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Anatomy & Physiology 2 Lamar University Lecture-Armacost

Basic Components (circulatory system)

fluid (blood), pump (heart), and tubes (blood vessels)

Circulatory System (functions)

includes: transporting oxygen and nutrients and hormones, transporting carbon dioxide and other metabolic wastes, regulating body pH and temperature, and protecting body from pathogens


is a type of connect tissue, consisting of a liquid extracellular matrix (plasma), and cells and cell fragments (formed elements)

Blood (components)

includes: blood plasma (liquid matrix), and formed elements (cells and cell fragments)

Formed Elements

include RBCs, Hematocrit, WBCs, and Platelets


a formed element that is defined by the percentage of total blood volume occupied by RBCs

RBCs (anatomy)

include a biconcave disc, lack a nucleus, and contain hemoglobin molecules

RBCs (function)

specialized for oxygen transport, hemoglobin is the transport molecule.

Protein (globin)

contain 4 polypeptide chains

Heme Group

contain iron ion, and oxygen combines reversibly with iron.

RBCs (destruction)

macrophage cells in spleen and liver phagocytize these types of damaged cells; globin and heme groups are spilt apart, globin protein broken down into amino acids; heme group, iron removed and transported to red bone marrow by transport protein (transferrin), and non-iron portion of heme group converted to stercobilin and removed in feces

WBCs (anatomy)

contains a nucleus

WBCs (groups)

include granular and agranular


granular cell: contain small granules, 2- to 5-lobed nucleus, and they phagocytosis of pathogens


granular cell: contain large granules, 2-lobed nucleus, moderate inflammation at injury site, and they phaocytosis of pathogens


graular cell: contain various sized granules, 2-lobed nucleus obscured by granules, and they intensify inflammation at site of injury or infection


agranular cell: contain a round nucleus, they aid in immune respone, and they include B-, T-, and Natural Killer-Cells


agranular cell: contain kidney-shaped nucleus, they migrate to various tissures and become macrophages, and they phagocytosis of pathogens

Agranular Cells

include Lymphocytes and Monocytes

Granular Cells

include Neutrophils, Eosinophils, and Basophils

B Cells

lymphocyte: attack bacterial cells

T Cells

lymphocyte: attack viruses and fungal cells

Natural Killer Cells

lymphocyte: attack a wide variety of pathogens

WBCs (function)

functions include protecting the body from pathogens, and is composed of plasma and formed elements


includes the formation of formed elements of blood, occurs in red bone marrow in adults, and begins with pluripotent stem cells


is a series of actions that stops bleeding, mechanisms include vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, and blood clotting

Vascular Spasm

is a contraction of smooth muscles in walls of arteries or arterioles in response to a nerve impulse from a pain receptor, or a chemical signal released from a platelet

Platelet Plug Formation

platelets adhere to blood vessel walls and aggregate to form a platalet plug, the platelets are loosely bound together

Blood Clotting

coagulation. is a series of chemical reactions that produces fibrin threads, and requires activity of several coagulation factors

Fibrin Threads

these tightly bind platelets and other formed elements together

Clot Retraction

consist of fibrin threads of blood clot contract, pulling clot together, and pulling damaged edges of blood vessels together

Clot Degradation

involves dissolving blood clots after tissue damage is repaired, and the digestion of fibrin threads by plasmin (fibrinolysin)

Platelets (anatomy)

includes cell fragments, cytoplasm enclosed by plasma membrane, and is non-nucleated

Platelets (function)

a formed element that functions in stopping blood loss, by means of the platelet plug formation and blood clotting

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