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is located in the thoracic cavity, above the diaphragm, near the midline, slightly towards the left
is the serous membrane surrounding the heart, it anchors the heart while allowing it movement.
is located between the parietal and visceral layers, and is filled with pericardial fluid
heart wall layer: is composed of cardiac muscle tissue, is striated, and is mainly under involuntary control
has thick walls and they pump blood to lungs (rt. ventricle) or to body (lf. ventricle)
AV valve is ____ when papillary muscles are relaxed, chordae tendineae are slack, and valve cusps project into ventricle
AV valve is ____ when papillary muscles contract, chordae tendinaea become taut, and prevention of vavle cusps from everting
closed circuit at the right side of the heart, that received deoxygenated blood from body, and sends deoxygenated blood to the lungs
closed circuit at the left side of the heart, that receives oxygenated blood from the lungs, and that sends oxygenated blood to body
these surround the heart like a crown, contains many anastomoses, and carrys oxygenated blood to cardiac muscle
includes a reduced blood flow to myocardium caused by obstruction in a coronary artery
includes complete obstruction of blood flow leading to the death of cardiac muscle cells, causing decreased efficiency of heart or death
a cardiac muscle: similar to skeletal muscle (in structure and function), contract in response to action potentials, and joined by intercalated discs (desmosomes connect cells and gap junctions allow direct transmission of muscle action potentials btwn muscle fibers)
a cardiac muscle: generates action potentials (do not require a stimulus from the nervous system), and conducts action potential throughout the heart
Cardiac Cycle (establishment)
coordinates contraction of cardiac muscle in different parts of the heart (cardiac muscle in different parts of the heart contract at different times), includes systole and diastole
composite of action potentials produced by all cardiac fibers, during contraction. includes 3 recognizable waves- p wave, qrs complex, and t wave
dip, strong peak, and second dip associated with ventricular depolarization, ventricular systole
Cardiac Output (regulation)
varies depending on metabolic demands both intrinsic and extrinsic factors can influence this, and it can be regulated by changing stroke volume or heart rate
Stroke Volume (intrinsic regulation)
frank-starling law of the heart states that as a heart chamber fills with blood cardiac muscle in heart wall are strecth, and the more they are stretched during diastole, the more forcefully they contract during systole, it equalizes input and output
Stroke Volume (extrinsic regulation)
stimulation by sympathetic division of ANS increases the strength of contraction by releasing epineprine and norepinephrine, which are neurotransmitters and hormones
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