It is _________________ that gives evidence that the African artistic traditions of body decoration, mask-making and performance spring from ancient African roots.
Ere ibeji represent dead children, but they have marks of adulthood such as _____________________ & _________________.
The wooden beams that project from the Great Friday Mosque at Jenne are called _________________.
The thin parallel lines that cover the faces of Ife zinc-brass heads are thought to represent _________________________.
Many symbols in the art of Benin reflect the belief that the oba can what?
can mediate between the human and spirit worlds
The practice in Benin to make memorial sculptures for the shrines of royal ancestors derives from similar traditions in ____________.
A clear symbol of the oba's power and authority seen on memorial heads are the headdress and necklaces made of ________ beads.
What was the original function of almost 900 brass plaques, depicting a variety of subjects, which were made in Benin during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries?
They decorated the royal palace in Benin.
Why do memorial sculptures of the oba represent only the ruler's head?
• The head is the symbolic center of a person's wisdom and ability to communicate with spiritual forces.
Evidence of the geological changes in the Saharan region of Africa is found in vivid images of _____________seen in rock art from around 8000 BCE.
hippopotamus, elephant, and other wildlife
The technical skills of the Nok culture in western Sudan are demonstrated by their use of _______to make the earliest known sculpture in sub-Saharan Africa.
What characteristic feature appears in Nok sculptures of human figures and animals
triangular D-shaped eyes
Africans make figures emphasizing health and well-being to encourage the birth and growth of __________.
In Yoruba tradition, honoring a deceased __________ by creating a beautiful dwelling place for its spirit represents hope for the future, for survival, and for prosperity.
Kuba funerary rites involve the performance of masquerade figures assuming roles associated with _______________.
• male and female
In African cultures, the political use of art is closely associated with what?
• a leader's connection to the spirit world
Why do many African cultures emphasize the importance of maintaining relationships with ancestral spirits?
• They could cause harm if they are displeased
What is the function of nkisi nkonde?
• It is an object that harnesses powers that will alleviate the specific problems of its owner.
What distinguishes nkisi nkonde from other nkisi?
• Specific medicinal ingredients are used to focus its spiritual powers in a particular direction.
The doors of Yoruba palaces are often decorated with _______________.
• symbolic and narrative images carved in high relief
In many African cultures, a diviner is someone who ______________.
• mediates between this world and the supernatural
The Yoruba Palace Door by Olowe of Ise (Fig. 28-17) depicts _____________.
• the king receiving a colonial administrator
(2.5 out of 3 points)
Write in your own words and answer the following question in 3 complete sentences: Explain how lost wax casting relates to two of the cultures of early Africa.
• The lost wax casting method was used in the head of oni in the Ife culture. It was also used in the benin culture when making the head of oba. These too sculptures were very important to both groups and they were considered kings so they used bronze.
Write in your own words and answer in 3 complete sentences: What is the extensive iconography of the Hip Mask in Fig. 13-8?
• WRONG - the mask were worn by certain ranking officals or chiefs. the beard shows the typical boarder of stylized mudfish. it represents peace, well being and fertility
Write in your own words and answer in 3 complete sentences: Why do we need to understand African art within the context of its use?
(2 out of 3 points)
Explain why Islamic religious art is aniconic. Write in complete sentences.
• Islamic art is aniconic; meaning there are no iconic figures of the prophet in the islamic art work; however that doesn't mean he isn't existing in other ways. The reason behind this is that Muhammad emptyed the the shrine of all the pagan idols leaving the cubical structure that was built by Abraham and Ishamael and then dedicated it to god. That is why there are no iconic figures of the prophet in the art.
What object from chapter 8 has an inscription that says "Knowledge: the beginning of it is bitter to taste, but the end is sweeter than honey"?
• Bowl with Kufic Border
The Great Mosque at Cordoba, Spain is an example of a ______________________ type of mosque.
This is the plan of the Great Mosque, Kairoun, Tunisia. Identify 1, 2, 4, & 8. 07-08 Kairouan, Tunisia Plan of Great MosqueWithout Labels-72x768
• qibla wall, 2. mihrab, 4. prayer hall, 8. minaret
Islam's aniconic tradition can be traced to ______________.
• Muhammad's destruction of pagan idols in the Kaaba
(1 out of 3 points)
Explain why calligraphy is an important component of Islamic art. Write in complete sentences.
• It was the primary means of expression for visual communication. It had two purposes: first, it could tell many kinds of information about an object, second, was for the beauty that was added to the object.
How is Islamic religious belief reflected in the art of calligraphy?
• Reading and writing the word of God are acts of religious devotion
What material was commonly used to produce exquisite lamps, lit from within by oil and wick, for illumination in mosques?
The __________ is an enclosure in front of the mihrab for the ruler and other dignitaries.
_____________ is a blocky, angular formal script which may have developed first for carved or woven inscriptions.
Kandariya Mahadeva temple was built by a ruler of the ______________________ dynasty in the late 10th or early 11th century.
What material was used to make most of the works of art and architecture seen in chapter 9 of the text?
. __________ are enlightened beings who postpone nirvana and buddhahood to help others achieve enlightenment.
List three things that a statue of a bodhisattva has that a statue of a Buddha does not have.
• First, the bodhisattvas have earspools and other jewelry while the Buddha doesn't not. Second, the bodhisattvas have intricate robes, belts, and numerous accessories while the Buddha wears simple clothing. Thrid, Bodhisattvas are of the earthly realm, the Buddha has escaped the bonds of earth, and belongs to the heavenly realm.
• earspools, or ear ornaments
• crown, or jeweled headress,
• jewelry, necklaces, bracelets
• elaborate robe, princely garments
What are mudras, where are they found, and what are the names of three of them?
• Mudras are hand signs used in Buddhist and Hindu statuary. They have fixed meanings and are used to convey information to worshipers. There are hundreds of them but the most common are: dhyana (meditation), bhumisparsha (earth touching), dharmachakra (turning the wheel of law or teaching), the abhaya (do not fear, or reassurance), the vitarka (intellectual debate) and the varada (charity or gift-giving).
Using the correct architectural terms from the list of terms from your assignment, list three features that you can see in the picture. (You cannot see some features because they are inside the temple; don't list those).
• shikhara, amalaka, mandapas, plinth.
In not less than 30 words define 'garbha-griha' (What is it? Where is it? What is its importance? Who is it important to?)
• The garbha-griha, or womb chamber, is a small room directly under the tallest tower in a Hindu temple. It is where the image of the deity is found and is the focus of worship.
Which of the following statements does NOT apply to BOTH Hindu and Buddhist temples in India?
• Followers believe that god(s) inhabit(s) the structure.
What Indian dynasty is famous for their fine bronze statues of Hindu gods, goddesses and saints?
The Chola dynasty produced bronze sculptures of deities, like Shiva Nataraja, using a metal casting technique called ______________.
What mudra is the Seated Sukhotai Bronze Buddha on page 777 performing?
• Bhumisparsha or calling the earth to witness
The railings that surround the Great Stupa at Sanchi (Fig. 9-8) mark a path for the Buddhist devotional practice of _______________.
Answer in not less than one complete sentence. Look at the Shiva Nataraja bronze sculpture in your text (page 314 or the image folder), What is the significance of the drum he is holding?
• With the drum Shiva beats the rhythms of creation and destruction, life and death.
List the three lakshanas of the Buddha that are found on the head.
• urna-curl of hair, or mole on the forhead
• ushnisha, a cranial bump, looks like a hair bun.
• elongated ears (empty ears, no ear spools)
What two structures, both the subjects of discussion on the first forum and pictured and discussed in chapter 9 of your text, have relief carvings of jataka tales? (Just give me the names of the two structures. Note: structures are not sculptures).
• The Great Stupa of Sanchi & Borobudur
The ushnishas of Indian Buddhas are depicted as a bun of hair on top the head, but the Sukhotai Buddhas from Sukhotai,Thailand, Southeast Asia, have a __________________ protuberance in addition to a ushnisha.
This Gupta period Buddha is in the Image Folder. What does this sculpture commemorate?
• First Sermon of the Buddha
The two deer that appear on the Gupta period sandstone Buddha Turning the Wheel of Dharma (Image Folder) signify
• The deer park
The telescope, seen in the woodblock print "Flowers of Beauty in the Floating World" was introduced to Japan by the
The 12th century Tale of Genji handscrolls are painted in Japanese style called ____________________.
List three advantages of making a sculpture using the joined-block techique.
• reduction of splitting and cracking
• standardization of body proportions
• allowed carvers to specialize
What are the characteristics of Muromachi period Zen ink paintings? Write in complete sentences.
• The characteristics of Muromachi Zen ink paintings are the use of monochromatic ink, in black and diluted greys; the landscape as subject matter that include rocks, trees and water; the presence of emptiness or a void, and having a lonely serene, and poetic feeling.
The production of woodblock prints combined the expertise of the _________________, the ____________________, and the _______________________.
Which building at the Horyuji compound contains Buddhist works of art and is used for worship and ceremonies?
The two most famous ukiyo-e printmakers of the Edo period were
• Katsushika Hokusai and Utagawa Hiroshige
The social and economic changes of the Edo period saw _________ become active patrons of the arts.
What feature of Jocho's sculpture of Amida Buddha at Byodoin is distinctively Japanese?
• joined-block construction
The counterculture of the Edo Period produced ukiyo-e whose subject matter depicted Yoshiwara ________.
The counterculture of the Edo Period produced works whose subject matter depicted which of the following?
• Yoshiwara brothels
Slide Identification: Select the response that best suits the image on the screen.
How many boats are in this painting?
The Edo period artist who was one of the first to develop nishiki-e was _____________.
• Suzuki Harunobu
Explain the purpose for rebuilding the Amaterasu Shrine every twenty years. Answer in no less than 20 words and write in complete sentences.
Landscape (Fig. 25-2), a painting by Shubun's pupil __________ illustrates well the spirit of a Zen-influenced landscape tradition.
The dry rock garden in the Zen temple of __________ is one of Japan's most renowned Zen sites.
Kosho's portrait sculpture of Kuya Preaching (Fig. 11-14) Kosho's portrait sculpture of Kuya Preaching (Fig. 11-14) depicts six small buddhas emerging from the monk's mouth to represent his ________.
Which structure at Horyuji (Fig. 11-4) is not entered into because of its reliquary function?
• the pagoda
Several forms of visual art flourished during the Muromachi period, but __________ reigned supreme.
• ink painting
Although Ise is a popular site for pilgrims, only the imperial family and Shinto priests are allowed into the ________.
• inner shrine
What Edo period artist created a set of woodblock prints entitled Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji?
• Katsushika Hokusai
What is bronze and how was it used by the Shang? (two to three sentences)
• Bronze is a metal, an alloy of tin and copper. The Shang Chinese melted it and poured it into piece molds to create bronze ritual vessels like the yu and the guang.
What literati painting in your text is in the album leaf format?
• The painting Poet on a Mountaintop (802) is in the album leaf format.
What is jade and how was it used by the ancient Chinese? (about two to three sentences)
• Jade is a very hard stone that was precious to the ancient Chinese. They associated it with yang because it was hard and ridgid. They made ritual objects like congs and bi disks from it which were buried with the dead.
How are yin and yang expressed in Chinese landscape paintings? (about two sentences)
• Yin, the female principle, is expressed by water, and yang, the male principle is expressed by mountains.
How did the literati's view of painting differ from artists who were paid for their work?
• an emphasis on art as personal expression
A literati of the late Ming period, __________ developed significant and far-reaching theories on the state of Chinese painting.
• Dong Qichang
A treasured scroll often bears not only the __________ of its maker, but also those of collectors and admirers throughout the centuries.
Chinese __________are paintings that are meant to be viewed in small sections at a time.
In the literati tradition, _________, _________, and _______were the three areas of accomplishment suited for members of the cultural elite.
• poetry; calligraphy; painting
The Chinese view the stamped characters or _____ that often appear on art not as disfigurations, but as additional layer of interest in the work.
What Northern Song dynasty painter use 'raindrop texture strokes' to express the ruggedness of rocks?
• Fan Kuan
The Daoist emphasis on the close relationship between ____ and ______ led to the inclusion of birds, trees and other natural motifs in Chinese art.
• humans; nature
Which of the following characterizes the viewer's experience when looking at a handscroll?
• All of the above
What one element distinguishes Chinese paintings from artistic traditions in the West?
• a view of nature through a distant, all-seeing, mobile viewpoint
In China, calligraphy is closely related to the art of painting and considered ______________.
• a reflection of the writer's character
Write answer in two to three complete sentences. Describe a handscroll and explain how they were viewed.
• Hand scrolls are an Asian format for painting. They were generally about 12 inches wide, but could be up to 40 feet long. They contained text and painted scenes.Hand scrolls were viewed by one or two people at a time who began on the right and unrolled the scroll to the left. The viewed portion was rolled up on the right.
Many Shang bronze vessels were used for rituals and the shape of the vessel matched its function in the ritual. Therefore it can be said that the fabulous animal shape is not purely decorative. Which of the following supports this statement?
• each fabulous animal shape connected with the world of spirits in the ritual
How does the artist reflect the Daoist sensitivity of individuality in Travelers Among Mountains and Streams?
• by focusing on the mountains and minimizing the human element
The Chinese interest in landscape painting was most strongly influenced by which of the following?
• Daoist harmony with nature and poetic themes
What casting process was used by the Chinese to create bronze vessels?
Answer in two words.
Briefly explain how jade was worked. Write about two complete sentences.
• Jade was worked by drilling and abrasion. The unwanted material was drilled and abraded away. Jade was too hard to carve.
Which of the following materials is commonly used in Western painting, but almost never in Chinese painting?
Which one of the following represents the essence of Ming literati painting?
• Poet on a Mountaintop
The Inca used two types of stone masonry; rectangular blocks of uniform size and irregular shaped blocks called ______________.
Both the Maya and the Aztec used the feathers of tropical birds to make garments and headdresses for the elite, but the most prized feathers came from the _____________________.
This question is worth 5 points-write 5 points worth! Discuss at least three of the monumental structures that were built in the ancient Americas. Be sure to name the cultures and which of the three areas that are associated with specific structures.
First there is the palenque-place and temple of the inscriptions. This is the largest in mesoamerican at the pre-columbian Maya civilization site of Palenque. The structure was specifically built as the funerary monument for K'inich Janaab' Pakal. The ruler of Palenque in the 7th century whose reign over the polity lasted almost 70 years.
Second, is the tikal-Base of North Acropolis. It is located in North and Central America, Guatemala. This temple is from the mayans. It is also one of the largest archaeological sites and urban centres of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization.
Thrid, is machu Picchu. Machu Picchu was built around 1450, at the height of the Inca Empire.
The ________ people produced pipes, depicting forest animals and birds, which have been found from Lake Superior to the Gulf of Mexico.
The Paracas culture is best known for its beautiful __________, which were found wrapped around bodies of the dead.
Evidence of the Moche culture's sophisticated metallurgy skills are the gold-and-turquoise _________ found in the tomb of the Warrior Priest at Sipán.
The Moche culture of Peru is known for their realistic ____________ vessels, made in the shape of naturalistically modeled human beings.
The ___________ at Teotihuacan is built over a multi-chambered cave with a spring, which may have been the original focus of worship at the site.
Pyramid of the Sun
Hosteen Klah was a nadle, or Navajo third __________, and could learn both female and male arts.
The Pueblo artist Maria Montoya Martinez is known for the distinctive _________ceramic style she developed with her husband in the early twentieth century.
What did the Navajo find most controversial about shaman-singer Hosteen Klah's woven tapestries?
He was incorporating images from sand-paintings into his weavings
How are Hamatsu masks of the Northwestern Kwakwaka'wakw culture traditionally used?
They are worn in ritual dances
Northwest painting and weaving images are composed of two basic elements: the __________ and the formline.
The patterns and designs on Incan garments were _____________.
symbolic of the wearer's the ethnic identity and social rank
The __________ built an extensive road system in South America to move their armies and speed transport and communication within the empire.
Two great empires, the __________ in Mexico and the Inca in South America, rose to prominence in the fifteenth century.
Mayan temples set atop steep pyramids with _______levels, which probably reflected the culture's concept of the underworld.
How did the discovery of an offering of carefully arranged figures in La Venta (Fig. 12-1) contribute to art history's knowledge of the Olmec?
It provided a context for similar figures found elsewhere
How is Andean culture distinguished from the artistic developments in other parts of the world?
the early production of textiles
The Temple of the Inscriptions in Palenque (Fig. 12-9) is built above a corbel-vaulted stairway that leads to __________.
the subterranean tomb of the ruler Pakal the Great
Which Mesoamerican culture's architecture is characterized by talud-tablero construction, where a sloping base supports a flat entablature?
How does the Mayan site of Tikal conform to the uneven terrain of the rainforest?
structures placed on high ground connected by causeways
What is indicated by the form emerging from the priest's mouth in the fresco of the Bloodletting Ritual (Fig. 12-7) from Teotihuacan?
the priest's chanted words
Which of the following features was shared by the different cultures of Mesoamerica?
a ritual ball game
In making textiles, Andean artists used a technique called _______________ to add color and design to the background cloth.
In weaving, the _____________ is the lengthwise thread, and the ___________ is the crossing thread, woven over and under the lengthwise thread to create the weave.
It is hard to overestimate the importance of what artistic tradition in the development of the Central Andes?
In making textiles, Andean artists added designs to the background cloth with a technique called _______________ (one word).
Write in complete sentences, and write 3 points worth! What are mimis?
Mimis are animated human and animal forms. These forms are also called spirits by modern Aborigines. They are seen in bark painting and Rock paintings. Mimis are spirits that live in narrow spaces between rock during the day and emerge at night.
Write in complete sentences, and write 3 points worth! What is bark painting?
Bark painting is done on the inside of eucalptus bark which is stripped from the tree in one piece. Bark paintings use natural materials. Styles that are normally seen on bark paintings are cross hatching and X-ray. Bark paintings originated in Arnhm Land and follow rock painting traditions.
Write in complete sentences. What are the four geographic areas of Oceania?
The four geographical ares of Oceania are Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and Australia.
The master woodcarver who created the Maori Meeting House used ________________ tools, which resulted in sharper, more defined carvings.
The Maori tradition of building a large wooden meeting house evolved after _______________.
contact with Westerners
Name two Australian artists who are known for their bark paintings.
Charlie Numbulmoore, David Malangi, and Thompson Yulidjirri
What theme for art do the Maori, Rapa Nui, and the Asmat have in common? Mana or ancestors?
This interesting object was made by the _____________ people from ______________, and represents a/an ______________________.
Asmat, Irian Jaya, ancestor
Name a specific example of art that has mana.
Name of the artist of the painting Honey Ant Dreaming.
Clifford Possum Tjalpaltjarri
New Zealand belongs to which group of pacific islands? Micronesia, Polynesia, or Melanesia?
What unusual feature appears in the relief carvings of ancestors covering the supporting structures of the Te-Hau-ki-Turanga meeting house (page 870, Fig. A)?
a naturalistic portrait of the artist
While today some Asmat bisj poles (Fig. 27-6) are sold to outsiders, traditionally they were____________________.
left in swamps to deteriorate
Common to Polynesian cultures are the carved sculptures called tiki, which represent ___________.
__________ worked in sand drawing, which Geoffrey Bardon helped transform into a painted mural.
Much of the art of indigenous Australian peoples developed ________________.
to relive and transmit stories about ancestors
Feather cloaks were closely associated with the mana or _________ of members of the Hawaiian elite.
What was the Polynesian supernatural force that could inhabit people, places and objects, and could be dangerous if it became too strong.
Which of the following animals was not a symbol of headhunting used by the Asmat in their art?
All Aboriginal art is based on a unique worldview. The Aboriginal people call this worldview ____________________.
Much of the art of indigenous Australian peoples developed ________________.
to relive and transmit stories about ancestors
Common to Polynesian cultures are the carved sculptures called tiki, which represent ___________.