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Most people think of bureaucrats in a ________ sense.


Based on studies cited by public administration scholar Charles Goodsell, what does he say
about government employlees?

very hard workers who are motivated by the recognition of the importance of public service.

Almost ________ of both state and local public servants have a bachelor's degree.


How many people are employed in the United States as national, state, and local bureaucrats?

23 million

Those workers who do the work of government but don't get a government paycheck are
known as ________ bureaucrats.

shadow bureaucrats

Weber coined the word bureaucracy to describe large organizations with what four features?

division of labor, specialization of job tasks, hiring systems based on workers competency, hierarchy with a vertical chain of command, and standard operating procedures.

Besides governments, what other large organizations possess bureaucracies?

colleges and universities

What factors do political scientists use to distinguish among national bureaucrats?

process by with they are hired, procedures by which they can be fired, and grounds for which they can be fired.

When was the civil service created in the United States?


Before the establishment of the civil service, what system of hiring was employed to staff the
federal bureaucracy?

The president appointed officials through the patronage system.

What is the name given to the book, published every four years, that lists the federal
positions available through presidential patronage?

the plum book

What is the biggest downside to patronage positions in the federal bureaucracy?

no job security

Which president approved the Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883, which authorized the
creation of a merit-based civil service system for the national government?


What three things are the hiring principles of the merit-based civil service system?

open competition, competence, political neutrality

When was the Civil Service Reform Act passed?


Today, what percentage of federal civil service jobs are merit-based?


What criterion determines a federal job's salary?

knowledge, skills, and ability need to do the job

Which title of the 1964 Civil Rights Act prohibits discrimination in personnel practices based
on race, color, ethnicity, age, and disabilities that can be reasonably accommodated?

title VII

Which title of the 1964 Civil Rights Act prohibits discrimination in federally-funded
educational opportunities based on race, color, ethnicity, age, and disabilities that can be
reasonably accommodated?

title VI

What is another word for poor work quality for which a federal employee may be fired?


What is another word for nonperforming of work for which a federal employee may be fired?


What is another word for violating rules or regulations that guide their work for which
federal employees may be fired?


Over the last several decades, the Hatch Act of 1939 has been modified to ________ the
restrictions on civil servants' political activities.


Which president proposed the civil service reforms that led to passage of the Civil Service
Reform Act of 1978?


What three independent administrative agencies were created as a result of the passage of the
Civil Service Reform Act of 1978?

Office of Personnel Management (OPM), Merrit-System Protection Board (MSPB), Federal Labor Relations Authority (FLRA)

What percentage of federal civil servants belong to labor unions?


Which of the federal agencies has the highest percentage of union members?

American Federation of Government Employees (AFGE)

What three actions are denied to national civil servant unions?

negotiate salary, negotiate hours worked, no legal right to strike

What was the total value of federal government contracts in its 2009 budget?

$523 billion

How many people resided in the United States in 1789?

4 million

What title is given to the top political appointee who heads fourteen of the national
government's fifteen departments?


What was the first independent regulatory commission established by the federal

Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)

What type of terms are served by members of the bipartisan boards of independent regulatory

staggered fixed terms

What is an example of a hybrid agency that fits into more than one category of federal


According to political scientists, how many stages are there in the public policy cycle?


According to the politics-administration dichotomy, there is a ________ line between politics
and public policy administration.


What is the second stage in the public policy cycle?

policy formulation

Due to their role as executors of policy and their expertise in certain areas, bureaucrats
________ take part in policy formulation.


What type of law provide plans of action to address societal concerns, and identify the
executive units that will put them into effect?

authorization laws

Which of the following mechanisms is used by bureaucrats to interpret the law and then carry
it out?

administrative discretion

Which of the following mechanisms is used by agencies to determine when their rules are
violated, and to impose penalties on the violators?

administrative adjudication

What three members of government possess the legal means to monitor bureaucrats' work
and hold them accountable?

congress, pres, and federal judges

What type of laws open up government functions and documents to the public, ensuring
transparency and public access to decision making?

sunshine laws

What year saw the passage of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA), which was one of the
first laws designed to enhance federal bureaucratic accountability to the people?


Which act of Congress, passed in 1976, requires most multi-headed national agencies to
conduct open, public meetings?

sunshine act

Bureaucrats must always keep in mind the preferences and the agenda of ___________ if
they want to survive.


What type of clause forces the expiration of a program or policy after a specified number of
years without congressional reauthorization?

sunset clause

Which piece of legislation provided protection to whistle-blowers, employees who disclose
government misconduct, waste, or abuses of authority?

Civil Service Reform Act

According to the compromise reached by the framers of the constitution, which of the bodies
was empowered to establish federal district courts?


Initially, the federal judiciary was

quite weak

What year saw the passage of the Judiciary Act that created the circuit courts of appeals?


Which early landmark case granted the Supreme Court the power of judicial review, which
authorized the Court to strike down laws passed by other branches of the national

Marbury vs Madison

Before the advent of circuit courts of appeals, how did higher federal judges hear
intermediate-level appeal cases?

riding by horse-back to each of the circuits

Today, there are ________ courts of appeals covering designated regions, with one extra
hearing specific cases involving international trade, governmental contracts, and patents.


What fraction of the Supreme Court's workload was reduced after only two years' operation
of the separate courts of appeals?

more than half

Today, which body of law is the source of most legal disputes?

code law

What issue(s) serve(s) as the basis for most common civil law cases?

one party alleges that he was harmed in some way by another person.

What individual right(s) were established in the landmark case of Cruzan v. Missouri
Department of Health?

to discontinue food and hydration

Which European state first began using common law in the 1100s?


What year saw the creation of the Magna Carta, or "Great Charter," which is one of the core
documents of modern constitutional law?


The principle of stare decisis, a Latin phrase that means "let the decision stand," is the basis
of the modern legal concept of


The principle of stare decisis ensures

judges must abide by the legal authority that earlier cases established

When did code law supplant common law as the most prevalent type of law developed in the
United States?

early twentieth century

What type of law is considered the highest form of law?

US and constitutional law

Which of the following bodies authors statutes?

legislatures and congress

How many sections are there within the U.S. Code, a compilation of all the laws passed by
the U.S. Congress?


Most states' legal systems generally have ________ levels of appeals courts.


Which court(s) is/are considered courts of last resort, whose opinions carry the force of law?

supreme courts

Where the execution of administrative law is involved, which group exercises this authority?

federal bureaucrats

What type of court system exists in the United States?

dual court system

How many federal district courts are there in the U.S. court system?


How many judges have been authorized by Congress to sit on the thirteen U.S. courts of


What age limit is enforced with regard to chief judges of the circuit court of appeals?

under 65

Which special court has come under increased media scrutiny due to its use since the 9/11

FISA court

What term is used to identify the justices of the Supreme Court other than the chief justice?

associate justices

Who are the two Supreme Court appointees nominated by President Obama?

Sotomayor, Kagan

To date, how many women have served on the bench of the Supreme Court?


Which two groups share power in the selection of federal court judges?

senate and pres

Senatorial courtesy gives senators of the same political party as the president the right to veto
judicial appointments to which court(s)?

federal district court

Which government body is the most significant in appointing judges to the federal circuit
courts of appeals?

senate judiciary committee

Which factor(s) influence(s) senators as they appoint federal judges?

judicial qualifications, constituencies, ideology, what might happen at confirmation hearings

What does the term "symbolic representation" refer to regarding the selection of federal

supreme court includes representation from the major demographic groups

What term is used to describe a court made up of a group of judges who must evaluate a case
together and decide on an outcome?

collegial court

Each year, approximately how many petitions are filed with the Supreme Court?


Who is charged with drafting pool memos, effectively summaries and descriptions of cases
brought before the court for consideration?

Supreme court clerks

To hear a case, how many of the nine Supreme Court justices must want to hear it?

4 or more

Once a case is placed on the Supreme Court docket, petitioners have ________ days to file a
written brief with the Court.


Which phases of the Supreme Court's hearing and deliberations process offer the most
opportunities for civic engagement?

amicus curiae briefs, oral arguments,

Frequently, when deciding on how to vote on a case, Supreme Court justices vote

in private

What best describes the ideological distribution of the Supreme Court today?

slight tilt toward the conservative side

Which chief justice serving since World War II led a particularly activist Supreme Court?

Earl Warren

Who is given power under the Constitution to grant individual pardons?

chief executive

Article I of the Constitution grants ________ the right to control the Supreme Court's
appellate docket.


Which body issues articles of impeachment for federal judges?


One way on which law enforcement officials check the judiciary is through the exercise of


What kind of stance on civic engagement would people with NIMBY ("not-in-my-backyard")
syndrome take?

decline to participate in politics until government actions or inactions threaten them directly

Since 1788, when the states ratified the U.S. Constitution, the national government's scope of
responsibility for domestic matters has

gradually expanded

Today, what percentage of government spending is aimed at domestic policy matters?


Which current policy area is viewed by some as a national security issue, by others as an
economic issue, and still others as a humanitarian cause?


What groups do the government rely on to assist in overseeing compliance, and in reporting
violators of national laws and regulations?

citizens, interest groups, media

Using the domestic policy tool of ________, governments hire public servants to dispense

direct provision

Name four things which are considered in-kind assistance cash transfers.

unemployment checks, SS checks, pell grants, grants-in-aid, tax breaks, subsidies, medicaid

Government benefits guaranteed to all who meet the eligibility requirements are known as

entitlement program

In what period did Americans become aware of the harm humans had caused to the natural

60's - 70's

When did farmers begin using chemical pesticides to destroy weeds and insects?


Under the provisions of the Clean Air Act of 1970, who was given enforcement
responsibility for air quality standards?


In 2007, which state led litigation against the EPA and the president over the EPA's authority
to regulate carbon dioxide?


What term is used to describe the higher incidence of environmental threats and subsequent
health problems in lower-income communities?

environmental racism

Which piece of environmental legislation regulates the disposal of solid and hazardous
wastes, and encourages recycling?

resource conservation and recovery act

Which piece of environmental legislation is also known as the Superfund law, and pays for
cleanup of the nation's most toxic waste dumps

comprehensive environmental response, compensation and liability act

Name four things that are considered fossil fuels.

oil, coal, natural gas, gasoline

The gradual increase in the earth's temperature is known as

global warming

Although the United States is not a signatory, how many other countries signed the Kyoto
Protocol of 1997, which agrees to work toward elimination of the greenhouse effect?


Name four things which are considered renewable energy sources.

solar, geothermal, wind, hydro-power, biomass

In 2008, what was the largest U.S. energy source?


Which event forced the United States to adopt national energy policies?

Yom Kippur war of 1973

By 2020, what fuel-efficiency standards must be met by cars and trucks sold in the United

35 miles-per-gallon

Which president declared an "energy crisis" and promoted conservation and energy
efficiency measures?


After President Carter deregulated the price of oil, oil prices by 1980 had jumped to more
than ________ their 1972 level.

10 times

Which country is the number 3 oil supplier to the United States?

Saudi Arabia

In his 2006 State of the Union address, President Bush called for a 22 percent increase to
support funding for research in which renewable energy sources?

solar, wind

What percentage of their covered income do workers contribute each year in Social Security


________ are government benefits with an automatic cost of living increase based on

indexed benefits

What age limit is included in the provisions of the Social Security Disability Act of 1956,
which provides benefits to workers disabled before the OASI-designated retirement age?


What type of benefit was established in 1972, as the Supplementary Security Income (SSI)

means-tested benefit

Who and/or what funds the unemployment compensation program created by the Social
Security Act of 1935?

employees, employers, fed gov, state gov

What year saw the passage of the Fair Labor Standards Act, which established a minimum


What share of a regular employee's hourly wage must employers pay for overtime work, or
all hours worked over 40 hours in a week?


What was the minimum wage in 1938?

$0.25 per hour

What is the minimum wage today?


According to the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (CBPP), in 2009 the Earned Income
Tax Credit kept an estimated ________ people out of poverty.

6.6 million

Beginning in the late ________, the number of woman-headed households with children
living in poverty began to increase, a phenomenon known as the feminization of poverty.


Which federal legislation's passage saw the national government adopt the objective of
cultivating self-sufficiency in ADFC (Aid to Families with Dependent Children) recipients?

Family Support Act of 1988

According to the Census Bureau, which of the following groups has the highest poverty rate,
at 24.7 percent of the total population?


In 2008, according to Census Bureau records, what percentage of people in the United States
were without health insurance?


Which president's "Great Society" plan created government programs such as Medicare and

Lyndon Johnson

What is the minimum age to receive Medicare health insurance benefits?


In what year will most of the provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of
2010 come into force?


Homeland security can succeed only as an intergovernmental effort involving what agencies
from what levels of government?

local and state law enforcement, federal bodies such as CIA, FBI, NSA

Approximately how many unauthorized immigrants are believed to enter the United States
each year?


Through the country-quota system, how many people, selected by lottery, are allowed to
enter the United States legally?


What groups are excluded from permanent immigration to the United States?

security threats, health risks, previously removed from US, prior criminal history

What tools do U.S. foreign policy makers have at their disposal to compel foreign
governments to conform to the United States' will?

trade policies, economic aid, economic penalties

Which country has seen its aid support from the United States increase rapidly since the 9/11


In 2010, President Barack Obama announced increased sanctions against which country?


As globalism has increased, economic sanctions have become ________ effective.


Since September 11, 2001, the United States has been involved in a ________ war against


What countries did the 9/11 terrorists came from?

saudi arabia, united arab emirates, egypt, lebanon

Since the mid-twentieth century, when U.S. foreign policy makers have employed military
force, what has been their primary goal?

regime change

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