Most people think of bureaucrats in a ________ sense.
Based on studies cited by public administration scholar Charles Goodsell, what does he say about government employlees?
very hard workers who are motivated by the recognition of the importance of public service.
Almost ________ of both state and local public servants have a bachelor's degree.
How many people are employed in the United States as national, state, and local bureaucrats?
Those workers who do the work of government but don't get a government paycheck are known as ________ bureaucrats.
Weber coined the word bureaucracy to describe large organizations with what four features?
division of labor, specialization of job tasks, hiring systems based on workers competency, hierarchy with a vertical chain of command, and standard operating procedures.
Besides governments, what other large organizations possess bureaucracies?
colleges and universities
What factors do political scientists use to distinguish among national bureaucrats?
process by with they are hired, procedures by which they can be fired, and grounds for which they can be fired.
When was the civil service created in the United States?
Before the establishment of the civil service, what system of hiring was employed to staff the federal bureaucracy?
The president appointed officials through the patronage system.
What is the name given to the book, published every four years, that lists the federal positions available through presidential patronage?
the plum book
What is the biggest downside to patronage positions in the federal bureaucracy?
no job security
Which president approved the Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883, which authorized the creation of a merit-based civil service system for the national government?
What three things are the hiring principles of the merit-based civil service system?
open competition, competence, political neutrality
When was the Civil Service Reform Act passed?
Today, what percentage of federal civil service jobs are merit-based?
What criterion determines a federal job's salary?
knowledge, skills, and ability need to do the job
Which title of the 1964 Civil Rights Act prohibits discrimination in personnel practices based on race, color, ethnicity, age, and disabilities that can be reasonably accommodated?
Which title of the 1964 Civil Rights Act prohibits discrimination in federally-funded educational opportunities based on race, color, ethnicity, age, and disabilities that can be reasonably accommodated?
What is another word for poor work quality for which a federal employee may be fired?
What is another word for nonperforming of work for which a federal employee may be fired?
What is another word for violating rules or regulations that guide their work for which federal employees may be fired?
Over the last several decades, the Hatch Act of 1939 has been modified to ________ the restrictions on civil servants' political activities.
Which president proposed the civil service reforms that led to passage of the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978?
What three independent administrative agencies were created as a result of the passage of the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978?
Office of Personnel Management (OPM), Merrit-System Protection Board (MSPB), Federal Labor Relations Authority (FLRA)
What percentage of federal civil servants belong to labor unions?
Which of the federal agencies has the highest percentage of union members?
American Federation of Government Employees (AFGE)
What three actions are denied to national civil servant unions?
negotiate salary, negotiate hours worked, no legal right to strike
What was the total value of federal government contracts in its 2009 budget?
How many people resided in the United States in 1789?
What title is given to the top political appointee who heads fourteen of the national government's fifteen departments?
What was the first independent regulatory commission established by the federal government?
Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
What type of terms are served by members of the bipartisan boards of independent regulatory commissions?
staggered fixed terms
What is an example of a hybrid agency that fits into more than one category of federal agency?
According to political scientists, how many stages are there in the public policy cycle?
According to the politics-administration dichotomy, there is a ________ line between politics and public policy administration.
What is the second stage in the public policy cycle?
Due to their role as executors of policy and their expertise in certain areas, bureaucrats ________ take part in policy formulation.
What type of law provide plans of action to address societal concerns, and identify the executive units that will put them into effect?
Which of the following mechanisms is used by bureaucrats to interpret the law and then carry it out?
Which of the following mechanisms is used by agencies to determine when their rules are violated, and to impose penalties on the violators?
What three members of government possess the legal means to monitor bureaucrats' work and hold them accountable?
congress, pres, and federal judges
What type of laws open up government functions and documents to the public, ensuring transparency and public access to decision making?
What year saw the passage of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA), which was one of the first laws designed to enhance federal bureaucratic accountability to the people?
Which act of Congress, passed in 1976, requires most multi-headed national agencies to conduct open, public meetings?
Bureaucrats must always keep in mind the preferences and the agenda of ___________ if they want to survive.
What type of clause forces the expiration of a program or policy after a specified number of years without congressional reauthorization?
Which piece of legislation provided protection to whistle-blowers, employees who disclose government misconduct, waste, or abuses of authority?
Civil Service Reform Act
According to the compromise reached by the framers of the constitution, which of the bodies was empowered to establish federal district courts?
Initially, the federal judiciary was
What year saw the passage of the Judiciary Act that created the circuit courts of appeals?
Which early landmark case granted the Supreme Court the power of judicial review, which authorized the Court to strike down laws passed by other branches of the national government?
Marbury vs Madison
Before the advent of circuit courts of appeals, how did higher federal judges hear intermediate-level appeal cases?
riding by horse-back to each of the circuits
Today, there are ________ courts of appeals covering designated regions, with one extra hearing specific cases involving international trade, governmental contracts, and patents.
What fraction of the Supreme Court's workload was reduced after only two years' operation of the separate courts of appeals?
more than half
Today, which body of law is the source of most legal disputes?
What issue(s) serve(s) as the basis for most common civil law cases?
one party alleges that he was harmed in some way by another person.
What individual right(s) were established in the landmark case of Cruzan v. Missouri Department of Health?
to discontinue food and hydration
Which European state first began using common law in the 1100s?
What year saw the creation of the Magna Carta, or "Great Charter," which is one of the core documents of modern constitutional law?
The principle of stare decisis, a Latin phrase that means "let the decision stand," is the basis of the modern legal concept of
The principle of stare decisis ensures
judges must abide by the legal authority that earlier cases established
When did code law supplant common law as the most prevalent type of law developed in the United States?
early twentieth century
What type of law is considered the highest form of law?
US and constitutional law
Which of the following bodies authors statutes?
legislatures and congress
How many sections are there within the U.S. Code, a compilation of all the laws passed by the U.S. Congress?
Most states' legal systems generally have ________ levels of appeals courts.
Which court(s) is/are considered courts of last resort, whose opinions carry the force of law?
Where the execution of administrative law is involved, which group exercises this authority?
What type of court system exists in the United States?
dual court system
How many federal district courts are there in the U.S. court system?
How many judges have been authorized by Congress to sit on the thirteen U.S. courts of appeals?
What age limit is enforced with regard to chief judges of the circuit court of appeals?
Which special court has come under increased media scrutiny due to its use since the 9/11 attacks?
What term is used to identify the justices of the Supreme Court other than the chief justice?
Who are the two Supreme Court appointees nominated by President Obama?
To date, how many women have served on the bench of the Supreme Court?
Which two groups share power in the selection of federal court judges?
senate and pres
Senatorial courtesy gives senators of the same political party as the president the right to veto judicial appointments to which court(s)?
federal district court
Which government body is the most significant in appointing judges to the federal circuit courts of appeals?
senate judiciary committee
Which factor(s) influence(s) senators as they appoint federal judges?
judicial qualifications, constituencies, ideology, what might happen at confirmation hearings
What does the term "symbolic representation" refer to regarding the selection of federal judges?
supreme court includes representation from the major demographic groups
What term is used to describe a court made up of a group of judges who must evaluate a case together and decide on an outcome?
Each year, approximately how many petitions are filed with the Supreme Court?
Who is charged with drafting pool memos, effectively summaries and descriptions of cases brought before the court for consideration?
Supreme court clerks
To hear a case, how many of the nine Supreme Court justices must want to hear it?
4 or more
Once a case is placed on the Supreme Court docket, petitioners have ________ days to file a written brief with the Court.
Which phases of the Supreme Court's hearing and deliberations process offer the most opportunities for civic engagement?
amicus curiae briefs, oral arguments,
Frequently, when deciding on how to vote on a case, Supreme Court justices vote
What best describes the ideological distribution of the Supreme Court today?
slight tilt toward the conservative side
Which chief justice serving since World War II led a particularly activist Supreme Court?
Who is given power under the Constitution to grant individual pardons?
Article I of the Constitution grants ________ the right to control the Supreme Court's appellate docket.
Which body issues articles of impeachment for federal judges?
One way on which law enforcement officials check the judiciary is through the exercise of
What kind of stance on civic engagement would people with NIMBY ("not-in-my-backyard") syndrome take?
decline to participate in politics until government actions or inactions threaten them directly
Since 1788, when the states ratified the U.S. Constitution, the national government's scope of responsibility for domestic matters has
Today, what percentage of government spending is aimed at domestic policy matters?
Which current policy area is viewed by some as a national security issue, by others as an economic issue, and still others as a humanitarian cause?
What groups do the government rely on to assist in overseeing compliance, and in reporting violators of national laws and regulations?
citizens, interest groups, media
Using the domestic policy tool of ________, governments hire public servants to dispense services.
Name four things which are considered in-kind assistance cash transfers.
Government benefits guaranteed to all who meet the eligibility requirements are known as
In what period did Americans become aware of the harm humans had caused to the natural environment?
60's - 70's
When did farmers begin using chemical pesticides to destroy weeds and insects?
Under the provisions of the Clean Air Act of 1970, who was given enforcement responsibility for air quality standards?
In 2007, which state led litigation against the EPA and the president over the EPA's authority to regulate carbon dioxide?
What term is used to describe the higher incidence of environmental threats and subsequent health problems in lower-income communities?
Which piece of environmental legislation regulates the disposal of solid and hazardous wastes, and encourages recycling?
resource conservation and recovery act
Which piece of environmental legislation is also known as the Superfund law, and pays for cleanup of the nation's most toxic waste dumps
comprehensive environmental response, compensation and liability act
Name four things that are considered fossil fuels.
oil, coal, natural gas, gasoline
The gradual increase in the earth's temperature is known as
Although the United States is not a signatory, how many other countries signed the Kyoto Protocol of 1997, which agrees to work toward elimination of the greenhouse effect?
Name four things which are considered renewable energy sources.
solar, geothermal, wind, hydro-power, biomass
In 2008, what was the largest U.S. energy source?
Which event forced the United States to adopt national energy policies?
Yom Kippur war of 1973
By 2020, what fuel-efficiency standards must be met by cars and trucks sold in the United States?
Which president declared an "energy crisis" and promoted conservation and energy efficiency measures?
After President Carter deregulated the price of oil, oil prices by 1980 had jumped to more than ________ their 1972 level.
Which country is the number 3 oil supplier to the United States?
In his 2006 State of the Union address, President Bush called for a 22 percent increase to support funding for research in which renewable energy sources?
What percentage of their covered income do workers contribute each year in Social Security taxes?
________ are government benefits with an automatic cost of living increase based on inflation.
What age limit is included in the provisions of the Social Security Disability Act of 1956, which provides benefits to workers disabled before the OASI-designated retirement age?
What type of benefit was established in 1972, as the Supplementary Security Income (SSI) program
Who and/or what funds the unemployment compensation program created by the Social Security Act of 1935?
employees, employers, fed gov, state gov
What year saw the passage of the Fair Labor Standards Act, which established a minimum wage?
What share of a regular employee's hourly wage must employers pay for overtime work, or all hours worked over 40 hours in a week?
What was the minimum wage in 1938?
$0.25 per hour
What is the minimum wage today?
According to the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (CBPP), in 2009 the Earned Income Tax Credit kept an estimated ________ people out of poverty.
Beginning in the late ________, the number of woman-headed households with children living in poverty began to increase, a phenomenon known as the feminization of poverty.
Which federal legislation's passage saw the national government adopt the objective of cultivating self-sufficiency in ADFC (Aid to Families with Dependent Children) recipients?
Family Support Act of 1988
According to the Census Bureau, which of the following groups has the highest poverty rate, at 24.7 percent of the total population?
In 2008, according to Census Bureau records, what percentage of people in the United States were without health insurance?
Which president's "Great Society" plan created government programs such as Medicare and Medicaid?
What is the minimum age to receive Medicare health insurance benefits?
In what year will most of the provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 come into force?
Homeland security can succeed only as an intergovernmental effort involving what agencies from what levels of government?
local and state law enforcement, federal bodies such as CIA, FBI, NSA
Approximately how many unauthorized immigrants are believed to enter the United States each year?
Through the country-quota system, how many people, selected by lottery, are allowed to enter the United States legally?
What groups are excluded from permanent immigration to the United States?
security threats, health risks, previously removed from US, prior criminal history
What tools do U.S. foreign policy makers have at their disposal to compel foreign governments to conform to the United States' will?
trade policies, economic aid, economic penalties
Which country has seen its aid support from the United States increase rapidly since the 9/11 attacks?
In 2010, President Barack Obama announced increased sanctions against which country?
As globalism has increased, economic sanctions have become ________ effective.
Since September 11, 2001, the United States has been involved in a ________ war against terrorism.
What countries did the 9/11 terrorists came from?
saudi arabia, united arab emirates, egypt, lebanon
Since the mid-twentieth century, when U.S. foreign policy makers have employed military force, what has been their primary goal?
Which conflict(s) involving U.S. military forces centered on an attempt to halt ethnic cleansing?
kosovo, somalia, bosnia, panama
Which office is the foremost foreign policy actor in the United States?
Which of the following executive departments take the lead in advising the president about foreign policy?
departments of state and defense
How many employees work at the Department of State, both within and outside the United States?
What criterion is used (or what criteria are used) to organize and assign State Department employees?
topical specialty, geographic area specialty
What type of view does the State Department take of world affairs when formulating foreign policy?
What type of view does the National Security Council take of world affairs when formulating security policy?
Which intelligence organizations were criticized for failure to anticipate and avert the 9/11 terrorist attacks?
Which conflict was the first that saw a presidential administration circumvent congressional power by using U.S. troops without a formal congressional declaration of war?
With the passage of the War Powers Act of 1973, Congress limited presidential use of military force to ________ days.
What powers regarding foreign relations does the Congress have in addition to its authority to declare war?
ratify treaties, confirm ambassadorial posts, confirm cabinet positions, control money
Which president first warned of the rising influence of the military-industrial complex?
Due to its economic benefits, which groups allies (or ally) with congressional representatives to support the military-industrial complex?
military vets, interest groups, and their families
When did the U.S. government begin using the news media to promote its foreign policy priorities?
Until the ________, news media worked hand in hand with the government, generally taking a highly patriotic and supportive stance.
Generally, public opinion plays a ________ role in shaping and influencing foreign policy.
What term is used to describe the influence of domestic politics on foreign policy?
In terms of foreign policy, what did the founders seek to do when they drafted the constitution?
provide shared responsibility between exec and legis branches
In the 1790s, which of the founding fathers favored an alliance with France?
What was the earliest primary activity of the United States in the international arena?
During the Napoleonic Wars (1792-1815), to whom did the United States sell raw materials and supplies?
In 1801, the United States went to war with what country/countries after a number of its ships were seized?
morocco, algeria, tunisia, libya
Throughout the early nineteenth century, which European power practiced impressments, or kidnapping, of U.S. sailors?
What year saw President James Monroe invoke the Monroe Doctrine, declaring the United States' intention to resist further colonization of the Americas?
Which European power supported the United States' role in the Americas as described by the Monroe Doctrine?
Which president introduced the notion of the United States as an "international police power"?
Which system of international alliances dominated the world's foreign policy decisions from 1815 until 1918?
balance of power system
After World War II, which powers emerged as superpowers, leader nations with dominating influence in international affairs?
Soviet Union and United States
In 1945, how many countries allied with the United States founded the United Nations (UN) in San Francisco?
How many member states are there in the United Nations General Assembly today?
What year saw the Soviet Union and seven of its satellite states form the Warsaw Pact in response to the U.S.-backed formation of the regional security alliance known as NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)?
Which international financial organization regulates the monetary relationship among nations and establishes exchange rates for the world's major currencies?
Today, how many nations are members of the World Trade Organization?
Which Cold War-era policy was designed to prevent the spread of communism?
Which event proved to be a perfect example of brinksmanship?
cuban missile crisis
Which presidential doctrine emphasized the responsibility of U.S. allies to provide for their own national defense and sought to improve U.S.-Soviet-Chinese relations?
Signed in 1987, which agreement led to the first destruction of nuclear weapons by the United States and the Soviet Union?
Which presidential doctrine emphasized the right of the United States to take unilateral action against enemies?
Which conflict saw the introduction of the concept of preventative war, the strategy of waging war on countries regarded as threats to avoid future conflicts?
war in iraq
Which presidential foreign policy doctrine rejects political scientist Samuel Huntington's "clash of civilizations" thesis regarding the relations between the United States and the Islamic world?
Which four issues are ongoing challenges for U.S. foreign policy in the twenty-first century?
terrorism, increasing availability of bio weapons, increasing availibility to nuclear weapons, rapid global climate change