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Anatomy & Physiology 2 Lamar University Lecture-Armacost


is located in the thoracic cavity, above the diaphragm, near the midline, slightly towards the left


is the serous membrane surrounding the heart, it anchors the heart while allowing it movement.

Fibrous Pericadium

first layer of the pericardium

Parietal Pericardium

second layer of the pericardium


third layer of the pericardium (epicardium)

Pericardial Cavity

is located between the parietal and visceral layers, and is filled with pericardial fluid

Heart Wall

is composed of 3 layers: epicardium, myocardium, and endocardium


heart wall layer: is considered both part of the percardium and the heart wall


heart wall layer: is composed of cardiac muscle tissue, is striated, and is mainly under involuntary control


heart wall layer: is an epithelial lining

Heart Chambers

Include atria, the first 2 chambers, and ventricles, the last 2 chambers


first 2 chambers of the heart, are small, and include a right and a left


last 2 chambers of the heart, are large, and include a right and a left

Atria (thickness/function)

have thin walls and they pump blood to adjacent ventricles

Ventricles (thickness/function)

has thick walls and they pump blood to lungs (rt. ventricle) or to body (lf. ventricle)


____ ventricle has thicker walls than ____ ventricle

Heart Valves (function)

includes preventing the backflow of blood

Atrioventricular Valves

heart valve set including Tricuspid Valve and Bicuspid Valve

Tricuspid Valve

is the right AV valve, and is located between the right atrium and ventricle

Bicuspid Valve

is the left AV valve, and is lovated between the left atrium and ventricle


AV valve is ____ when papillary muscles are relaxed, chordae tendineae are slack, and valve cusps project into ventricle


AV valve is ____ when papillary muscles contract, chordae tendinaea become taut, and prevention of vavle cusps from everting

Semilunar Valves

heart valve set including Pulmonary Valve and Aortic Valve

Pulmonary Valve

a semilunar valve, located between the right ventricle and pulmonary trunk

Aortic Valve

a semilunar valve, located between the left ventricle and aorta


semilunar valves contain 3 crescent moon-shaped cusps with ____ outer margins

Closed Circuits

the heart pumps blood in 2 ____ ____

Pulmonary Circuit

closed circuit at the right side of the heart, that received deoxygenated blood from body, and sends deoxygenated blood to the lungs

Systemic Circuit

closed circuit at the left side of the heart, that receives oxygenated blood from the lungs, and that sends oxygenated blood to body

Coronary Circulation

includes input from the coronary arteries and the coronary veins

Coronary Arteries

these surround the heart like a crown, contains many anastomoses, and carrys oxygenated blood to cardiac muscle

Coronary Veins

these return deoxygenated blood to the right atrium

Myocardial Ischemia

includes a reduced blood flow to myocardium caused by obstruction in a coronary artery

Myocardial Infarction

includes complete obstruction of blood flow leading to the death of cardiac muscle cells, causing decreased efficiency of heart or death

Cardiac Muscles

include: Contractile fibers and Autorhythmic fibers

Contractile Fibers

a cardiac muscle: similar to skeletal muscle (in structure and function), contract in response to action potentials, and joined by intercalated discs (desmosomes connect cells and gap junctions allow direct transmission of muscle action potentials btwn muscle fibers)

Autorhythmic Fibers

a cardiac muscle: generates action potentials (do not require a stimulus from the nervous system), and conducts action potential throughout the heart

Cardiac Cycle (establishment)

coordinates contraction of cardiac muscle in different parts of the heart (cardiac muscle in different parts of the heart contract at different times), includes systole and diastole

Cardiac Cycle 1

artia contract- atrial systole and ventricles in diastole

Cardiac Cycle 2

ventriles contract- ventricular systole and atria in diastole

Electrocardiogram (ECG/EKG)

composite of action potentials produced by all cardiac fibers, during contraction. includes 3 recognizable waves- p wave, qrs complex, and t wave

P Wave

small peak associated with atrial depolarization, atrial systole

QRS Complex

dip, strong peak, and second dip associated with ventricular depolarization, ventricular systole

T Wave

small peak associated with ventricular repolarization, ventricular diastole

Cardiac Output (CO)

volume of blood ejected from ventricle per minute

Stroke Volume (SV)

volume of blood ejected from ventricle per contraction

Heart Rate (HR)

number of heartbeats/contractions per minute

CO = SV x HR

CO = __ x __

Cardiac Output (regulation)

varies depending on metabolic demands both intrinsic and extrinsic factors can influence this, and it can be regulated by changing stroke volume or heart rate

Stroke Volume (intrinsic regulation)

frank-starling law of the heart states that as a heart chamber fills with blood cardiac muscle in heart wall are strecth, and the more they are stretched during diastole, the more forcefully they contract during systole, it equalizes input and output

Stroke Volume (extrinsic regulation)

stimulation by sympathetic division of ANS increases the strength of contraction by releasing epineprine and norepinephrine, which are neurotransmitters and hormones

Heart Rate (extrinsic regulation)

stimuation by sympathetic division of ANS increases HR by releasing norepinephrine, and stimulation by parasympathetic division of ANS decreases HR by releasing acetylcholine

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