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362 terms

World Religion Final Exam

Cumulative Final
STUDY
PLAY
agnosticism
The position that holds that the existence of God cannot be proven.
animism
A worldview common among oral religions (religions with no written scriptures) that sees all elements of nature as being filled with spirit or spirits
atheism
The position that holds that there is no God or gods.
deconstruction
A technique, pioneered by Jacques Derrida, that sets aside ordinary categories of analysis and makes us, instead, of unexpected perspectives on cultural elements; it can be used for finding hidden values in text, film, art work, cultural practice, or religious phenomenon.
dualism
The belief that reality is made of two different principles (spirit and matter); the belief in two gods (good and evil) in conflict
immanent
Existing and operating within nature.
monotheism
The belief in one God.
nontheism
A position unconcerned with the supernatural, not asserting or denying the existence of any deity
pantheism
The belief that everything in the universe is divine.
polytheism
The belief in any Gods.
post-structuralism
Approach rejecting the search for universal structures and focused on individual elements in cultural phenomena.
structuralism
Looks for universal structures underlying language, religion, mythology and other human activities.
transcendent
Not limited by the physical world.
The Theologian
Who studies God?
The Literary Critic
Who studies sacred text?
The Historian
Who studies the facts within the larger context of history?
The Anthropologist
Who studies religion as a part of human culture?
The Sociologist
Who studies the way religion interacts with other dimensions of our social experience?
The Psychologist
Who explores the psychological dimensions of religious phenomena?
The Philosopher
Who reflects on the logic meaning and truth value of religious stories and beliefs?
The Pheneomenologist
Who merely describes, without trying to explain, interpret or judge religion?
Self Test Questions
Pay Close Attention
Ritual
Beliefs enacted and made real through ceremonies, certain objects or specialized locations or buildings define the characteristic of
Carol Gustav Jung
Which of the following is a Swiss psychologist who described religion as something that grew out of the individuals need to arrive at personal fulfilment, which he called individuation?
James Frazer
____is the Scottish anthropologist and author of "The Golden Bough" who saw the origins of religion in early attempts by human beings to influence nature and who identified religion as an intermediate stage between magic and science.
Immanent
A power existing and operating within nature's said to be
Dualism
Which of the following is the belief that reality is made of two different principles (Spirit and Matter); or the belief in two Gods (good and evil) in conflict?
God
One familiar term for the sacred reality, particularly in the Western World is
Philosophy
Which of the following is a common approach to religion that stresses following reason rather than religious authority and tries to fit answers into systematic whole?
Reconnecting
The world religion is usually interpreted by scholars to mean.
Nontheism
____does not assert or deny the existence of any deity and is unconcerned with the supernatural
E.B. Tylor
Which of the following is the 19th century and 20th century English anthropologist who saw religion as being rooted in worship of ancestors and nature spirits?
Point to some structure
Many scholars, especially between the late 19th century through the mid 20th centuries, or had that religious symbols
Sigmund Freud
___is the founder of the psychoanalysis who theorized that belief in a God or gods arose from an adults projection of powerful and long lasting childhood experiences with his or her parents
Emile Durkham
The French sociologists who argued that religious behavior is relative to the society in which it is found, and that a society will often use a religion to reinforce its own values, is
Ontology
The branch of philosophy that is concerned with the nature of reality is called ____
Transcendent
___means not limited by the physical world
Admit many types if beliefs and practices and stress social harmony
Religions that are inclusive frequently, (Hint:Christianity) Not an inclusive religion
Agnosticism
The position that holds that the existence of a God cannot be proven is
Animism
A word view common among indigenous religions that see all elements of nature as being filled with spirit or spirits is
world view
A synonym for a belief system is__ implies several beliefs fitting together into a fairly complete and systematic interpretation of the universe and harmony's place in it
symbol
A (n)___ is something fairly concrete and ordinary that can represent and help human beings intensely experience something of greater complexity
ahimsa
The term meaning non-harm or nonviolence.
ashram
A spiritual community.
Atman
The spiritual essence of all individual human beings.
avatar
An earthly embodiment of a deity.
Bhagavad Gita
A spiritual classic in Hinduism that is a conversation between Arjuna and Krishna preserved in the Mahabharata.
bhakti yoga
The spiritual discipline of devotion to a deity or guru.
bhakti
Devotion to a deity or guru.
Brahma
God of creation.
Brahman
The spiritual essence of the universe.
brahmin
Member of the priestly caste in Hinduism.
caste
One of the major social classes sanctioned by Hinduism.
Devi
"Goddess"; the Divine Feminine, also called the Great Mother.
dhyana
Meditation or the experience of the mind focused only on the object of concentration.
Durga
"Awe-inspiring,""distant"; a goddess that is a form of Devi.
guru
Spiritual leader.
hatha yoga
The spiritual discipline of postures and bodily exercises.
jnana yoga
The spiritual discipline of knowledge and insight.
Kali
A form of Devi; a goddess associated with destruction and rebirth.
karma yoga
The spiritual discipline of selfless action.
karma
The moral law of cause and effect that determines the direction of rebirth.
Krishna
A god associated with divine playfulness; a form of Vishnu.
kundalini yoga
The spiritual discipline of moving energy up through the chakras.
mantra
A short sacred phrase, often chanted or used in meditation.
maya
"Illusion."
moksha
"Liberation" from personal limitation, egotism, and rebirth.
puja
Offerings and ritual in honor of deity.
raja yoga
The "royal" discipline of meditation.
Rama
A god and mythical king; a form of Vishnu.
samadhi
A state of complete inner peace resulting from meditation.
samsara
The everyday world of change and suffering, leading to rebirth.
sannyasin
A wandering holy man.
Shiva
A god associated with destruction and rebirth.
Trimurti
"Three forms" of the divine; the three gods Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva.
Upanishads
Written meditations on the spiritual essence of the universe and the self.
Vedas
Four collections of ancient prayers and rituals included in Hindu sacred scripture.
Vishnu
A god associated with preservation and love.
yoga
A spiritual discipline; a method for perfecting one's union with the divine.
anatman
"no-atman" or "non-self"; rejection of Hindu concept of atman, or an essential, unchanging interior entity at the center of a person
Amitabha/Amida
the name of a Buddha who created a Pure Land doctrine and practice that featured chanting his name
arhat
an enlightened disciple of the Buddha
bhikkhuni
Buddhist nuns
Bodh Gaya
temple built at the site where the Buddha was enlightened under the bodhi tree
bodihisattva
Mahayana Buddhism's model Buddhist will not attain final Nirvana until all beings are enlightened
Buddha nature theory
a Mahayana school that said if nirvana and samsara cannot be separated, then nirvana must interpenetrate all reality, therefore all beings have a portion of nirvana and so possess the latent potential for its realization
caitya
a stupa or any Buddhist shrine
dana
the first stage in punya, a merit-making donation, "dana" means "self-less giving" to diminish desire
dependent origination
Buddhist doctrine that views reality as an ongoing, impermanent, and interdependent flux in the form of a circle divided into 12 parts
Dharma
the teachings of the Buddha
Eightfold Path
comprises eight ways of thinking and acting that can be categorized as morality, meditation, and wisdom
"engaged Buddhism"
a movement started by Thich Nhat Hanh that asserts that when faced with the inevitable suffering in the world, Buddhists must take action and engage their society
enlightenment
the elimination of ignorance, which completely clears the mind to see reality as it truly is
Four Good Deeds
a doctrinal statement that provides guidance for how to live, aimed at the laity
Four Noble Truths
a diagnosis of the human condition and a prescription for liberation, which involves following the Eightfold Path
koan
a paradoxical word problem given to disciples that can lead to small awakenings or nirvana
Lotus Sutra
popular Buddhist scripture in East Asia, develops the Mahayana doctrine of cosmic Buddhahood
Madhyamaka
deconstructive philosophically based school of thought founded by Nagarjuna
Mahayana
name given to the Great Vehicle division when the sangha aligned under two main divisions after the death of the Buddha
mizuko cult
Japanese cult organized to seek the forgiveness of the spirits of aborted fetuses, from Kannon devotionalism
nirvana
the final state of liberation
Pali Canon
the only complete version of the Buddha's teachings, recited and corrected at the Fifth Buddhist Council in 1871
prajna
insight or wisdom - the full development of prajna is essential to salvation
"Protestant Buddhism"
modern reformation of Buddhist tradition begun in colonial Ceylon
punya
the merit system for measuring spiritual advancement
PureLand
a form of Mahayana Buddhism founded in India but spreading more widely to China and then Japan; it promoted deferring enlightenment-seeking from the human state until rebirth in a heaven; must rely on "other power" of celestial Buddhas to reach nirvana
sangha
Buddhist monastic community
shramana
a person who pursues ascetic practices in seeking enlightenment
skandha
the five aggregates making up a human being
stupa
relic mound shrines, eight of which contain ashes of the Buddha
Theravada
name given to the elder traditionalists, or Sthaviravadins, when the sangha aligned under two main divisions after the death of the Buddha
Three Marks of Existence
suffering, impermanence, and non-self
Three Refuges
a recitation used to mark conversion to Buddhism, to affirm one's devotion, or to start Buddhist rituals; the Buddha, the Dharma, and the sangha
Thunder Vehicle
a branch of Mahayana Buddhism, also called tantra; emphasized realizing salvation fast and in this lifetime
Vajrayana
another name for the Thunderbolt Vehicle branch of Mahayana Buddhism
vipassana meditation
a form of meditation emphasized by the Theravada school
Zen
formed as Ch'an in China; reaching nirvana is an individual effort; stresses meditation as the means
SELF TEST
PAY CLOSE ATTENTION
China
By the year 100 CE, Buddhism had an entered ____ through Central Asia on the silk routes.
Mahayana
The earliest and strongest Euro-American contact with Buddhism in the early 20th century was with the __ branch of Buddhism.
Dalai Lama
The most recognized Buddhist in the world today and a Noble Peace Prize winner is the 14th __
Theravada and Mahayana
The first two main divisions of Buddhism were:
Seven weeks
How long did the Buddha remain under the bodhi tree experiencing nirvana?
A hungry child
The "four passing sights" Siddhartha encountered did NOT include
Meditation
Zen is derived from a word referring to one of the steps in the Eightfold Path, whose meaning is
About forty years
For how long did the Buddha teach after he discovered nirvana?
Sangha
The new institution that the Buddha created in India was the
Only some people suffer
Which one of the following is NOT one of the Four Noble Truths?
Arhats
The enlightened disciples of the Buddha in the Theravada tradition were called?
Dukkha
____refers to sorrow, suffering, or misery.
Lama
A__is Tibetan Buddhist teacher, often a monk.
Stupa
A__is ashrine, usually in the shape of a dome, used to mark Buddhist relics of sacred sites.
Is to still desire and dispel ignorance
The most desirable effect of meditating on the three characteristics of existential reality is
Oldest
How does Buddhism compare to the other missionary religions?
India
The Dalai Lama's government lives in exile in the country of
An extensive migration of Tibetan Buddhists teachers into almost almost every country in the world.
Some "good" to come out of the exile and persecution of the Tibetan Buddhists by the Chinese government has been
Meditation techniques
The amazing global diffusion of Buddhism after WWII was because Westerners were drawn to Buddhisms
Dependent origination
The Buddhist doctrine that view reality as an ongoing, impermanent, and interdependent flux in the form of a circle is called
Sri Lanka
In the holy land of South Asia where the Buddha was born, enlightened, and died, in which country has Buddhism remained strong?
Anatman, nonself
The unique Buddhist concept of __ says that there is no essential, unchanging interior entity at the center of a person.
Lotus Sutra
One of the most popular Mahayana Buddhist scriptures in East Asia and the one that shifts the religious ideal from the arhat to the Bodhisattva is called the __
Vajrayana, tantric
In the Himalayan region, it was __ Buddhism that found supremacy
Bhutan
__is the world's only nation, at the present time, that has Tibetan Buddhism asits state religion.
Nirvana
The state of __ means freedom and existence in an eternal state beyond all material description.
Insight/wisdom
The word "prajna" refers to
Zen
The Bodhidharma is the religious ideal as set forth in which form of Buddhism
Ashoka
Buddhists have a history of using the legend of which king to define their exemplary relationship with rulers as protectors and patrons?
Thich Nhat Hanh
The name most associated with "engaged Buddhism" is
A common reverence for the 3 refugees
While Buddhism has never been a unified religion either doctrinally or institutionally; one unifying element in the early days when the various schools were being found was.
China
Easy E By the year 100 CE, Buddhism had entered __ through Central Asia on the silk routes.
Sangha
The Three Refugees include the Buddha, the Dharma, and the __
Pali Canon
The Buddhist official sacred scripture that has the three divisions that total about twice the size of the Christian bible is called the
Mahayana
The earliest and strongest Euro-American contact with Buddhism in the early 20th century was with the __ branch of Buddhism
Mindfulness
Buddhism goes beyond the Hindu practice of trance, or Samadhi in teaching that __ meditation, or Vipashyana, is required to achieve Nirvana realization.
China, India, the Middle East
Three of the centers of civilization in the ancient world where the great world religions emerged are
*The ideal of life is balance and harmony
*The ultimate is referred to as the Dao
*The art of wu wei and the practice of li both aim to help the individual
In the religions of harmony
Daoism and Confucianism
The two religions that emerged in China to deal with disharmony were
To eliminate desire and achieve liberation from rebirth
In the religions of liberation, the primary goal of religion is
Old Testament
Christianity's (inside) term for what religious studies (outside) scholars call the Hebrew Bible is
Story
In the religious of history, the central metaphor of religious expression is
Sin
In the myths of history, the problem of life is considered to be
Abraham
Judaism, Christianity, and Islam all trace their origins back to patriarch
The vehicle for encountering ultimate reality
In the religions of history, time is seen as
Sara
Which person from the Hebrew Bible is NOT considered part of Islam's genealogy?
True
By definition, monotheists choose one God to the exclusion of all others.
False
In the myths of history, time is the enemy.
True
In the myths of history, the problem in life is "sin."
False
It is not important to look at diversity of religious expression to understand human religiousness.
True
In premodern culture religion payed the decisive role in explaining and ordering life.
False
In modern culture religion played the decisive role in explaining and ordering life.
True
In the modern period, religion tends to be viewed as a matter of personal faith or opinion rather than objective knowledge.
True
According to the Abrahamic Religions, the ideal of life is living in harmony with the will of God.
False
Judaism is the largest of the great world religions.
False
In Judaism, the problem of life is time.
True
Christianity began as a Jewish sectarian movement.
True
Muslims look to Muhammad and the QUR'an as Jews look to Moses and the Torah.
False
Muhammad was born around the same year as Jesus.
True
Judaism proclaims that God entered history with the giving of the law and commandments to Moses.
False
The foundational narrative of Christianity is that Jesus is co-eternal with God.
Living in harmony with the will of God
According to Judaism, the ideal of life is
613 Commandments
According to Judaism, the way of life that God gave Israel to follow is embodied in the
Enlightenment and the Holocaust/founding of the state of Israel
The two constellations of events that have shaped modern Judaism above all else are the
Story of the Exodus
The great founding story from which Judaism draws its identity is the
David
The king who first established Israel as a great nation was
History
To understand the God of Israel, you would look to
Solomon
The king who built the first temple to show that Israel was the greatest nation was
Pharisees
Which group of Jews selected the scriptures that became the Tanakh, or the Hebrew Bible?
Jews dispersed throughout the Empire
The word "Diaspora" refers to
Passover
Which Jewish holiday recalls God's liberation of Jews from Egypt?
Rosh Hashanah
Which holiday represents the Jewish New Year?
Jerusalem
The word "Zion" is an ancient biblical term that referred to what city?
Audacity
Which of the following most closely defines the word "chutzpah"?
Reform
Which one of the following Jewish communities would embrace the ritual of bat mitzvah?
Named
During the ritual of Bris milah, the male child is circumcised and
7 Days
After the burial of a loved one who has died, the immediate family of mourners remains at home for how long?
False
Judaism is the largest of the great world religions.
False
In Judaism the problem of life is time.
True
The dual Torah refers to the sacred oral and written teachings concerning God's revelation to his people.
False
None of the modern forms of Judaism have anything in common.
True
The ultra-Orthodox movement seeks to totally separate from all modernizing forms of Judaism and also the surrounding gentile world.
False
The ultra-Orthodox consider all other forms of Judaism to be equal in their Jewishness.
True
To understand who the God of Israel is, you should look to history as the story of the Jewish people's journey through time.
False
It was King David's son Solomon who established Israel as a nation.
True
The gradual move toward a monotheistic view began for the people of Israel in the 8th century BCE.
False
Jewish writings were canonized and placed into final form before the first century CE.
False
The story of exile and return is not currently a part of Jewish thought.
False
The Pentateuch refers to the wisdom literature found in the Hebrew Bible.
True
It is the covenant at Sinai that makes Israel Israel.
False
The Torah dictates that circumcision is negotiable for male children born to Jewish mothers.
True
After a boy becomes a bar mitzvah at age 13, he is considered to be an adult and can be part of a minyan
Holocaust
Since the _______, the majority of Jews worldwide reside either in Israel or in the U.S.
Reform
Of the three modernist forms of Judaism, the most liberal form in embracing modern secular life is _______.
Rabbi
A teacher of Torah is called a _______.
Israel
The word _______ means "wrestler with God."
Pentateuch
The Torah is also known as the _______, or five books attributed to Moses.
Prophets
It was with the _______ that Jewish monotheism became fully formed, with their teachings beginning in the 8th century BCE.
Covenant
In the 5th century BCE, Jewish leaders preached to the people that they must rededicate themselves to the _______ and separate themselves from their neighbors.
Exile, Return
With the "priestly reform," Judaism adopted the experience of _______ and _______ as the normative pattern through which to interpret all its future experiences.
Circumcised, Named
Every Jewish male child is _______ and ______ when he is 8 days old.
Minyan
A _______ is composed of at least 10 adult males and is required for any Jewish worship service.
Tanakh
Not until the end of the first century did the _______, or Bible of Judaism, come into existence.
Exile
While the Exodus is considered to be the founding event of Judaism, the _______ is considered to be its formative event.
Israel
When Jacob wrestled with God and prevailed, he received a new name from God: _______.
Covenant
It is the _______ at Sinai that defines Jewish people more than anything else.
Passover
The holiday of _______ celebrates the liberation and redemption of the Exodus.
Act in harmony with the will of God
In Christianity, the highest goal in life is to
One-third
Christians represent how much of the world's population?
Judaism
The Old Testament of Christianity is really adopted from the sacred writings of what religion?
Mark
Which of the four Gospels was most likely written first and used as a model?
Hope
At a time when Roman rule oppressed the people and they could only see injustice, suffering, and death, the message from Jesus' life offered them, above all else
Jewish sectarian movement
Christianity began as a
Apocalyptic
The Nazarenes were characterized as being
367
The 27 books of the Christian Scriptures (New Testament) came into their present form in the year
Nicaea
Which early council decided that the Word was the same as God?
John
Which of the four Gospels is believed to have been written last and is radically different in tone, content and structure than the other three Gospels?
Romans
Historians have pointed out that only one group at the time had enough power to cause Jesus' crucifixion. This group was the
Communion
Which sacrament was an adaptation of the Jewish blessing of the bread and wine at the Passover meal?
To compete with the popular pagan festival honoring the sun God
Why was December 25 chosen as the birthday of Jesus?
False
The highest goal of life in Christianity is to learn from history.
False
Christianity is known for a peculiar absence of diversity.
False
Christianity is the third largest religion in the world today.
True
It was more than 300 years after Jesus' life before the Christian Scriptures (New Testament) came into the form that we have now.
False
Matthew, Luke, and John all used Mark's material as a model in writing their versions of the life of Jesus.
False
The Gospel of John was the earliest New Testament writing.
False
Each Gospel had a single author, of whom we know for certain the identity.
True
Christianity began as a Jewish sectarian movement.
False
The Jews and the Romans were equally powerful enough to cause the crucifixion of Jesus.
False
The Pharisees were the first Christians.
True
Early Christians blamed the Jews for the death of Jesus, a view that contributed to the persecution of Jews throughout much of Western history.
Sin
Idolatry and injustice are two dimensions of _______.
Christian Scriptures or New Testament
The sacred scriptures of Christianity are found in the _______ _______.
John
Of the four gospels, the one that is different in tone, content, and structure from the other three is the Gospel of _______.
Christ
Christians believe that sacred scriptures show that Jesus of Nazareth is the _______, or the anointed one or messiah.
Romans
The _______ condemned Jesus to die because they thought he was an enemy of the state.
Hope
The life of Jesus provided people with _______ that their own suffering and death could be overcome in the resurrection.
Christianity
_______ began as a Jewish sectarian movement.
*Submission or Surrender; An Arab who follows God
1. "Islam" means

2. Which of the following does NOT necessarily describe a Muslim?
The second largest of the world's religions
In size, Islam is
Sara
Which person from the Hebrew Bible is NOT considered part of Islam's genealogy?
Original sin
Which of the following is NOT a Muslim belief?
Losing major territories, including a holy city, to Israel
"The disaster," as it is known in Muslim literature and consciousness, that triggered a period of doubt and self-examination in the 1970s was about
Cairo
Which of the following is NOT a holy city to Muslims?
The fastest growing religion
In America and Europe, Islam is
To strive or struggle
The word "jihad" means
Muhammad and the Qur'an
As Christians look to Jesus and the New Testament and Jews look to Moses and the Torah, Muslims look to
Polytheistic tribal
(w) Which of the following describes pre-Islamic Arabian society and religion?
Earning profit in business transactions
Which of the following was NOT condemned by Muhammad?
Prophet and reformer
Muhammad saw his relationship to the religion of Islam as that of
Force and diplomacy
What means did Muhammad use to defeat the Meccans and unite the tribes of Arabia under the banner of Islam?
*Arbiter and judge
*Political and military leader
*Merchant
Which of the following was a role played by Muhammad in the early Muslim community?
a. arbiter and judge
b. political and military leader
c. merchant
* d. all of the above
Assertion of the rights of the tribe
Which of the following was NOT a consequence of the revelation of Islam?
Death and resurrection of Jesus
Which of the following is NOT a teaching of the Quran?
He forcibly converted them to Islam
Which of the following is NOT true of Muhammad's relationship with the Jews?
Changed the direction of prayer from Jerusalem to Mecca
When the Jewish population of Medina did not convert to Islam, Muhammad instituted which of the following?
Interpret or reinterpret Islam or Islamic law
Ijtihad means to
Paying a special tax
A condition of dhimmi, or having protected status, was
Portraiture and statuary became major art forms
Which of the following is NOT true of Islamic civilization?
It is a chronological account of human history
Muslims believe all of the following about the Quran EXCEPT
The emigration of the early Muslim community from Mecca to Medina
The hijra is
Difference in opinion over who should lead the Muslim community following Muhammad's death
Sunnis and Shiahs split due to a
The ayatollah is the infallible religious leader of the Muslim community
Shiahs believe all of the following EXCEPT
85 percent Sunni-15 percent Shiah
The proportions of Sunnis and Shiahs respectively are
Tawhid
Which of the following is NOT a source of Islamic law?
Jihad
Which of the following is NOT one of the Five Pillars of Islam?
Food, drink, sex
Muslims are required to fast from dawn to dusk during the month of Ramadan, abstaining from
Atleast once in a lifetime
Assuming the Muslim is physically and financially able, the pilgrimage to Mecca is expected to be done
Maintaining guardianship over children until they reach adulthood
Women's rights granted by the Quran included all of the following EXCEPT
.
A civil contract legalizing intercourse and the procreation of children
Marriage according to Islam principles can best be described as
Islamic religious scholarss
The ulama are
Producing a religious synthesis of mysticism and orthodoxy
Muhammad al-Ghazali, in the early 12th century, most likely prevented the demise of Sufism by
2.5 percent of one's accumulated wealth and assets
Following the third pillar of Islam, almsgiving, requires a Muslim to contribute annually
Pope Urban II and Christian rulers
The Crusades were actually launched by
Jamaat-i-Islami and Muslim Brotherhood
The two major Islamic revivalist movements in the Middle East and South Asia in the 1930s were
American Muslim Mission
The African-American Islamic movement in America that has the largest number of followers and does not practice black separatism or preach black nationalism is
Restoration of the caliphate
Which is NOT an issue of debate for contemporary Islamic reformers?
False
Of the three major monotheistic religions, only Judaism and Christianity share a belief in one God.
False
Presently, the vast majority of Muslims live in Arabia.
True
Ijtihad means to interpret or reinterpret Islam or Islamic law.
False
Throughout history it has been rare for Islamic law to impact the society around it.
True
One reason why some of the Muslim world has autocratic rulers now can be traced to the time after WWII when nation-state boundaries were arbitrarily drawn and rulers were appointed by Europeans.
False
Muslim areas of the world were not affected by European colonialism until the 21st century.
False
During the 1960s and 1970s, Islam went through a difficult time, losing tremendous ground in Muslim societies as they became more Westernized and secular.
False
Islam's formative period was the time just before Muhammad was born.
True
Islam is the fastest-growing religion in North America and Europe.
False
It is more important in Islam to participate in almsgiving than to believe in God and Muhammad.
True
No prophet has played a greater role in any world religion and in world politics than Muhammad.
False
In the tribal polytheism that Muhammad was born into, individual identity was placed above all else.
True
The beliefs of tribal polytheism were concentrated on this world and not concerned about an afterlife.
False
Muhammad was born around the same year as Jesus.
False
Muhammad was 20 when he received the first revelation at Mount Hira.
False
After Muhammad started receiving revelations, the path of preaching to others was smooth sailing.
True
By the age of 30, Muhammad was held in high regard as a trustworthy, skilled businessman in Mecca.
False
After 10 years of preaching, Muhammad and his followers moved from Mecca to Cairo.
False
Muhammad used only force to defeat the Meccans.
True
To create a more distinctive identity for Islam when the Jews did not willingly convert, Muhammad changed the direction of prayer.
False
Muslims believe, like Jews and Christians, that Islam is the newest of the monotheistic traditions.
False
The Quran denies that Jesus was a prophet or has any special status.
True
Muslims believe that the Quran is taken from an Arabic tablet that preexists with God in heaven.
False
The sacred language of Islam is Greek.
True
Translations of the Quran have only occurred in the past century.
False
Sunni Muslims comprise the minority of worldwide Muslims.
False
The ulama are Shiah peasants.
False
There is only one source of Islamic law - the Sunnah.
True
The Umayyad dynasty was responsible for the emergence of imperial Islam.
True
Of the Five Pillars of Islam, the first one, The Declaration of Faith, is the most important for being a Muslim.
False
The Quran didn't say anything about the status of women.
False
The term "Sufism" comes from the dance, whirling dervish, that Sufis are known for.
True
The Crusades were initiated by Christian rulers.
False
The largest Muslim population in Western Europe is in Germany.
True
Muslims trace their roots back to Abraham and his son Ismail.
More Review Questions
From Past Exams
Philosophy
Which of the following is a common approach to religion that stresses following reason, or critical thinking, rather than religious authority, and tries to fit answers into a systematic whole?
E.B. Tylor
The early anthropologist who saw religion as rooted in a belief in spirits and the worship of them was
The valuable role that religions play in helping people find meaning in their lives.
Sigmund Freud, when analyzing the origin of religion, emphasized
Scriptures are collections of oral traditions and narratives that were important to communities in their formative periods, then later made authoritative by a process called canonization.
Which of the following can be said about the origins of sacred scriptures in the academic study of religions?
Discuss
For 10 points, offer your best description of the term, "Religion," in the space provided below. (Hint: Do your best to describe the contents of "Religion.")
Belief Analysis
Scholars of religions use all of the following methods in religious studies. EXCEPT:
Sociology
The study discipline that considers how religious practice and/or religious worldview(s) impact social life, laws, and group power dynamics or politics is
God
All of the following elements are required for a system to qualify as a religion EXCEPT:
Literary Criticism
The analytical scholarship tool that studies written texts of religion and even non-written material as reflections of the cultural values and historical narratives that produced them is called
The study of cultures over time and the narratives that define who and how they are in our day.
Reduced to one short phrase, the academic study of religion, or religious studies is: (choose the BEST answer)
Theravada and Mahayana
The first two main divisions of Buddhism were
A hungry child
The "four passing sights" Siddhartha encountered did NOT include
"Waking up" to reality
The root meaning of the term "Buddha" comes from
Sangha
The new institution that the Buddha created in India was the
The world of rebirth and suffering
The word "samsara" refers to
Only some people suffer
Which one of the following is NOT one of the Four Noble Truths?
A common reverence for the Three Refugees
While Buddhism has never been a unified religion either doctrinally or institutionally, one unifying element in the early days when the various schools were being founded was
To still desire and dispel ignorance
The most desirable effect of meditating on the three characteristics of existential reality is
It is the oldest
How does Buddhism compare to the other missionary religions?
Sri Lanka
In the holy land of South Asia where the Buddha was born, enlightened, and died, in which country has Buddhism remained strong?
India
The Dalai Lama's government lives in exile in the country of
Nonself
The unique Buddhist concept of __ says that there is no essential, unchanging interior entity at the center of a person.
Dalai Lama
The most recognized Buddhist in the world is the Nobel Peace Prize winner and the 14th
7 days
How long did the Buddha remain under the bodhi tree after experiencing nirvana?
Arhats
The enlightened disciples of the Buddha in the Theravada tradition were called
Five
According to Buddhist doctrine, a human being is a continuously changing, interdependent relationship between how many skandhas (aggregates or processes)?
Tantra (Tibetan)
The common name for Vajrayana Buddhism is
Monastic community
The word "sangha" refers to
Sangha
The Three Refuges include the Buddha, the Dharma, and the __
Nirvana
The state of__ means freedom and existence in an eternal state beyond all material description.
Discuss
Discuss the significance of the "Middle Way," the term from the Buddha's first sermon, in Buddhist philosophy