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34 terms

A&P 2: Chapter 19

Anatomy & Physiology 2 Lamar University Lecture-Armacost
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Basic Components (circulatory system)
fluid (blood), pump (heart), and tubes (blood vessels)
Circulatory System (functions)
includes: transporting oxygen and nutrients and hormones, transporting carbon dioxide and other metabolic wastes, regulating body pH and temperature, and protecting body from pathogens
Blood
is a type of connect tissue, consisting of a liquid extracellular matrix (plasma), and cells and cell fragments (formed elements)
Blood (components)
includes: blood plasma (liquid matrix), and formed elements (cells and cell fragments)
Formed Elements
include RBCs, Hematocrit, WBCs, and Platelets
Hematocrit
a formed element that is defined by the percentage of total blood volume occupied by RBCs
RBCs (anatomy)
include a biconcave disc, lack a nucleus, and contain hemoglobin molecules
RBCs (function)
specialized for oxygen transport, hemoglobin is the transport molecule.
Protein (globin)
contain 4 polypeptide chains
Heme Group
contain iron ion, and oxygen combines reversibly with iron.
RBCs (destruction)
macrophage cells in spleen and liver phagocytize these types of damaged cells; globin and heme groups are spilt apart, globin protein broken down into amino acids; heme group, iron removed and transported to red bone marrow by transport protein (transferrin), and non-iron portion of heme group converted to stercobilin and removed in feces
WBCs (anatomy)
contains a nucleus
WBCs (groups)
include granular and agranular
Neutrophils
granular cell: contain small granules, 2- to 5-lobed nucleus, and they phagocytosis of pathogens
Eosinophils
granular cell: contain large granules, 2-lobed nucleus, moderate inflammation at injury site, and they phaocytosis of pathogens
Basophils
graular cell: contain various sized granules, 2-lobed nucleus obscured by granules, and they intensify inflammation at site of injury or infection
Lymphocytes
agranular cell: contain a round nucleus, they aid in immune respone, and they include B-, T-, and Natural Killer-Cells
Monocytes
agranular cell: contain kidney-shaped nucleus, they migrate to various tissures and become macrophages, and they phagocytosis of pathogens
Agranular Cells
include Lymphocytes and Monocytes
Granular Cells
include Neutrophils, Eosinophils, and Basophils
B Cells
lymphocyte: attack bacterial cells
T Cells
lymphocyte: attack viruses and fungal cells
Natural Killer Cells
lymphocyte: attack a wide variety of pathogens
WBCs (function)
functions include protecting the body from pathogens, and is composed of plasma and formed elements
Hemopoiesis
includes the formation of formed elements of blood, occurs in red bone marrow in adults, and begins with pluripotent stem cells
Hemostasis
is a series of actions that stops bleeding, mechanisms include vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, and blood clotting
Vascular Spasm
is a contraction of smooth muscles in walls of arteries or arterioles in response to a nerve impulse from a pain receptor, or a chemical signal released from a platelet
Platelet Plug Formation
platelets adhere to blood vessel walls and aggregate to form a platalet plug, the platelets are loosely bound together
Blood Clotting
coagulation. is a series of chemical reactions that produces fibrin threads, and requires activity of several coagulation factors
Fibrin Threads
these tightly bind platelets and other formed elements together
Clot Retraction
consist of fibrin threads of blood clot contract, pulling clot together, and pulling damaged edges of blood vessels together
Clot Degradation
involves dissolving blood clots after tissue damage is repaired, and the digestion of fibrin threads by plasmin (fibrinolysin)
Platelets (anatomy)
includes cell fragments, cytoplasm enclosed by plasma membrane, and is non-nucleated
Platelets (function)
a formed element that functions in stopping blood loss, by means of the platelet plug formation and blood clotting