Which of the following is true about basal metabolism?
it represents about 60-70 percent of total kcaolires used by a sedentary person during a day
Which of the following is not associated with an increase in basal metabolism?
A low kcalorie intake
Carol eats 800 kcalories a day to lose weight. She is 40 years old. Carol has been walking briskly 60 minutes daily for the past 2 months. In her younger days she lifted weights, but she has lost considerable lean body mass over the years because of inactivity. Recently, Carol was diagnosed with hypothyroidism, which lowers metabolism. Which of the following factors increases Carol's energy output and promotes weight loss?
Her walking routine
All of the following contribute to total energy expenditure except
energy content of food.
includes daily activities as seemingly insignificant as fidgeting.
The thermic effect of food
represents the Kcalories needed to digest, absorb, and process ingested food.
All of the following are true about contributors to energy expenditure except
fidgeting accounts for 40 percent of total energy expenditure.
The kcalorie cost of the thermic effect of food is ___ of energy consumed.
Bill expends 2,500 kcalories per day. What amount of kcalories will be from basal metabolism?
1,500 to 1,750
Bill consumes 2,500 kcalories per day. What would be his energy expenditure, in kcalories, from the thermic effect of food?
Thermogenesis refers to all of the following except
the energy you require during sleep at night
Which of the following is true about obesity in North America?
Sixty-five percent of adults are overweight and, of these, 45% of adults are obese
The method for determining energy expenditure in which the amount of oxygen a person uses is measured is called
What is usually the major factor that explains variability in the energy needs of two healthy men of similar age and size?
The MyPyramid calorie guideline for a 19- to 30-year-old active woman is
Xenical is a weight loss drug that works in the digestive system
to block digestion of about one-third of the fat in the food we eat.
When attempting to use body fat content to define obesity, body fat above ____ for men warrants an obesity diagnosis.
When attempting to use body fat content to define obesity, body fat above ____ for women warrants an obesity diagnosis.
Body weight in kilograms divided by height squared in meters yields
the body mass index.
For a woman who is 1.63 meters tall and weighs 72 kilograms, the body mass index would be
How would you interpret the body mass index for a woman who is 1.63 meters tall and weighs 72 kilograms?
She slightly exceeds the value for which health risks begin.
A major problem with a very low-fat diet is
dieters become bored and are not satisfied
Which of the following is not a way to estimate body fat?
Body mass index
Android obesity is associated with a higher incidence of all the following except
Which of the following is not true about android obesity?
A low waist-to-hip ratio is indicative of it.
All of the following statements about many popular diets are true except
they help people make permanent changes in eating habits.
Margaret's parents are both obese. She has dieted six times, each time losing a considerable amount of weight and subsequently regaining it. Margaret has an aversion to exercise. Which of the following is true about Margaret's situation?
When she ends the diet she regains additional body fat.
Orlistat (Xenical) is a medication approved by the FDA for weight loss that reduces fat
digestion by inhibiting lipase enzyme action in the small intestine.
Which of the following is not a major goal for weight control programs?
5 pound weight loss per week
Mary Sue wishes to lose 5 pounds before her vacation in approximately 5 weeks. Her average consumption is 2,100 kcalories. How many kcalories should she consume daily to lose this weight, assuming her activity pattern remains unchanged?
A daily deficit of 500 kcalories should result in a weight loss of about how many pounds per week?
What would be the approximate weight gain, in pounds, of a person who consumes an excess of 500 kcalories daily for one month?
A weight loss program should have all of the following characteristics except
the plan should have a weight loss goal of 3 to 5 pounds per week.
As one finds his or her weight loss slowing during a weight control program, the best practice is to
increase physical activity.
Which of the following is an important aspect of behavior modification used for weight control?
Recording eating behavior to identify situations that contribute to overeating
Altering the environment to minimize the stimuli for eating is called
An example of cognitive restructuring for weight control is
replacing eating reactions to stress with helpful relaxing alternatives.
Currently, the most common and effective surgical procedure for morbid obesity is
The best way to treat an underweight person is to advise him or her to
eat kcalorie-dense foods higher in vegetable fat like nuts and seeds.
Which of the following is not characteristic of a fad diet?
They help people make permanent changes in eating habits
Which of the following is true about fat?
It is a concentrated source of kcalories.
The body's set point has been suggested to be
a weight to which the body closely regulates.
Which of the following is true about use of diet pills for weight reduction?
Diet pills do not lead to long-term changes in weight and tend to have side effects.
When individuals lose weight quickly, most of the weight lost is from
Martha is maintaining her current weight by eating 2,500 kcalories per day. To lose 1 pound of fat per week, she would have to decrease her intake to how many kcalories per day?
Changing one's frame of mind related to weight control and nutrition is called
Two self-help groups that would be helpful with weight control efforts include
Weight Watchers and Take Off Pounds Sensibly.
A woman who consumes 1800 nutrient-dense kcals per day and expends 2300 kcals per day with the help of moderate physical activity
is in negative energy balance
A significant health risk from obesity is
Type 2 diabetes
What percentage of a day's total energy need is used for digesting, absorbing, transporting, and storing nutrients?
5% to 10%
A reliable approach for weight loss is to
reduce daily calorie intake and increase energy expenditure
Eating a low-fat diet for weight control is impractical. T/F
Daily food choices rich in dietary fiber contribute to weight control. T/F
The energy required to keep the resting body alive represents basal metabolism. T/F
Health problems related to obesity begin when a person's body mass index (BMI) exceeds 30 kg/m2. T/F
The major cause of obesity in North America is low thyroid gland activity. T/F
Rapid weight loss likely contributes to the loss of considerable muscle tissue. T/F
You can lose 1 pound of stored fat each week by expending 200 kcals per day beyond your normal energy output T/F
The energy required to keep the resting body alive represents basal metabolism T/F
Which statement about vitamins is true?
Help regulate chemical reactions in the body
Which of the following is true about the intake of vitamins?
Occasional lapses in vitamin intake should cause no harm.
Water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins differ in which way?
Water-soluble vitamins are less likely to be toxic.
If you wanted to add significant quantities of vitamins and minerals to your diet from the food you eat, a good choice would be
a fortified breakfast cereal such as Total Raisin Bran.
Which of the following is true about the regulation of the production and sale of vitamin and mineral supplements?
The FDA does not regulate all vitamin and mineral supplements closely.
Which of the following is true about the absorption, transport, and storage of fat-soluble vitamins?
After absorption, they are transported in the bloodstream to body cells and/or stored in the liver and fatty tissue.
Which fat soluble vitamins are most toxic if consumed in excess amounts over long periods of time?
Vitamins A & D
Which of the following does not describe fat-soluble vitamins?
Excesses are excreted in the urine
Which of the following is true about the forms of vitamin A?
Carotenoids can be converted to retinoids.
Most vitamin A is stored in the
Drying of the cornea due to vitamin A deficiency is called
Which fat-soluble vitamin is important for the health of epithelial cells because it promotes mucus production?
Which of the following is the best source of preformed vitamin A?
George wants to increase his consumption of vitamin A for the possible cancer risk-reducing effects. Which of the following foods should he choose?
Which of the following is converted to vitamin A in the body?
This vitamin, when consumed during pregnancy, can help prevent neural tube defects like spina bifida.
All of the following are true about the toxicity of vitamin A except
one can experience toxic effects from consuming too much beta-carotene.
The nutrient that can be considered both a vitamin and a hormone is
Vitamin D is unique among the vitamins because
it can be formed in the body by skin exposure to the sun.
All of the following are characteristic of vitamin D except
the requirement is increased in most people who are exposed to the sun
Efficient deposition of calcium and phosphorus in bones is the net effect of
The childhood disease rickets is due to a _______ deficiency.
The most reliable source of vitamin D in the diet is
Vitamin E functions as a(n)
Which of the following serves as an antioxidant in cell membranes, protecting them and DNA inside cells, from damage?
A rich source of vitamin E is
The nutrient essential for synthesis of several blood clotting factors is vitamin
In general, excess amounts of water-soluble vitamins are excreted via the
All of the following are true of B vitamins except
Stored in the liver
The B vitamins generally function as
The vitamin that functions as a coenzyme, particularly in carbohydrate metabolism, is
Thiamin is distributed in small amounts in many foods. A nutrient-dense source of thiamin is
What disease is caused by a thiamin deficiency?
The foods that provide the largest source of riboflavin in the American diet are
milk and dairy products.
Niacin is necessary to prevent the disease
Bill's physician has prescribed an intake of 200 milligrams nicotinic acid (a form of niacin) to attempt to preserve his health. Which of the following is true about nicotinic acid consumption?
It can lower elevated serum cholesterol.
The vitamin that aids in activating fatty acids so they can yield energy is
A pantothenic acid deficiency
is very unlikely because of its widespread availability.
Intestinal bacteria can make this B vitamin in adequate amounts to meet human needs.
Which B-vitamin is required for amino acid metabolism?
The best vitamin B6 food sources include
Vitamins involved in red blood cell synthesis are
vitamin B12 and folate.
Which of the following is NOT a good source of vitamin D?
fruits and vegetables
Generally, good folate sources are
green leafy vegetables.
Acquiring sufficient vitamin B12 from the diet may be a problem to vegans because
it is only found in animal products.
If a supplement label includes a structure/function claim, it also must include
the FDA warning that these claims have not been evaluated by the agency.
Formation and maintenance of collagen requires
Scurvy can be prevented with adequate intakes of
Which of the following is an antioxidant?
The first option in ensuring an adequate intake of vitamins and minerals is
a healthy diet rich in vitamins and minerals.
The best sources of carotenoids include
pumpkin, carrots, squash, sweet potatoes, and apricots.
The vitamin that prevents beriberi is
Megadoses are defined as vitamin intake ________ times the estimated human need to prevent a deficiency.
Beta-carotene is an important precursor of vitamin D. T/F
Older people who exhibit anemia may have a vitamin B-12 deficiency. T/F
"Let the Upper Level be your guide" suggests that any supplement use should at least exceed the upper level set for the nutrient. T/F
Because numerous studies support the efficacy of vitamin E supplementation, health experts routinely recommend supplements of 200 milligrams (400 IU) per day. T/F
Some segments of the population especially benefit from routine use of a vitamin and mineral supplement. T/F
Intakes as little as three times needs for vitamin A may be toxic, especially in early pregnancy. T/F
Fat-soluble vitamins are generally lost more easily in cooking than are the water-soluble vitamins T/F
Water constitutes ______ percent of body weight.
In women, bone loss begins around age
Intracellular water volume depends primarily on the concentration of
phosphate and potassium.
The two most significant extracellular ions are
sodium and chloride.
Water regulates body temperature through heat loss via
The most effective treatment for preventing bone loss in those at risk for osteoporosis is
adequate bone building nutrients.
Joe is a wrestler and during his workouts he loses 2 pounds. How much water would he have to drink to replenish this water weight loss?
Which of the following is not true about the regulation of fluid in the body?
Thirst is a reliable indicator of how much water should be consumed to replenish body fluids.
The Beverage Guidance System recommends that fluids should provide ______ of total calories consumed.
less than 10%
Hypertension is defined as a systolic/diastolic blood pressure at or above ____ mm Hg.
Minerals are classified in which way?
Trace minerals are needed in amounts of 100 mg per day or less.
Which of the following statements does not describe the role of minerals in the body?
They provide 4 kcalories per gram.
Which of the following is true about mineral bioavailability?
minerals from animal products are better absorbed than those from plants
The typical American diet contains approximately ___ mgs of sodium.
2,300 to 4,700
Adult women need how much total water intake per day?
Consumption of a diet high in salt by a healthy individual will
increase urinary excretion of sodium
Which of the following would have the most sodium?
A prepared apple pie with filling from a can, bought in the store
Potassium performs all the following functions except which one?
It maintains the ability to see at night.
Lowering blood pressure is associated with which of the following minerals?
The AI for sodium for those under 51 years of age is
A severe iodide deficiency during early pregnancy may result in an infant afflicted with
Potassium is found in the largest quantities in
fruits and vegetables.
The major chloride source in the diet is
In the body, 99 percent of calcium is found in
bones and teeth.
Which of the following is not a function of calcium?
Oxalic acid can inhibit the absorption of
The most nutrient-dense calcium food source is
milk and dairy products.
Which would you expect to furnish the largest amount of calcium?
1 ounce of cheese
According to the RDA, the mineral that you need in the largest amount is
Phosphorus functions in all the following ways except which one?
It is important for blood glucose regulation.
The mineral that is least likely to be deficient in the American diet is
Which of the following food combinations would provide the most phosphorus?
Cheeseburger on whole wheat bun, cola
What is magnesium's primary function?
It is important for nerve and heart function.
Magnesium is provided in the diet primarily by
We get most of the sulfur in our diet from
Milk is a poor source of
iron and vitamin C.
In some cultures, pots and pans used in cooking may contribute some ____ to the diet.
The amount of iron in the body is mostly regulated by
absorption in the small intestine.
The best food source of iron is
Which of the following statements is true about iron?
Iron deficiency anemia is found among young children, adolescents, and menstruating women.
The best-absorbed iron source is found in which of the following foods?
A reduced sense of taste is associated with a deficiency of
The best zinc source is
A mineral that has antioxidant functions and has been suggested to reduce cancer risk is
Which of the following is true about selenium?
It acts as an antioxidant.
A goiter may form as a consequence of an inadequate intake of
Copper's functions consist of all the following except
thyroid hormone synthesis.
Which of the following is the best copper source?
The mineral that gives hardness to teeth and bones is
This mineral can be protective for the teeth when introduced into the water supply; however it can cause tooth mottling when consumed in high quantities.
A suboptimal intake of chromium in individuals in the United States may be linked to
impaired glucose tolerance.
Manganese functions as
a cofactor for many different enzymes.
You can survive longer without food than without water. T/F
When water evaporates from your skin, you feel cooler because evaporating water takes heat energy with it. T/F
"Major" minerals are more important to health than "trace" minerals. T/F
Certain vitamins need minerals to help perform their metabolic functions. T/F
Plant foods are usually the best sources of minerals. T/F
Sodium is often added to processed foods T/F
The exclusive role of calcium in the body is to contribute to bone development. T/F
Enriched grains contain less of many trace minerals than whole grains. T/F
Of the following groups, which have the least risk of becoming ill from foodborne illness?
Common symptoms of foodborne illness include
fever, diarrhea, vomiting
Sugar acts as a food preservative by
reducing the amount of free water in food.
Treating food with gamma radiation as a preservation method is called
Which of the following is true about food irradiation?
Irradiation can slow or limit the growth of insects, microorganisms, and parasites in food.
Food commonly associated with Staphylococcus aureus include(s)
meat, poultry, eggs.
Food commonly associated with Salmonella intoxication are
chicken and eggs.
All of the following are reasons why the risk of having foodborne illness is increasing except
the increasing use of food irradiation.
Aseptic processing involves
sterilizing the package and food separately and then packaging the food.
All of the following are good instructions for preventing foodborne illness except
when shopping, select meat, poultry, or fish first.
James operates a food service establishment. He should make sure his employees practice all of the following rules to prevent foodborne illness except
serving meals made with raw fish.
The best way to prevent the foodborne illness E. coli (Escherichia coli) is to
cook all meat thoroughly.
The greatest health risk from food today is contamination via
viruses and bacteria
Covering cuts or sores on hands and avoiding sneezing when handling food are important to prevent foodborne illness from
All of the following are true about ground meats except
With proper hand-washing, it is safe to eat raw hamburger.
____________ can cause spontaneous abortion or stillbirth because the bacteria can cross the placenta and infect the fetus.
The FIGHT BAC! food safety program includes the following tips for keeping food safe from bacteria:
clean, separate, chill, cook.
Which of the following statements is not true about the "Danger Zone"?
It includes the temperature range 65oF to 165oF
Experts speculate that about 70% of foodborne illness cases go undiagnosed because they result from ________ causes.
To avoid Salmonella contamination
store chicken at 40F and below
Most strains of E. coli are
All of the following are potential risks of pesticides except
increased food costs.
Which of the following agencies enforces wholesomeness and quality standards for meat?
Which of the following agencies regulates pesticides?
Environmental Protection Agency
To reduce exposure to pesticides,
wash and/or peel fruits and vegetables before eating.
When it comes to caffeine, all of the following are true except
heavy consumption leads to depression, decreased heart rate, and decreased mental alertness.
The Delaney Clause
prevents the intentional use as food additives of compounds shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals or humans.
You can usually tell from a food's taste, odor, or appearance if that food poses a risk for foodborne illness. T/F
Synthetic (man-made) chemicals are more harmful to health than those that occur naturally. T/F
Exposure to oxygen causes some foods to spoil. T/F
The duration of pregnancy normally is ______ weeks.
The organ that nourishes the fetus in the mother's womb is called the
The first trimester of pregnancy
is a time of particular importance to avoid nutritional deficiencies and insults to prevent harm to the fetus.
During the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, an average of ______ extra kcalories per day are needed.
Which of the following is a suggested practice as far as exercise and pregnancy are concerned?
Drink plenty of fluids
During pregnancy, it is particularly important to make sure to consume adequate
essential fatty acids, linoleic acid (omega-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (omega-3).
During the first trimester, a woman should gain ______ pounds.
1 to 3
The total weight gain goal of a desirable-weight pregnant woman is how many pounds?
25 to 35
Millie has a low pre-pregnancy body mass index, classifying her as underweight. Her weight gain goal should be how many pounds?
28 to 40
Sue has a high pre-pregnancy body mass index, classifying her as overweight. Her weight gain goal should be how many pounds?
15 to 25
A low-birth-weight infant weighs ______ pounds.
less than 5.5
Barb wants to make sure she gets adequate folate during her pregnancy. She should do which of the following?
Eat more ready-to-eat breakfast cereals.
The need for extra iron during pregnancy is greatest during which trimester(s)?
second and third
The best way for a calcium-deficient pregnant woman to get the calcium she needs is to consume
low-fat milk and cheese.
For most pregnancies, women need to consume supplemental
All of the following are true about prenatal supplements for pregnancy except
there is significant evidence that they are harmful.
Which of the following is true about lifestyle habits and pregnancy?
Repeated intake of four or more alcoholic drinks at one sitting harm(s) the fetus.
Carol has heartburn during her pregnancy. She should do all of the following except
lie down after she eats.
Rachel is pregnant and has morning sickness. She should do all the following except
eat large, less frequent meals.
During pregnancy, symptoms such as high blood pressure, excess protein in the urine, edema, changes in blood clotting, and nervous system disorders are associated with a condition called
Low iodide status during the first trimester of pregnancy may lead to
The hormone that triggers "let down" or milk release is
Which of the following is true about lactation?
The major reason why women do not breastfeed is lack of information
Which of the following statements is important for infant feeding?
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of a child's life.
Breast milk production requires approximately ____ kcalories per day?
All of the following are advantages to breastfeeding except
increased risk of developing food allergies.
Women suffering from chronic alcoholism produce children with a recognizable pattern of malformations called
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS).
Infants weighing less than 5.5 pounds (2500 grams) at birth are more likely to have medical problems than those weighing more than that. T/F
Pregnant women know instinctively what to eat. T/F
Breastfed infants suffer fewer infections than formula-fed infants. T/F
For a girl, undernutrition could be expected to have its greatest effect on height if it occurs
before the onset of menses.
The most sensitive indicator of long-term nutrient intake in a child is
Approximately one third of children in developing nations are short and underweight for their age. The most frequent cause is
weaning to high-carbohydrate, low-protein diets.
Brain growth is most rapid in infancy but stops by about what age?
The new WHO growth standards stress that _______________ is the biological norm for infant nutrition.
The greatest energy requirement per unit of body weight occurs during
Human milk provides ______ percent of kcalories from fat.
The fluid requirements of the infant are approximately __________ cups per day.
What vitamin routinely is given by injection to all infants at birth?
According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, the best age to introduce solid foods into the infant's diet is
4 to 6 months.
Egg whites should not be fed to children before 1 year of age because
early introduction may result in an allergic reaction.
The first solid foods usually introduced into an infant's milk diet are
Iron-deficiency anemia in the latter part of infancy is associated with
a diet containing few solid foods.
Infants need fat because it aids in absorption of several vitamins and also helps the ____________ to develop.
High-fiber diets are
not recommended for infants.
Weight gain during the second through about the eighth year of life is about ______ pounds per year.
Which foods would you suggest adding to the diet of a preschool child who needs increased iron intake?
The food needs of preschool children are relatively great and it may be important to
serve snacks daily in addition to meals.
Children will more effectively develop the breakfast eating habit if
parents eat breakfast with them.
For a child who follows a totally vegetarian diet, all of the following nutrients are of concern except
Which of the following is a reliable indicator of generally good nutrition status in young children?
Regular gains in height and weight
Absence of breakfast for children is associated with
decreased performance in school and decreased attention span.
Which of the following minerals may be low in the diets of adolescent girls?
Iron and calcium
Teenagers are at risk of deficiency in which of the following nutrients?
Calcium and iron
Adolescents obtain ______ percent of their energy and nutrient intakes from snacks.
25 to 33
Which of the following is true about teens and vegetable consumption?
Potato chips and French fries make up more than one-third of the vegetable intake of teens.
Approximately what percentage of obese adolescents become obese adults?
An infant's length increases by 50% in the first year. T/F
An infant's diet should be very low in fat. T/F
A child who has been undernourished for most of its life can still reach maximum height if fed properly. T/F
The foundation for a diet that optimizes long-term nutritional health emphasizes all of the following except
refined grain breads and cereals.
The best general approach to eating a health-promoting diet is to
follow the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and MyPyramid.
Joe's diet consists of the major contributors of kcalories to the adult diet in the United States. Which of the following does he tend to eat a lot of?
White bread, rolls, and crackers
Maggie switches to a health-promoting diet. This potentially will have the most impact on
quality of life in later years
Which of the following is not a Dietary Guideline for Americans?
Eliminate salt and sodium from the diet.
A mineral that is often deficient in adults' diets and is linked to bone health, muscle function, mental health, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes is
Currently, life expectancy in North America is about ______ years for men and ______ for women.
What is the principal cause of death in the United States?
Some researchers believe that damage to cells by electron-seeking compounds may contribute to the aging process. Which of the following nutrients does not protect cells from these compounds?
Which of the following is not a good predictor of physical health status in the elderly?
Compared to individuals aged 19 - 50, adults over the age of 70 need _____ times more vitamin D.
Bud has trouble with his dentures and problems chewing. Which of the following foods would be best to help meet his nutritional needs?
Which of the following is true about thirst among the elderly?
Elderly individuals can easily become dehydrated and this can cause confusion.
Mack is constipated. Safe recommendations include all of the following except
use mineral oil routinely and liberally.
Edna, at age 75, has found she does not tolerate milk products well. She should do which of the following?
Decrease the serving size of dairy foods.
The decrease in lean tissue that occurs with aging can best be prevented by
exercise and a weight training program.
Barbara is 65 years of age and her doctor finds her mental function is declining. Which of the following will not significantly impact this issue?
Taking nutrition supplements
Long-term aspirin use by an elderly person could increase the need for what nutrient?
All of the following can cause apathetic eating and weight loss except
participation in a congregate meal program
Which of the following does not decrease with aging?
Because elderly individuals need similar amounts of nutrients as their younger counterparts but less kcalories, they should focus on diet plans that emphasize
Elderly people should limit alcohol consumption due to all of the following except
increased risk of depression.
All of the following are practical suggestions for diet planning for singles except
buying family-sized packages of meat
Which of the following is true about alcohol consumption by the elderly?
Alcohol can interfere with the effect of medication in the body.
For those over 40 years of age, an exercise program should include all of the following except
exercise through the pain.
The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that those who choose to drink alcoholic beverages should do so in moderation, defined as the consumption of up to __ drink(s) per day for women and older adults and up to __ drink(s) per day for men.
For cancer prevention, which of the following dietary components should be limited?
Adults should aim to spend at least 30 minutes in moderate physical activity on most (or all) days of the week. T/F
Aside from having relatives who lived a long time, individuals who live to 100 generally do not smoke or drink heavily, and eat many fruits and vegetables. T/F
The health-care needs of people over age 65 account for more than half the healthcare costs in North America. T/F