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It is _________________ that gives evidence that the African artistic traditions of body decoration, mask-making and performance spring from ancient African roots.

rock art

Ere ibeji represent dead children, but they have marks of adulthood such as _____________________ & _________________.

elaborate hairstyles
scarification patterns

The wooden beams that project from the Great Friday Mosque at Jenne are called _________________.


The thin parallel lines that cover the faces of Ife zinc-brass heads are thought to represent _________________________.


Many symbols in the art of Benin reflect the belief that the oba can what?

can mediate between the human and spirit worlds

The practice in Benin to make memorial sculptures for the shrines of royal ancestors derives from similar traditions in ____________.

Nok culture

Why is the art of Benin considered "royal art"?

Only the Oba could commision works of art in brass.

A clear symbol of the oba's power and authority seen on memorial heads are the headdress and necklaces made of ________ beads.


What was the original function of almost 900 brass plaques, depicting a variety of subjects, which were made in Benin during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries?

They decorated the royal palace in Benin.

Why do memorial sculptures of the oba represent only the ruler's head?

• The head is the symbolic center of a person's wisdom and ability to communicate with spiritual forces.

Evidence of the geological changes in the Saharan region of Africa is found in vivid images of _____________seen in rock art from around 8000 BCE.

hippopotamus, elephant, and other wildlife

The technical skills of the Nok culture in western Sudan are demonstrated by their use of _______to make the earliest known sculpture in sub-Saharan Africa.


What characteristic feature appears in Nok sculptures of human figures and animals

triangular D-shaped eyes

Africans make figures emphasizing health and well-being to encourage the birth and growth of __________.


To communicate with __________ many African societies rely on a diviner.


In Yoruba tradition, honoring a deceased __________ by creating a beautiful dwelling place for its spirit represents hope for the future, for survival, and for prosperity.

• twin

When first carved, nkisi nakonde are __________, but then gain power through use.

• neutral

The __________ care for a spirit spouse in hopes that life unfolds more smoothly.

• Baule

Kuba funerary rites involve the performance of masquerade figures assuming roles associated with _______________.

• male and female

The Kuba people produce elaborate and sophisticated arts tied to __________.

• leadership

Yoruba palaces had elaborately decorated __________.

• woodcarving

Olowe of Ise was a highly regarded __________ woodcarver.

• Yoruba

Why is the display of African masks in museums problematic?

• All of the above

In African cultures, the political use of art is closely associated with what?

• a leader's connection to the spirit world

The __________ sacked and burned the Benin Royal Palace in 1897.

• British

Why do many African cultures emphasize the importance of maintaining relationships with ancestral spirits?

• They could cause harm if they are displeased

Why might a Baule man have an image made of the spirit-spouse?

• because he has not married

What is the function of nkisi nkonde?

• It is an object that harnesses powers that will alleviate the specific problems of its owner.

What distinguishes nkisi nkonde from other nkisi?

• Specific medicinal ingredients are used to focus its spiritual powers in a particular direction.

The doors of Yoruba palaces are often decorated with _______________.

• symbolic and narrative images carved in high relief

In many African cultures, a diviner is someone who ______________.

• mediates between this world and the supernatural

The Yoruba Palace Door by Olowe of Ise (Fig. 28-17) depicts _____________.

• the king receiving a colonial administrator

(2.5 out of 3 points)
Write in your own words and answer the following question in 3 complete sentences: Explain how lost wax casting relates to two of the cultures of early Africa.

• The lost wax casting method was used in the head of oni in the Ife culture. It was also used in the benin culture when making the head of oba. These too sculptures were very important to both groups and they were considered kings so they used bronze.

Write in your own words and answer in 3 complete sentences: What is the extensive iconography of the Hip Mask in Fig. 13-8?

• WRONG - the mask were worn by certain ranking officals or chiefs. the beard shows the typical boarder of stylized mudfish. it represents peace, well being and fertility

Write in your own words and answer in 3 complete sentences: Why do we need to understand African art within the context of its use?


(2 out of 3 points)
Explain why Islamic religious art is aniconic. Write in complete sentences.

• Islamic art is aniconic; meaning there are no iconic figures of the prophet in the islamic art work; however that doesn't mean he isn't existing in other ways. The reason behind this is that Muhammad emptyed the the shrine of all the pagan idols leaving the cubical structure that was built by Abraham and Ishamael and then dedicated it to god. That is why there are no iconic figures of the prophet in the art.

What language is common to all Muslims?

• Arabic

What object from chapter 8 has an inscription that says "Knowledge: the beginning of it is bitter to taste, but the end is sweeter than honey"?

• Bowl with Kufic Border

In weaving, the vertical elements are called

• warps

Which of the following structures features an ambulatory?

• Dome of the Rock

The Islamic art form that is best known in the West is

• carpets and textiles

The Great Mosque at Cordoba, Spain is an example of a ______________________ type of mosque.

• hypostyle

This is the plan of the Great Mosque, Kairoun, Tunisia. Identify 1, 2, 4, & 8. 07-08 Kairouan, Tunisia Plan of Great MosqueWithout Labels-72x768

• qibla wall, 2. mihrab, 4. prayer hall, 8. minaret

The first monumental use of Qur'anic inscription is to be found at

• The Dome of the Rock

What is used in Islamic architecture to reflect, add sound, and unite spaces?

• water

The first great monument to Islamic art is the

• Dome of the Rock

Islam's aniconic tradition can be traced to ______________.

• Muhammad's destruction of pagan idols in the Kaaba

The holy book of Islam is called the __________.

• Qur'an

The basic design of a mosque derived from what building prototype?

• Muhammad's home

The Muslim place of worship is called the __________.

• mosque

(1 out of 3 points)
Explain why calligraphy is an important component of Islamic art. Write in complete sentences.

• It was the primary means of expression for visual communication. It had two purposes: first, it could tell many kinds of information about an object, second, was for the beauty that was added to the object.

The wall of the prayer hall that is closest to Mecca is called the __________ wall.

• qibla

How is Islamic religious belief reflected in the art of calligraphy?

• Reading and writing the word of God are acts of religious devotion

Figurative imagery is most common in what type of Islamic art?

• small-scale paintings

What material was commonly used to produce exquisite lamps, lit from within by oil and wick, for illumination in mosques?

• glass

A(n) __________was a college for religious and legal studies.

• madrasa

Which ornamental form typically employs marble or other colorful stone?

• ablaq masonry

Like Christians and Jews, Muslims are considered "People of the ______."

• Book

The huge tower from which the faithful are called to pray is called a __________.

• minaret

The __________ is an enclosure in front of the mihrab for the ruler and other dignitaries.

• maqsura

_____________ is a blocky, angular formal script which may have developed first for carved or woven inscriptions.

• Kufic

The two basic types of carpets are ______and pile, or ________carpets.

• flat weave ;knotted

Kandariya Mahadeva temple was built by a ruler of the ______________________ dynasty in the late 10th or early 11th century.

• Chandella

What material was used to make most of the works of art and architecture seen in chapter 9 of the text?

• stone

Where would you find a yakshi?

• on the torana gate at the Great Stupa at Sanchi

What religion is associated with the statue called Ardharnesvara? Buddhism or Hinduism?

• Hinduism

. __________ are enlightened beings who postpone nirvana and buddhahood to help others achieve enlightenment.

• bodhisattvas

An amalaka is an architectural feature found

• crowning the top of a shikara

What does the dharmachakra mudra stand for?

• teaching and setting the wheel of law in motion.

List three things that a statue of a bodhisattva has that a statue of a Buddha does not have.

• First, the bodhisattvas have earspools and other jewelry while the Buddha doesn't not. Second, the bodhisattvas have intricate robes, belts, and numerous accessories while the Buddha wears simple clothing. Thrid, Bodhisattvas are of the earthly realm, the Buddha has escaped the bonds of earth, and belongs to the heavenly realm.
• earspools, or ear ornaments
• crown, or jeweled headress,
• jewelry, necklaces, bracelets
• elaborate robe, princely garments

What are mudras, where are they found, and what are the names of three of them?

• Mudras are hand signs used in Buddhist and Hindu statuary. They have fixed meanings and are used to convey information to worshipers. There are hundreds of them but the most common are: dhyana (meditation), bhumisparsha (earth touching), dharmachakra (turning the wheel of law or teaching), the abhaya (do not fear, or reassurance), the vitarka (intellectual debate) and the varada (charity or gift-giving).

Using the correct architectural terms from the list of terms from your assignment, list three features that you can see in the picture. (You cannot see some features because they are inside the temple; don't list those).

• shikhara, amalaka, mandapas, plinth.

In not less than 30 words define 'garbha-griha' (What is it? Where is it? What is its importance? Who is it important to?)

• The garbha-griha, or womb chamber, is a small room directly under the tallest tower in a Hindu temple. It is where the image of the deity is found and is the focus of worship.

Buddha or Bodhisattva?

• Bodhisattva

Which of the following statements does NOT apply to BOTH Hindu and Buddhist temples in India?

• Followers believe that god(s) inhabit(s) the structure.

What does the abhaya mudra stand for?

• reassurance, blessing and protection

Which of the following is NOT true of statues of Hindu gods?

• It must be made of metal

What Indian dynasty is famous for their fine bronze statues of Hindu gods, goddesses and saints?

• Chola

The Chola dynasty produced bronze sculptures of deities, like Shiva Nataraja, using a metal casting technique called ______________.

• lost-wax

What mudra is the Seated Sukhotai Bronze Buddha on page 777 performing?

• Bhumisparsha or calling the earth to witness

The railings that surround the Great Stupa at Sanchi (Fig. 9-8) mark a path for the Buddhist devotional practice of _______________.

• circumambulation

Choose the most correct answer.

• Borobudur

Buddha or Bodhisattva?

• Buddha

Answer in not less than one complete sentence. Look at the Shiva Nataraja bronze sculpture in your text (page 314 or the image folder), What is the significance of the drum he is holding?

• With the drum Shiva beats the rhythms of creation and destruction, life and death.

What is meant by the term "axis of the universe" and where would you find one?


List the three lakshanas of the Buddha that are found on the head.

• urna-curl of hair, or mole on the forhead
• ushnisha, a cranial bump, looks like a hair bun.
• elongated ears (empty ears, no ear spools)

What is the black columnar object in the middle of the picture?

• linga

What two structures, both the subjects of discussion on the first forum and pictured and discussed in chapter 9 of your text, have relief carvings of jataka tales? (Just give me the names of the two structures. Note: structures are not sculptures).

• The Great Stupa of Sanchi & Borobudur

The ushnishas of Indian Buddhas are depicted as a bun of hair on top the head, but the Sukhotai Buddhas from Sukhotai,Thailand, Southeast Asia, have a __________________ protuberance in addition to a ushnisha.


Which of the following is NOT an example of one of the Buddha's lakshanas?

• the mudra

Stories of the Buddha's past lives are called _________ tales.

• jataka

Where is this structure located?

• Sanchi

Which religious monument is thought to contain remains of the Buddha?

• Great Stupa, Sanchi

Choose the response that best describes the image.

• yakshi

This Gupta period Buddha is in the Image Folder. What does this sculpture commemorate?

• First Sermon of the Buddha

What southeast Asian country produced the 'Walking Buddha'?

• Thailand

What structural form is a fundamental element of Buddhist worship?

• the stupa

This structure is for the worship of

• the Buddha

The two deer that appear on the Gupta period sandstone Buddha Turning the Wheel of Dharma (Image Folder) signify

• The deer park

This Buddha has his hands in the ______________________ mudra.

• dhyana (meditation)

What would be circumambulated?

• stupa

Where did the Buddha give his First Sermon?

• Sarnath

Which symbol is NOT used to represent the Buddha?

• a linga

A yakshi is the personification for?

• Fertility and vegetation

Who presides over the Pureland?

• Amida Buddha

The telescope, seen in the woodblock print "Flowers of Beauty in the Floating World" was introduced to Japan by the

• Dutch

The first subjects of ukiyo-e were

• Kabuki actors and courtesans

The 12th century Tale of Genji handscrolls are painted in Japanese style called ____________________.

• yamato-e

Who was the greatest kami of them all?

• Amaterasu

List three advantages of making a sculpture using the joined-block techique.

• reduction of splitting and cracking
• standardization of body proportions
• allowed carvers to specialize

What are the characteristics of Muromachi period Zen ink paintings? Write in complete sentences.

• The characteristics of Muromachi Zen ink paintings are the use of monochromatic ink, in black and diluted greys; the landscape as subject matter that include rocks, trees and water; the presence of emptiness or a void, and having a lonely serene, and poetic feeling.

The production of woodblock prints combined the expertise of the _________________, the ____________________, and the _______________________.

• artist
• carver
• printer

The term 'raku' refers to

• A type of hand-built, low-fired ceramic

Which of the following is the best example of wabi and sabi?

• Mount Fugi Teabowl

Which word means "dried-up mountains and water?"

• karesansai

In the 12th century Tale of Genji handscrolls sadness and happiness was often conveyed by

• plants

Which building at the Horyuji compound contains Buddhist works of art and is used for worship and ceremonies?

• Kondo

The most significant surviving Japanese temple to Buddhism is

• Horyuji

The two most famous ukiyo-e printmakers of the Edo period were

• Katsushika Hokusai and Utagawa Hiroshige

The social and economic changes of the Edo period saw _________ become active patrons of the arts.

• merchants

What feature of Jocho's sculpture of Amida Buddha at Byodoin is distinctively Japanese?

• joined-block construction

The counterculture of the Edo Period produced ukiyo-e whose subject matter depicted Yoshiwara ________.

• brothels

The Shrine at Ise is devoted to this major Shinto deity (One-word answer).

• Amaterasu

The original source of the form for the main sanctuary at Ise is thought to be

• granaries

The Japanese word "ukiyo-e" means

• picture of the floating world

The counterculture of the Edo Period produced works whose subject matter depicted which of the following?

• Yoshiwara brothels

The Ise Shrine is ritually rebuilt every ___________.

• twenty years

Slide Identification: Select the response that best suits the image on the screen.
How many boats are in this painting?

• three

The Edo period artist who was one of the first to develop nishiki-e was _____________.

• Suzuki Harunobu

Explain the purpose for rebuilding the Amaterasu Shrine every twenty years. Answer in no less than 20 words and write in complete sentences.


The Tale of Genji was written during the _____________ period.

• Heian

Landscape (Fig. 25-2), a painting by Shubun's pupil __________ illustrates well the spirit of a Zen-influenced landscape tradition.

• Bunsei

The dry rock garden in the Zen temple of __________ is one of Japan's most renowned Zen sites.

• Ryoan-ji

Kosho's portrait sculpture of Kuya Preaching (Fig. 11-14) Kosho's portrait sculpture of Kuya Preaching (Fig. 11-14) depicts six small buddhas emerging from the monk's mouth to represent his ________.

• chanting

__________ was an esteemed Zen monk-artist of the Muromachi period who traveled in China.

• Sesshu

Which structure at Horyuji (Fig. 11-4) is not entered into because of its reliquary function?

• the pagoda

Muromachi ink painting was heavily influenced by the aesthetics of __________.

• Zen

Several forms of visual art flourished during the Muromachi period, but __________ reigned supreme.

• ink painting

Although Ise is a popular site for pilgrims, only the imperial family and Shinto priests are allowed into the ________.

• inner shrine

The most famous tea master in Japanese history was __________.

• Sen no Rikyu

The only surviving painted scenes from the Tale of Genji are dated to the

• 12th. century

The two major structures inside this compound are Test Canvas: 13

• Zen Buddhism

What Edo period artist created a set of woodblock prints entitled Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji?

• Katsushika Hokusai

What structure was built to represent the Pure Land paradise of the Amida Buddha?

• Phoenix Hall

What is bronze and how was it used by the Shang? (two to three sentences)

• Bronze is a metal, an alloy of tin and copper. The Shang Chinese melted it and poured it into piece molds to create bronze ritual vessels like the yu and the guang.

What literati painting in your text is in the album leaf format?

• The painting Poet on a Mountaintop (802) is in the album leaf format.

What is jade and how was it used by the ancient Chinese? (about two to three sentences)

• Jade is a very hard stone that was precious to the ancient Chinese. They associated it with yang because it was hard and ridgid. They made ritual objects like congs and bi disks from it which were buried with the dead.

How are yin and yang expressed in Chinese landscape paintings? (about two sentences)

• Yin, the female principle, is expressed by water, and yang, the male principle is expressed by mountains.

Who was the primary audience of literati paintings?

• close friends and scholars

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