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Terms in this set (102)
The multiplication of cells.
Mass of tissue that serves no physiological purpose.
Site of original cancer location.
Not cancerous, enclosed in membrane that prevents them from pentrating neighboring tissues.
Cancerous, breaks through underlying tissues to invade surronding structures, blood vessels, and lymphatic system.
what is the difference between a malignant tumor and cell?
a tumor invades surrounding structures spreading to distant sites producing new tumors, whereas the cell divides without regard for normal growth, the cells grow the tumors
5 stages of tumor development
1. genetically altered cell, 2. hyperplasia, 3. dysplasia, 4. in situ cancer, 5. invasive cancer
stage 1 of tumor development
tumor begins with a genetic mutation, an altered cell that increases its capacity to divide itself faster
stage 2 of tumor development
the altered cell reproduces too much, but looks normal,hyperplasia takes place where the cell is mutated again loosening cell growth
stage 3 of tumor development
cells reproduce too much, shape abnormal, tissue exhibits dysplasia, rare mutation alters cells behavior further
stage 4 of tumor development
affected cells become more abnormal, if tumor hasn't broken through boundaries its called in situ cancer
stage 5 of tumor development
genetic changes allow for the tumor to invade underlying tissue, now considered malignant, renegade cells establish new cells throughout body considered and invasive cancer now
an altered cell that looks normal still but reproduces too much
cell is abnormal in shape and reproducing too often
in situ cancer
if the tumor hasn't broken through any boundaries between tissues
tumor growth becomes malignant and begins metastasis
A system of vessels that returns fluids to the circulatory system.
Removal and exam of small body tissue, uses needle to remove sample.
Spread of cancer cells from one part of body to another. Occurs because cancer cells can't stick to one another strongly.
what are 2 ways metastasis can occur?
1. can travel through bloodstream, 2. travel through lymphatic system to nearby or distant lymph nodes
the traveling-sending process that allows for cancer cells to gather at a new site and make copies of themselves through recruited envoy cells
work by creating proteins that attract cancer cells, these cells gather at a new site and make copies of themselves.
Method of classifying the extent of cancer in a patient, how far it has progressed.
How many Stages are there?
Five. Early cancer, present in only primary tumor. the next three are the more extensive with the gradual or rapid spread of cancer to the lymph nodes. Fifth is advanced spreading to other organs.
A period where there is no symptoms of disease, can last years.
what are the 4 common classes of malignant tumors?
carcinomas, sarcomas, lymphomas, and leukemias
cancer of the epithelial tissue, skin glands, internal organs. the most common types of cancers
Cancer of bone, cartilage, or striated muscle.
tumor from lymphatic tissue, which is part of the body's infection fighting system, begins in lymph nodes can spread to everywhere else
cancer of the white blood cells, or blood-forming cells starts in the bone marrow and spreads,its cancerous cells crowd out normal blood cells
most all arise from cells that line the bronchi
arise from preexisting polyps that have gradually developed into malignancies
small usually harmless mass of tissue on the inner of colon or rectum
How does estrogen effect breast cancer?
estrogen promotes the growth of cells
growths in the prostate gland, base of bladder, if enlarges stops flow of urine
largely the cancer stems from an infection produced by the sexually transmitted disease HPV
head and neck cancers
cancer of the oral cavity, traced to tobacco and alcohol use, requires disfiguring surgeries
the crowding out of normal bone marrow cells by malignant plasma celled tumors
malignant tumor of the skin arises from pigmented cells and spreads rapidly caused by excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation, UVA and UVB
longer wave lengths less likely to cause immediate sun burn, causes premature skin aging, wrinkling, and connective tissue damage
short wave length causes sun burns, damages eyes, and immune system
light rays of specific wavelength emitted by sun, most blocked by ozone layer
basal cell carcinoma
cancer of deepest layers of skin
squamous cell carcinoma
cancer of surface layers of skin
what are 4 ways to detect skin cancer?
asymmetry, border irregularity, color variation, diameter larger than 1/4
list 5 other cancers
pancreatic, stomach, bladder, kidney, brain
someone who study's tumors
person who studys blood disorders including cancers
5-year survival rate
% of people diagnosed with disease alive after 5 years of having it, used to estimate the prognosis of diseases
What are 3 lifestyle choices that increase the risks of cancer?
smoking, alcohol, obesity.
low dose xray of breasts used to check for cancer
sound waves are bounced off body structures to create an image
what hormone increases risk of cancer?
the ovarian sex hormone estrogen
selective estrogen-receptor modulators
SERMs act like estrogen in some tissues but blocks estrogens effects in others, one SERM tamoxifen blocks estrogen in breast tissue.
antibody designed to bind to a specific cancer related target
inability to control urine flow
prostate-specific antigen test
(PSA) diagnostic test for prostate cancer, measures blood levels
scrape of cells from cervix to exam under microscope in order to detect cancer
tightly packed coils found in nucleus of cell that contains the molecules of DNA, 23 pairs
stands for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical substance consisting of a two long spiral stranded structure, also known as the double helix, carries genetic info
what are the four different nucleotide bases?
adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine. A T C G. their arrangement makes up a persons genetic code
why does DNA replicate itself?
because cells reproduce by splitting in 2, when a cell divides DNA replicates so each cell has a complete set of chromosomes
is a smaller unit of DNA and a section of chromosome containing the nucleotide base sequence A T G C for making protein, basic unit of heredity, acts as switches to alter the way cells work and controls the rate of cell division
how many genes do you have?
why does a gene mutate?
when DNA replicates itself as a part of cell division sometimes errors occur, a mutated gene then no longer has the proper code for producing it's protein. now the needed 2 copies of genes are damaged the cell ceases to behave normally
how does gene mutation cause cancer?
when errors occur in DNA replication mutated genes no longer have proper codes for producing their specific protein, if both copies are needed or damaged the cell ceases to function releasing the brake on cellular growth
how many copies do you need of each gene?
2, sometimes you can function with only 1
what are the germ cells, how do they effect cancer?
the gametes sperm and eggs, some mutations are inherited through these
environmental factor that causes mutation such as radiation, viruses, and chemical pollutants in the air
involved in transforming normal cells into cancer cells
tumor suppressor gene
type of oncogene that in its undamaged form works to control or restrict cellular growth, but releases the brake when mutated
is a gene located in the short arm chromosome 17; in normal form prevents cancer with apoptosis, when damaged it promotes cell division, and the spread of cancer
found in the long arm of chromosome 17 is damaged copy of a suppressor gene that is genetically inherited, increases the risk of getting breast cancer, like p53--only in the breast tissue
dont directly produce DNA mutations, they acelerate the growth of cells without damaging or altering their DNA this faster growth rate leaves less time for cell repair
what is an example of a cancer promoter?
they directly cause mutational changes in the DNA of oncogenes
what is an example of a cancer initiator?
carcinogens - tobacco smoke
agent that destroys the actions of carcinogens: which are cancer causing agents
what are 3 anticarcinogens?
vit A, vit E, selenium
yellow-red plant pigments that can be converted to vit A by liver they act as antioxidants and anti-cancer.
what are 4 carotenoids?
beta-carotene, lutein, lycopene, zeaxanthin
naturally occurring substance found in plant foods. "phyto" means plant; they prevent cancer, chronic disease, and neutralize dietary carcinogens
what are 3 dietary intakes that reduce your risk for cancer?
fiber, fruits, and vegetables
what are 3 dietary intakes that increase you risk for cancer?
Omega-6 polyunsaturated fats, fried foods, and alcohol
a carcinogen, chemical compound found in fried foods after the body breaks them down
what are 4 carcinogens that occur in the environment?
Viruses(microbes), synthetic substances, pollutants, and the suns UV rays.
how many men and women get cancer?
1 in 2 men, 1 in 3 women
how are cancers classified?
according to the types of cells that gave rise to them, they tend to retain some of their primary tumors functions
what are the steps to diagnose cancer?
exam, size of primary tumor, type, degree of malignancy and metastasis
how do you treat cancer?
ideal is to kill or remove all cancerous cells by surgery, then chemotherapy; the use of targeted drugs to destroy cancer cells, followed by radiation beams of gamma or xrays directed at site of primary tumor to kill the both normal and mutated cells
treatment of cancer with chemicals that destroy cancer cells, mostly works by disrupting DNA synthesis and replication
given to patients with cancers that are uncurable, the patient benefits but not all cancer cells are destroyed
the manipulation of gene expression in human cells. to succeed they would have to "turn off" the genes responsible for causing cancer and deliver new genes without disturbing the overall functioning of the body's cells.
unspecialized cells that can divide and produce cells that differentiate into many different types of specialized cells in the body, repopulates immune system
controls cells cycle, the process which cells divide, they block the actions of proteasomes halting cell division and killing cells good for blood cancers
mimics the immune systems response, they recognize the special protein markers and bind to them neutralizing and destroying them
tyrosine kinase inhibitors
enzymes shut down out of control cell signaling
block the cancer signals that produce new blood vessels for tumors
enhancement of the immune systems reaction to a tumor
bone marrow/stem cell transplant
repopulation of the hematopoietic and immune system with new cells or bone marrow from transplants
inactive caspase or active telomerase may make cancer cells "immortal" but active caspase or deactivate telomerase may lead to cancers self-destruct
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