43 terms

PBIS Vehicles in Motion LS 2

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propulsion system
a set of parts that produces a force to make an object move forward
work
when a force exerted on an object causes the object to move in the same direction as the force
energy
the capacity to move something from an at rest position
kinetic energy
the energy associated with an object in motion
potential energy
the energy that is stored in an object as a result of its position or condition
example of propulsion system
propeller and rubber band on your car
equation for work
work=force x distance
4 examples of energy
potential, kinetic, thermal, and chemical
2 examples of kinetic energy
a person walking and a thrown ball
2 examples of potential energy
chemical energy in a battery and elastic enegy in a stretched rubber band
variable
a quality whose value may change over the course of an experiment
example of a variable
how many rubber bands you use
independent variable
in an experiment , the variable whose value is manipulated or changed by the experimentor to observe its effect on the dependent variable
example of an independent variable for your coaster car
wheels
example of an dependent variable for your coaster car
distance
dependent variable
in an experiment, a variable whose value changes when the value of an independent variable is changed
another name for a dependent variable
responding variable
another name for a independent variable
manipulated variable
controlled variable
in an experiment, the variables that are kept the same each time the procedure is performed
hypothesis
a prediction of what will happen between an independent variable and a dependent variab;e
trend
the general direction in which something tends to change
action force
a force exerted by one object on a second object
action forces are always equal and opposite the ___________________ ___________________
reaction force
reaction force
the equal, but opposite force exerted by the second object back on the first object in response to an action force
examples of action/reaction pairs
hammer hitting a nail and a bowling ball knocking over pins
3 examples of contact force
normal force, friction between floor and your car, and pushing your car
3 examples of non-contact force
gravity, electrical forces, and magnetic forces
contact force
a force that acts between 2 objects that are directly touching
non-contact force
a force that acts between objects that are not directly touching
spring scale
a tool used by scientists to measure the size of a force by how much it stretches a spring
symbol for newtons
N
newton
a unit of measurement for force
weightless
having little or no apparent gravitational pull
Newton's 1st Law of Motion (Law of Inertia)
Objects in motion stay in motion, objects at rest stay at rest unless acted on by an outside force
inertia
the tendency of an object to resist a change in motion (including changes to the object's speed, direction or state of rest) unless an outside force acts on the object
equation for momentum
mass x velocity
momentum
tendency of a moving object to continue moving
interval
intervening time or space
attraction
a force that draws objects together
weight
the force of gravity on an object
equation for weight
mass x gravity
mass
the amount of matter in an object
Newton's Second Law
Force = Mass x Acceleration