found at very high latitudes; nearly as dry as deserts
Tropical Rain forests
-warm temperatures and at least 200 cm of precipitation each year -found in parts of South America, Central Africa and Southeast Asia
plants that grow on other plants
Soil in tropical rainforest is ___________________ ________________.
any available organic material is quickly recycled by decomposers and taken up by plants
Why is the soil of tropical rain forests nutrient poor?
for farming and raising cattle
Why have many rainforests in the Amazon Basin been cut down and burned?
Emergent Layer Canopy Understory
Three layers of the Rain Forest
-plants tend to have large, waxy flat leaves and shallow roots (to absorb nutrients from top layer of soil only) -trees have buttress roots to help stabilize them -more animal and plant species than any other biomes--highly specialized
Name three general characteristics of the Rain Forest
tropical dry forest
warm year round; rainfall is highly seasonal; occur in Southern Mexico and parts of Peru and Ecuador and Southeast Asia
trees that lose their leaves and stop photosynthesis during part of the year
it conserves water
Why is it beneficial (good) for deciduous trees to lose their leaves in the fall?
one plant adaptation of the tropical dry forest
animals slow their activity during the hot dry season
seasonal movement of animals from one region to another
amphibians will burrow in the mud
example of estivation
receives less precipitation than tropical dry forests but more than deserts; grasses interspersed with a few trees
fires and strong winds
What limits the growth of trees in the savanna?
deciduous with deep roots
adaptations of plants in the savanna
elephants, giraffes, lions
animals that live on the savanna
receives less than 25 cm of precipitation per year; temperatures high during day and low at night
Sahara (Africa); Sonoran (Arizona)
examples of deserts
soils contain little organic matter because there are not a lot of plants that decompose
describe the soil of the desert
thick, leathery stems
adaptations of desert plants
nocturnal & concentrated urine mammals have exaggerated appendages such as large ears to get rid of excess body heat
adaptations of desert animals
plants of the desert such as cacti and aloe vera (with thick "juicy" leaves)
gila monsters, kangaroo rats
examples of desert animals
Temperate Rain Forest
year-round moderate temps and havey rainfall; found in Pacific Northwest of US
tall evergreen trees such as cedars and hemlocks (have seed bearing cones)
What is the forest floor of the temperate rain forest covered with?
A lot of these animals are in the temperate rain forest because of the damp, shaded conditions
Temperate Forest (Deciduous)
biome with moderate precipitation throughout the year, hot summers and cold winters
broad leafed and deciduous (ex. oaks, beeches, maples)
What types of plants in the Temperate forest?
full of nutrients from leaf droppings
What is the soil of the temperate deciduous forest like?
when animals sleep or become dormant in the winter months
hibernation or migration
What are some adaptations that animals have to survive the harsh/cold winters of the temperate forest?
Eastern North Am; North Central Europe; Eastern Asia
Where are the Temperate Deciduous Forests?
Temperate Grassland (Prairie or Steppe)
biome with moderate seasonal precipitation and fairly extreme seasonal temperatures; droughts and fires common
No because there is not enough precipitation in the grasslands to support large trees
Are there large trees in the grasslands?
grasses grow from their base and thrive despite droughts, fires and animals grazing
Why are grasses so abundant in the grasslands?
What disperses the seeds of grasses?
animal of the temperate grassland that burrows underground to escape predators
herds of these migrate to the grasslands for grazing
rich in nutrients because the grasses die in the winter
What is the soil of the grasslands/prairie like?
most of the world's grasslands have been converted to these
Biome with mild, wet winters and dry summers
Mediterranean, parts of California--Malibu and Santa Barbara
Where is the Chaparral biome found?
plants are drought-resistant; many have thick, waxy leaves (succulents); ex. Eucalyptus
What are the plants like in the Chaparral?
burrow or are nocturnal to avoid heat
What do the animals of the Chaparral do to adapt to the heat?
Boreal Forest (Taiga)
Biome marked by long, cold winters; short, cool summers with moderate precipitation
nutrient poor; slightly acidic
What is the soil of the Taiga like?
Low species diversity-not a lot of different species
Describe the variety of species in the Taiga.
coniferous trees with waxy needles and conical shape (like black spruce) adapted to harsh, snowy conditions
What are the plants/trees of the Boreal Forest/Taiga like?
thick insulation (fur) and small extremities to maintain heat ex. ermine, lynx, bears, moose
Describe the animals of the Taiga and give an example.
Biome marked by EXTREME cold, dark winters; relatively sunny and cool summers; very dry with little precipitation
very high latitudes in the Northern hemisphere
Where is the Tundra found?
Tundra found in northern Canada, Alaska, and Siberia
Tundra found on tops of mountains
no tall trees; mosses and lichens common not a lot of growth due to: harsh winds nutrient-poor soil freezing temps
Describe the plants of the Tundra.
underground soil that is frozen year round (found in tundra)
caribou and birds
two types of animals that migrate to the tundra during the mild summers to feed on insects and lichens
polar bears and musk oxen
two kinds of animal that live in tundra year-long
No land under this in the Northern Hemisphere; It sits atop Antarctica in the Southern Hemisphere
Antarctica is called this because of its dry climate
very few plants, most life is in surrounding ocean