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190 terms

POLS 1113 Ch 13-17

STUDY
PLAY
Most people think of bureaucrats in a ________ sense.
negative
Based on studies cited by public administration scholar Charles Goodsell, what does he say
about government employlees?
very hard workers who are motivated by the recognition of the importance of public service.
Almost ________ of both state and local public servants have a bachelor's degree.
50%
How many people are employed in the United States as national, state, and local bureaucrats?
23 million
Those workers who do the work of government but don't get a government paycheck are
known as ________ bureaucrats.
shadow bureaucrats
Weber coined the word bureaucracy to describe large organizations with what four features?
division of labor, specialization of job tasks, hiring systems based on workers competency, hierarchy with a vertical chain of command, and standard operating procedures.
Besides governments, what other large organizations possess bureaucracies?
colleges and universities
What factors do political scientists use to distinguish among national bureaucrats?
process by with they are hired, procedures by which they can be fired, and grounds for which they can be fired.
When was the civil service created in the United States?
1883
Before the establishment of the civil service, what system of hiring was employed to staff the
federal bureaucracy?
The president appointed officials through the patronage system.
What is the name given to the book, published every four years, that lists the federal
positions available through presidential patronage?
the plum book
What is the biggest downside to patronage positions in the federal bureaucracy?
no job security
Which president approved the Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883, which authorized the
creation of a merit-based civil service system for the national government?
Arthur
What three things are the hiring principles of the merit-based civil service system?
open competition, competence, political neutrality
When was the Civil Service Reform Act passed?
1978
Today, what percentage of federal civil service jobs are merit-based?
85%
What criterion determines a federal job's salary?
knowledge, skills, and ability need to do the job
Which title of the 1964 Civil Rights Act prohibits discrimination in personnel practices based
on race, color, ethnicity, age, and disabilities that can be reasonably accommodated?
title VII
Which title of the 1964 Civil Rights Act prohibits discrimination in federally-funded
educational opportunities based on race, color, ethnicity, age, and disabilities that can be
reasonably accommodated?
title VI
What is another word for poor work quality for which a federal employee may be fired?
misfeasance
What is another word for nonperforming of work for which a federal employee may be fired?
nonfeasanse
What is another word for violating rules or regulations that guide their work for which
federal employees may be fired?
malfeasance
Over the last several decades, the Hatch Act of 1939 has been modified to ________ the
restrictions on civil servants' political activities.
loosen
Which president proposed the civil service reforms that led to passage of the Civil Service
Reform Act of 1978?
Carter
What three independent administrative agencies were created as a result of the passage of the
Civil Service Reform Act of 1978?
Office of Personnel Management (OPM), Merrit-System Protection Board (MSPB), Federal Labor Relations Authority (FLRA)
What percentage of federal civil servants belong to labor unions?
28%
Which of the federal agencies has the highest percentage of union members?
American Federation of Government Employees (AFGE)
What three actions are denied to national civil servant unions?
negotiate salary, negotiate hours worked, no legal right to strike
What was the total value of federal government contracts in its 2009 budget?
$523 billion
How many people resided in the United States in 1789?
4 million
What title is given to the top political appointee who heads fourteen of the national
government's fifteen departments?
Secretary
What was the first independent regulatory commission established by the federal
government?
Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
What type of terms are served by members of the bipartisan boards of independent regulatory
commissions?
staggered fixed terms
What is an example of a hybrid agency that fits into more than one category of federal
agency?
FDA
According to political scientists, how many stages are there in the public policy cycle?
6
According to the politics-administration dichotomy, there is a ________ line between politics
and public policy administration.
clear
What is the second stage in the public policy cycle?
policy formulation
Due to their role as executors of policy and their expertise in certain areas, bureaucrats
________ take part in policy formulation.
regularly
What type of law provide plans of action to address societal concerns, and identify the
executive units that will put them into effect?
authorization laws
Which of the following mechanisms is used by bureaucrats to interpret the law and then carry
it out?
administrative discretion
Which of the following mechanisms is used by agencies to determine when their rules are
violated, and to impose penalties on the violators?
administrative adjudication
What three members of government possess the legal means to monitor bureaucrats' work
and hold them accountable?
congress, pres, and federal judges
What type of laws open up government functions and documents to the public, ensuring
transparency and public access to decision making?
sunshine laws
What year saw the passage of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA), which was one of the
first laws designed to enhance federal bureaucratic accountability to the people?
1946
Which act of Congress, passed in 1976, requires most multi-headed national agencies to
conduct open, public meetings?
sunshine act
Bureaucrats must always keep in mind the preferences and the agenda of ___________ if
they want to survive.
congress
What type of clause forces the expiration of a program or policy after a specified number of
years without congressional reauthorization?
sunset clause
Which piece of legislation provided protection to whistle-blowers, employees who disclose
government misconduct, waste, or abuses of authority?
Civil Service Reform Act
According to the compromise reached by the framers of the constitution, which of the bodies
was empowered to establish federal district courts?
congress
Initially, the federal judiciary was
quite weak
What year saw the passage of the Judiciary Act that created the circuit courts of appeals?
1789
Which early landmark case granted the Supreme Court the power of judicial review, which
authorized the Court to strike down laws passed by other branches of the national
government?
Marbury vs Madison
Before the advent of circuit courts of appeals, how did higher federal judges hear
intermediate-level appeal cases?
riding by horse-back to each of the circuits
Today, there are ________ courts of appeals covering designated regions, with one extra
hearing specific cases involving international trade, governmental contracts, and patents.
12
What fraction of the Supreme Court's workload was reduced after only two years' operation
of the separate courts of appeals?
more than half
Today, which body of law is the source of most legal disputes?
code law
What issue(s) serve(s) as the basis for most common civil law cases?
one party alleges that he was harmed in some way by another person.
What individual right(s) were established in the landmark case of Cruzan v. Missouri
Department of Health?
to discontinue food and hydration
Which European state first began using common law in the 1100s?
England
What year saw the creation of the Magna Carta, or "Great Charter," which is one of the core
documents of modern constitutional law?
1215
The principle of stare decisis, a Latin phrase that means "let the decision stand," is the basis
of the modern legal concept of
precedent
The principle of stare decisis ensures
judges must abide by the legal authority that earlier cases established
When did code law supplant common law as the most prevalent type of law developed in the
United States?
early twentieth century
What type of law is considered the highest form of law?
US and constitutional law
Which of the following bodies authors statutes?
legislatures and congress
How many sections are there within the U.S. Code, a compilation of all the laws passed by
the U.S. Congress?
50
Most states' legal systems generally have ________ levels of appeals courts.
2
Which court(s) is/are considered courts of last resort, whose opinions carry the force of law?
supreme courts
Where the execution of administrative law is involved, which group exercises this authority?
federal bureaucrats
What type of court system exists in the United States?
dual court system
How many federal district courts are there in the U.S. court system?
94
How many judges have been authorized by Congress to sit on the thirteen U.S. courts of
appeals?
179
What age limit is enforced with regard to chief judges of the circuit court of appeals?
under 65
Which special court has come under increased media scrutiny due to its use since the 9/11
attacks?
FISA court
What term is used to identify the justices of the Supreme Court other than the chief justice?
associate justices
Who are the two Supreme Court appointees nominated by President Obama?
Sotomayor, Kagan
To date, how many women have served on the bench of the Supreme Court?
4
Which two groups share power in the selection of federal court judges?
senate and pres
Senatorial courtesy gives senators of the same political party as the president the right to veto
judicial appointments to which court(s)?
federal district court
Which government body is the most significant in appointing judges to the federal circuit
courts of appeals?
senate judiciary committee
Which factor(s) influence(s) senators as they appoint federal judges?
judicial qualifications, constituencies, ideology, what might happen at confirmation hearings
What does the term "symbolic representation" refer to regarding the selection of federal
judges?
supreme court includes representation from the major demographic groups
What term is used to describe a court made up of a group of judges who must evaluate a case
together and decide on an outcome?
collegial court
Each year, approximately how many petitions are filed with the Supreme Court?
7000
Who is charged with drafting pool memos, effectively summaries and descriptions of cases
brought before the court for consideration?
Supreme court clerks
To hear a case, how many of the nine Supreme Court justices must want to hear it?
4 or more
Once a case is placed on the Supreme Court docket, petitioners have ________ days to file a
written brief with the Court.
45
Which phases of the Supreme Court's hearing and deliberations process offer the most
opportunities for civic engagement?
amicus curiae briefs, oral arguments,
Frequently, when deciding on how to vote on a case, Supreme Court justices vote
in private
What best describes the ideological distribution of the Supreme Court today?
slight tilt toward the conservative side
Which chief justice serving since World War II led a particularly activist Supreme Court?
Earl Warren
Who is given power under the Constitution to grant individual pardons?
chief executive
Article I of the Constitution grants ________ the right to control the Supreme Court's
appellate docket.
congress
Which body issues articles of impeachment for federal judges?
house
One way on which law enforcement officials check the judiciary is through the exercise of
discretion
What kind of stance on civic engagement would people with NIMBY ("not-in-my-backyard")
syndrome take?
decline to participate in politics until government actions or inactions threaten them directly
Since 1788, when the states ratified the U.S. Constitution, the national government's scope of
responsibility for domestic matters has
gradually expanded
Today, what percentage of government spending is aimed at domestic policy matters?
72.5%
Which current policy area is viewed by some as a national security issue, by others as an
economic issue, and still others as a humanitarian cause?
immigration
What groups do the government rely on to assist in overseeing compliance, and in reporting
violators of national laws and regulations?
citizens, interest groups, media
Using the domestic policy tool of ________, governments hire public servants to dispense
services.
direct provision
Name four things which are considered in-kind assistance cash transfers.
unemployment checks, SS checks, pell grants, grants-in-aid, tax breaks, subsidies, medicaid
Government benefits guaranteed to all who meet the eligibility requirements are known as
entitlement program
In what period did Americans become aware of the harm humans had caused to the natural
environment?
60's - 70's
When did farmers begin using chemical pesticides to destroy weeds and insects?
40's
Under the provisions of the Clean Air Act of 1970, who was given enforcement
responsibility for air quality standards?
EPA
In 2007, which state led litigation against the EPA and the president over the EPA's authority
to regulate carbon dioxide?
Massachusetts
What term is used to describe the higher incidence of environmental threats and subsequent
health problems in lower-income communities?
environmental racism
Which piece of environmental legislation regulates the disposal of solid and hazardous
wastes, and encourages recycling?
resource conservation and recovery act
Which piece of environmental legislation is also known as the Superfund law, and pays for
cleanup of the nation's most toxic waste dumps
comprehensive environmental response, compensation and liability act
Name four things that are considered fossil fuels.
oil, coal, natural gas, gasoline
The gradual increase in the earth's temperature is known as
global warming
Although the United States is not a signatory, how many other countries signed the Kyoto
Protocol of 1997, which agrees to work toward elimination of the greenhouse effect?
184
Name four things which are considered renewable energy sources.
solar, geothermal, wind, hydro-power, biomass
In 2008, what was the largest U.S. energy source?
petroleum
Which event forced the United States to adopt national energy policies?
Yom Kippur war of 1973
By 2020, what fuel-efficiency standards must be met by cars and trucks sold in the United
States?
35 miles-per-gallon
Which president declared an "energy crisis" and promoted conservation and energy
efficiency measures?
Carter
After President Carter deregulated the price of oil, oil prices by 1980 had jumped to more
than ________ their 1972 level.
10 times
Which country is the number 3 oil supplier to the United States?
Saudi Arabia
In his 2006 State of the Union address, President Bush called for a 22 percent increase to
support funding for research in which renewable energy sources?
solar, wind
What percentage of their covered income do workers contribute each year in Social Security
taxes?
6.2%
________ are government benefits with an automatic cost of living increase based on
inflation.
indexed benefits
What age limit is included in the provisions of the Social Security Disability Act of 1956,
which provides benefits to workers disabled before the OASI-designated retirement age?
50
What type of benefit was established in 1972, as the Supplementary Security Income (SSI)
program
means-tested benefit
Who and/or what funds the unemployment compensation program created by the Social
Security Act of 1935?
employees, employers, fed gov, state gov
What year saw the passage of the Fair Labor Standards Act, which established a minimum
wage?
1938
What share of a regular employee's hourly wage must employers pay for overtime work, or
all hours worked over 40 hours in a week?
time-and-a-half
What was the minimum wage in 1938?
$0.25 per hour
What is the minimum wage today?
$7.25
According to the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (CBPP), in 2009 the Earned Income
Tax Credit kept an estimated ________ people out of poverty.
6.6 million
Beginning in the late ________, the number of woman-headed households with children
living in poverty began to increase, a phenomenon known as the feminization of poverty.
50's
Which federal legislation's passage saw the national government adopt the objective of
cultivating self-sufficiency in ADFC (Aid to Families with Dependent Children) recipients?
Family Support Act of 1988
According to the Census Bureau, which of the following groups has the highest poverty rate,
at 24.7 percent of the total population?
blacks
In 2008, according to Census Bureau records, what percentage of people in the United States
were without health insurance?
15.4
Which president's "Great Society" plan created government programs such as Medicare and
Medicaid?
Lyndon Johnson
What is the minimum age to receive Medicare health insurance benefits?
65
In what year will most of the provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of
2010 come into force?
2014
Homeland security can succeed only as an intergovernmental effort involving what agencies
from what levels of government?
local and state law enforcement, federal bodies such as CIA, FBI, NSA
Approximately how many unauthorized immigrants are believed to enter the United States
each year?
500,000
Through the country-quota system, how many people, selected by lottery, are allowed to
enter the United States legally?
25,000
What groups are excluded from permanent immigration to the United States?
security threats, health risks, previously removed from US, prior criminal history
What tools do U.S. foreign policy makers have at their disposal to compel foreign
governments to conform to the United States' will?
trade policies, economic aid, economic penalties
Which country has seen its aid support from the United States increase rapidly since the 9/11
attacks?
pakistan
In 2010, President Barack Obama announced increased sanctions against which country?
iran
As globalism has increased, economic sanctions have become ________ effective.
less
Since September 11, 2001, the United States has been involved in a ________ war against
terrorism.
multifront
What countries did the 9/11 terrorists came from?
saudi arabia, united arab emirates, egypt, lebanon
Since the mid-twentieth century, when U.S. foreign policy makers have employed military
force, what has been their primary goal?
regime change
Which conflict(s) involving U.S. military forces centered on an attempt to halt ethnic
cleansing?
kosovo, somalia, bosnia, panama
Which office is the foremost foreign policy actor in the United States?
pres
Which of the following executive departments take the lead in advising the president about
foreign policy?
departments of state and defense
How many employees work at the Department of State, both within and outside the United
States?
30,000
What criterion is used (or what criteria are used) to organize and assign State Department
employees?
topical specialty, geographic area specialty
What type of view does the State Department take of world affairs when formulating foreign
policy?
long-term view
What type of view does the National Security Council take of world affairs when formulating
security policy?
short-term crisis
Which intelligence organizations were criticized for failure to anticipate and avert the 9/11
terrorist attacks?
FBI, CIA
Which conflict was the first that saw a presidential administration circumvent congressional
power by using U.S. troops without a formal congressional declaration of war?
Vietnam war
With the passage of the War Powers Act of 1973, Congress limited presidential use of
military force to ________ days.
60
What powers regarding foreign relations does the Congress have in addition to its authority
to declare war?
ratify treaties, confirm ambassadorial posts, confirm cabinet positions, control money
Which president first warned of the rising influence of the military-industrial complex?
eisenhower
Due to its economic benefits, which groups allies (or ally) with congressional representatives
to support the military-industrial complex?
military vets, interest groups, and their families
When did the U.S. government begin using the news media to promote its foreign policy
priorities?
twentieth century
Until the ________, news media worked hand in hand with the government, generally taking
a highly patriotic and supportive stance.
vietnam war
Generally, public opinion plays a ________ role in shaping and influencing foreign policy.
comparatively small
What term is used to describe the influence of domestic politics on foreign policy?
intermestics
In terms of foreign policy, what did the founders seek to do when they drafted the
constitution?
provide shared responsibility between exec and legis branches
In the 1790s, which of the founding fathers favored an alliance with France?
jefferson
What was the earliest primary activity of the United States in the international arena?
trade
During the Napoleonic Wars (1792-1815), to whom did the United States sell raw materials
and supplies?
all sides
In 1801, the United States went to war with what country/countries after a number of its
ships were seized?
morocco, algeria, tunisia, libya
Throughout the early nineteenth century, which European power practiced impressments, or
kidnapping, of U.S. sailors?
british navy
What year saw President James Monroe invoke the Monroe Doctrine, declaring the United
States' intention to resist further colonization of the Americas?
1823
Which European power supported the United States' role in the Americas as described by the
Monroe Doctrine?
british
Which president introduced the notion of the United States as an "international police
power"?
teddy roosevelt
Which system of international alliances dominated the world's foreign policy decisions from
1815 until 1918?
balance of power system
After World War II, which powers emerged as superpowers, leader nations with dominating
influence in international affairs?
Soviet Union and United States
In 1945, how many countries allied with the United States founded the United Nations (UN)
in San Francisco?
50
How many member states are there in the United Nations General Assembly today?
192
What year saw the Soviet Union and seven of its satellite states form the Warsaw Pact in
response to the U.S.-backed formation of the regional security alliance known as NATO
(North Atlantic Treaty Organization)?
1955
Which international financial organization regulates the monetary relationship among nations
and establishes exchange rates for the world's major currencies?
IMF
Today, how many nations are members of the World Trade Organization?
153
Which Cold War-era policy was designed to prevent the spread of communism?
containment
Which event proved to be a perfect example of brinksmanship?
cuban missile crisis
Which presidential doctrine emphasized the responsibility of U.S. allies to provide for their
own national defense and sought to improve U.S.-Soviet-Chinese relations?
nixon doctorine
Signed in 1987, which agreement led to the first destruction of nuclear weapons by the
United States and the Soviet Union?
INF
Which presidential doctrine emphasized the right of the United States to take unilateral
action against enemies?
bush doctorine
Which conflict saw the introduction of the concept of preventative war, the strategy of
waging war on countries regarded as threats to avoid future conflicts?
war in iraq
Which presidential foreign policy doctrine rejects political scientist Samuel Huntington's
"clash of civilizations" thesis regarding the relations between the United States and the
Islamic world?
obama
Which four issues are ongoing challenges for U.S. foreign policy in the twenty-first century?
terrorism, increasing availability of bio weapons, increasing availibility to nuclear weapons, rapid global climate change