101 terms

beekeeping final

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humans have been raiding honey bee colonies for
10,000 years
beekeeping and honey bee management is a
worldwide and ancient practice
honey bee hive designs have evolved over the years
true
the four main innovations in beekeeping are
bee space
wax foundation
bellowed smoker
radial extractor
rock painting at barranc Spain
4500 bc
ppl using ladder to collect honey
possible religous rite
rock painting at spider cave spain
10-15k years old
shows ppl climbing ropes carrying combs in bags
honey hunters in nepal
crazy ppl climbing up rocks
Honey robbing in 18th century Germany
Forest beekeepers would harvest honey through doors that they carved through the tree and sealed back over once they were done
Bee Traps
Made of bone
Capture one or couple of bees and close the door
Would release one at a time and would make a direct line home (B-Line)
honey guides
Several types of birds called honey guides
They are parasitic birds who lay eggs in others nests
Diet consists of insects, honey, and beeswax
They lead honey badgers to bees by playing a song that the honey badgers are fond of
Birds let the badger do the dirty work and then eat the leftovers
One species, the greater honeyguide is known to guide humans to bee nests in sub-saharan africa
Traditional Beekeeping
In ancient egypt they would use advanced calming methods for the bees
ndependent rise and spread of apiculture worldwide
Active beekeeping arose throughout the world and was spread
Clay and log hives
Tried giving hollowed out logs and clay jars
To live in these they have to fix the combs to the ceilings
Had backdoors
Lots of ppl dangled them above trees to avoid predators and stuff
Gum Hives
Type of upright log hive
Usually had a roof
Popular in 20th century
Box Hives
Very simple shelter with no support
Less primitive
Skep Hives
Synonymous with beekeeping today
Made from straw with support sticks to hold the combs
Inspected from the open bottom
Harvested honey by killing the colony
Advances on fixed-comb hive designs
Have a hole in the skep so that a honey super could be stored on top
Top bar hives
First moveable comb hive
Wood slats placed on top of a wicker basket or clay pot
Bee combs were on slats which could be moved which meant they didnt have to kill hive
Kenyan top bar hive
Fancy version of old method
Leaf Hives
Invented in switzerland by francois huber
Combs examined like pages in a book
First moveable-frame hive ever invented
Rev. Lorenzo Langstroth
Inventor of the modern day hive
Emphasized the importance of bee-space
Fixed comb hives
Now illegal to keep bees in fixed comb hives
This is to prevent the spread of disease
Wax Foundation
John mehring pressed wax between to engraved wood planks to create the first wax foundation
J.f. hetherington added wire for structural support
Bellowed Smoker
Moses quinby an american beekeeper invented a smoker that could aim and control the smoke to pacify the bees
Radial Honey extractor
Invented by Major Franz endler von hruskca
Named the smielatore or radial extractor to fling the honey from the combs without destroying them
bees were seen as a connection
to the afterlife and the supernatural
honey is involved in religious rituals since
it takes effort, is coveted, and rare
zeus
Kronos, the first king of gods, ate his children to protect his throne
His wife, rhea, hid her sixth born, zeus, in a cave on mount dicte, crete
When zeus grew up, he got kronos drunk with mead which made him throw up his siblings
melissae
On mount dicte, baby zeus was cared for by a sacred goat and sacred bees, known as melissae
Guards stood outside the cave and clanged their spears against their shields whenever zeus cried so that kronos couldn't hear him
Later, four men clad themselves in armore to enter the cave and steal the honey
Upon seeing zeus swaddling, their armor fell off and were attacked by the bees
Zeus took mercy though and turned them Into birds
dionysus and aristaeus
Dionysus, the god of mead, wine, and such and is credited to being the originator of beekeeping
Aristaeus was the god of bees and honey and taught them to be tame
cupid the honey thief
had to dip arrows in honey before shooting them
cerberus
guard dog of hades
had to toss honey cakes to enter the underworld
ox born bee
Common belief that bees spontaneously generated from dead oxen
Thought the king bees came from the marrow of the ox and the flesh made the common ones
Also believed that wasps derived from horses and beetles came from assess
tanging
Belief that swarms of bees would settle if a loud noise is made
Practice was common place in the British isles and roman culture
Bees cant hear, so they will congregate by the trees anyway when the pans are banged
honey in ancient egypt was common and cheap
false
honey bees and buddhism
honey comb offered by monkey to buddha
bees in the koran
Entire chapter on the importance of bees and what humans can learn from them
bees in the bible
58 references to honey
9 references to honey comb
10 to bees
Myrrh is a red brown resin from certain trees in eastern Africa-probably propolis
deborah is hebrew for wasp
false
the romans beleived that ppl should mirror the lifestyle of the bees
true
candles and the spread of christianity
• As Christianity spread so did beekeeping so they could have their candles
• February second, candlesmas, all the candles of the year were delivered
Saint Ambrose
• Patron saint of bees and beekeeping
• As a kid bees rested on his crib
• Wasn't harmed so it was deemed he was honey-tounged
bees have been a part of human culture for a short period of time
false
bees are usually portrayed in only one way
false
bees are beekeeping are excellent subjects for
metaphors and imagery
Tres Rich Heures
Jean Limbourogh
Snow covered straw skeps in background showing daily farm life
Every farm had bees
o Madchen bei der bienen ("With the bees") by curt liebich
Beautiful spring day back in the black forest
She is scared but enthralled about the bees and is cautious in approach
o Studio beehive: Bob Timberlake
Skep with buckets and smoker
The skep symbolizes the history of beekeeping better than the standard box
encaustic painting
Using molten beeswax as the medium of the art
Recently regaining popularity
sculpture
using beeswax in the casting of iron
death masks
old times tabloid masks made of beeswax
hives as art
particulary popular in the middle east
blake little
covered ppl in honey to simbolzize people being trapped in amber
the illiad
Uses bee expressions bout bees and honey but nothing about beekeeping
aesops fables
people mistake their friends and foes
bees and beekeepers are used as examples
arabian nights
bee wasp story
if you make honey you must be sweeter so he eats the bee
shakespeare
loved his bee metaphors
debating war on 2 fronts
compares english society to bee colony
bees were ideal type of society
neoclassical age
age of reason and the importance of bees became relevant
bee charactersitcs that ppl liked from bees
universality
timelessness
unchanging
honey bees were hated by industrial americans
false
War and Peace by Leo Tolstoy
people of moscow were listless and lost like a colony without a queen
huck finn by mark twain
"bees wont sting dumb people"
aa milne
pooh trying to find honey but was attacking hornet nest not hb nest
kit williams
wrote crazy poems and images of bees.
turned out to be clues about where to find buried treasure
Secret life of bees by sue monk kidd
little girl who runs away from home and is befriended by 3 black sisters
Emily Dickinson
wrote about one night stands
and complained about industrial times
eb white
song of the queen bee
breeding of the bee
nicky flynn
wrote collection of poems from the perspective of francois huber
proverbs
busy as a bee
what is good for the swarm is not good for the bee
bees can evoke multiple emotions from humans
true
there usually arent trade offs between biological and factual accuracy about bees with plot intent and other logistcal contrsaints
false
inaccuracies about bees can lead to pervasive misconceptions about their true behavior
true
flight of the bumblebee
uppace song about the life of the bumble bee
cartoons are the
best way to discuss problems of bees
beeman
shitty verison of ant man
movies
5 films in the 70s about africanzied bees
honey bees have been used indirectly and directly in war
true
classifying bee ownership and laws surrounding it are easy to define
false
symbol of lower egypt was the bee from
the first dynasty to the roman period
xenophons march
greek army who escaped persia eating honey and getting sick
mad honey
nectars from ericaeae are toxic to honey
mountain laurel honey
toxic honey in north carolina
summer of 2007 was particuallry bad
seneca and nero
seneca compared the queen bee to the human monarchy.

later nero ordered to commit suicide
bees and sieges
skeps were flung over the wall of castles
roman warships
roman navy would catapult beehives onto enemy ships
napolean bonparte
coat of arms included bees to signify unity and sacrifice
ww1
british indian army surprised by africanzied bees when trying to attack germans
ww2
rationing of sugar led to increase in use of honey
beeswax was used for multitude of things
25 hives equalled
1 cow
deferment could be attained by owning
300 hives
yellow rain
controversial chemical weapon possibly used in vietnam. no munitions recovered, unrelaible witnesses
apis dorsata
giant honey bee
bomb and drug bees
bees are excellent at picking up smells
17 of the 33 states of state insects have named the honey bee as its symbol
true
utah tried to name itself deseret which means bumble bee
false
fathers could kill thier sons if they didnt
eat milk and honey
magic figures were often made of beeswax
true
king alfred passed a law that every beekeeper must announce swarms by
ringing bells and clashing metals
queen elizabeth passed a wax law to prevent impurities being added the wac trade
true
law that bees gathering honey from anothers farm didnt have to pay fee
false
henry 3 declared that
every man shall likewise have the honey which shall be found in his woods