72 terms

Forensic Psychology Midterm


Terms in this set (...)

established first experimental psychology laboratory
informal study on the accuracy of eyewitness testimony
testified at a murder trial as an expert witness
Simon & Binet
designed the Simon-Benet intelligence test
first journal on psychology of testimony
published "On the Witness Stand"
mental tests to screen police officers
wrote "Crime & Personality"
Bandura & Hare
"Aggression and violence, psychopathology"
battered women syndrome
Richard Gardner
Parental Alienation Syndrome
false memory syndrome
basically evil, irrational, determined by environment
stimulus-response, not concerned with good or evil, irrational or rational, we have freewill, determined by environment
stimulus-O-response, good, rational, have freewill, key term perception
phenomenological, basically good and rational, have freewill, key terms self and feelings
basically good, rational, have freewill, key terms meaning and value of life
not concerned with good or evil, rational or irrational, determined by environment, key term genetics & organic
both good and evil, rational and irrational, determined by environment, key term society
we are multidimensional, have freewill, determined by environment, key term interactive
natural law
national sense of right and wrong, government cannot determine what is moral, focuses on internal morality
utilitarian law
decisions weighed by the theoretical outcomes, dictated by the good of people, social morality
analytical positivism
a self-sufficient system formed by commands that are governed, neutral and logical
English common law
developed by Henry I & II, decisions based on arguments between representatives of each side, argumentative
the party who appeals a decision of a lower court
respondent to an appeal
due process
the administration of justice according to established rules and principles
civil law
the body of laws established by a state or nation for its own regulation
contract law
the branch of jurisprudence that studies the rights and obligations of parties in contracting
criminal law
deals with crimes and punishments
civil suit
a lawsuit alleging violations of civil law by the defendant
any wrongdoing for which an action for damages may be brought
burden of proof
the duty of proving a disputed charge
the collection of rules imposed by authority
stare decisis
principle of following judicial precedent
Brandeis brief
first to rely on pure legal theory but also on analysis of factual data
Amicus brief
statement prepared by someone with an interest in a lawsuit but is not a party
made more sever or intense
a party who has suffered loss has to take reasonable action to minimize the amount of the loss suffered
the right and power to interpret and apply the law
psychologist's domain
police department: criminal profiling and investigation, clinical and job assessment; court system: expert witness, case consultant
consultation in hospital and correctional interface
more clinical and counseling based, rehabilitation of the psyche including therapeutic interventions, psychometric testing
naturalistic observation, case study, interview, survey methods and tests, experiment
idiographic information
Relating to or involving the study of individuals or individual events
nomothetic information
relating to, involving, or dealing with abstract, general, or universal statements or laws
Ethical principles
informed consent, minimal deception, freedom to decline, protection from harm, confidentiality
APA ethics
competence, role boundaries, assessment, social responsibility, privacy, confidentiality, privelege, concern for other's welfare
forensic ethics
relationships, professional and expert responsibility, methods and procedures, legal relevance, public and professional communication
types of memory
working, long term, short term
working memory
an active system for temporarily storing and manipulating information needed in the execution of complex cognitive tasks; two components: storage and central executive
short term memory
the storage of information needed for temporary recall; two characteristics: can contain 7, plus or minus two, chunks of information, and items remain in ST memory about 20 seconds
long term memory
the memory store accessed after a considerable gap between the presentation of a stimulus and its recall; generally considered a permanent memory store
types of biases
investigator, presentation, cross-racial, cross-gender, bystander, confirmation
jury selection
selecting jurors who are perceived as most likely to favor the opposition
the attorneys are req'd to provide to the other side any evidence in their possession that is relevant to the case
methods of selecting a jury
peremptory challenges, systematic jury selection, voir dire
peremptory challenges
limited number of challenges each side in a trial can use to eliminate potential jurors without stating a reason; in most instances: misdemeanor - both have 3, felony - 10, capital - 15
systematic jury selection
using scientific procedures instead of relying on intuition
voir dire
want the 'ideal juror', psychologists compile tests to see what characteristics the ideal juror has; sequestered voir dire - each of the individual jurors is questioned individually in the judge's chambers
intuitive approaches
PT Barnum effect, Kernel of Truth hypothesis, phrenology, Sheldon's body types, physiognomy
an opinion or strong feeling formed without careful thought or regard to the facts; theories - unequal status, scapegoat, authoritarian personality, categorization
unfair treatment of a person or group on the basis of prejudice
discriminatory or abusive behavior towards members of another race
discriminatory or abusive behavior towards members of the opposite sex
discrimination against middle-aged and elderly people
Civil Rights act of 1964
This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.
sexual harassment
unwanted sexual attention, often from someone in power, that makes the victim feel uncomfortable or threatened; verbal requests, verbal comments, non verbal displays
quid pro quo
something for something
Fitzgerald's Typology
gender harassment, seductive behavior, sexual bribery, threat of punishment, sexual imposition
Process during which two or more people talk and listen together for the purpose of resolving a disagreement or a conflict.
roles of mediation
decision by one party only, private informal decision making by parties, private formal third party decision making, public formal third-party decision making, coerced decision making
ethics for mediators
appropriateness, process, self-determination, impartiality, conflicts of interest. confidentiality, agreement, expertise, quality of process, fees, activity, community service