcher's Note), France, and England on the one hand and the revitalized papacy on the other. At issue was the customary prerogative of rulers to invest and install bishops and abbots with the symbols of their office. The controversy began about 1078 and was concluded by the Concordat of Worms in 1122.
Excommunication
the action of officially excluding someone from participation in the sacraments and services of the Christian Church.
Magyars
are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary and historical Hungarian lands who share a common ancestry, culture, history and speak the Hungarian language
vikings
any of the Scandinavian seafaring pirates and traders who raided and settled in many parts of northwestern Europe in the 8th-11th centuries.
muslims
A Muslim is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion
The crusades
The Crusades were a series of religious wars between Christians and Muslims started primarily to secure control of holy sites considered sacred by both groups. In all, eight major Crusade expeditions occurred between 1096 and 1291. The bloody, violent and often ruthless conflicts propelled the status of European Christians, making them major players in the fight for land in the Middle East.
St. francis of assisi
Founder of the Franciscan Order
Richard the lion-hearted
Richard I, byname Richard the Lionheart or Lionhearted, French Richard Coeur de Lion (born September 8, 1157, Oxford, England—died April 6, 1199, Châlus, duchy of Aquitaine), duke of Aquitaine (from 1168) and of Poitiers (from 1172) and king of England, duke of Normandy, and count of Anjou (1189-99). His knightly manner and his prowess in the Third Crusade (1189-92) made him a popular king in his own time as well as the hero of countless romantic legends. He has been viewed less kindly by more recent historians and scholars.
Inquisition
Inquisition, a judicial procedure and later an institution that was established by the papacy and, sometimes, by secular governments to combat heresy. Derived from the Latin verb inquiro ("inquire into"), the name was applied to commissions in the 13th century and subsequently to similar structures in early modern Europe.
Gothic style
Gothic architecture, architectural style in Europe that lasted from the mid 12th century to the 16th century, particularly a style of masonry building characterized by cavernous spaces with the expanse of walls broken up by overlaid tracery. In the 12th-13th centuries, feats of engineering permitted increasingly gigantic buildings.
Saladin
Saladin (1137/1138-1193) was a Muslim military and political leader who as sultan (or leader) led Islamic forces during the Crusades. Saladin's greatest triumph over the European Crusaders came at the Battle of Hattin in 1187, which paved the way for Islamic re-conquest of Jerusalem and other Holy Land cities in the Near East. During the subsequent Third Crusade, Saladin was unable to defeat the armies led by England's King Richard I (the Lionheart), reuslting in the loss of much of this conquered territory. However, he was able to negotiate a truce with Richard I that allowed for continued Muslim control of Jerusalem.
Urban II
On November 27, 1095, Pope Urban II makes perhaps the most influential speech of the Middle Ages, giving rise to the Crusades by calling all Christians in Europe to war against Muslims in order to reclaim the Holy Land, with a cry of "Deus vult!" or "God wills it!"
Pastoralists
a grazier or land-holder raising sheep, cattle, etc, on a large scale
Genghis khan
Mongol leader Genghis Khan (1162-1227) rose from humble beginnings to establish the largest land empire in history. After uniting the nomadic tribes of the Mongolian plateau, he conquered huge chunks of central Asia and China. His descendents expanded the empire even further, advancing to such far-off places as Poland, Vietnam, Syria and Korea. At their peak, the Mongols controlled between 11 and 12 million contiguous square miles, an area about the size of Africa. Many people were slaughtered in the course of Genghis Khan's invasions, but he also granted religious freedom to his subjects, abolished torture, encouraged trade and created the first international postal system. Genghis Khan died in 1227 during a military campaign against the Chinese kingdom of Xi Xia. His final resting place remains unknown.
Khanate
the state or jurisdiction of a khan
Steppe
In physical geography, a steppe is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes.