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70 terms

Sociology Final

Final
STUDY
PLAY
Sociologically, why is gender especially significant?

A. It reinforces the teachings of Genesis.
B. It provides one group to lead, another to follow.
C. It is a master status cutting across all aspects of life.
D. It permits a comparison to superior male qualities.
C. It is a master status cutting across all aspects of life.
Which statement is least accurate regarding sex and gender?

A. Gender is sociologically significant because it is the way in which society controls its members
B. The world offers unequal access to power, prestige, and property based on one's sex.
C. The terms "sex" and "gender" are sociologically and biologically interchangeable.
D. Being born male or female carries images and expectations on how one should act.
C. The terms "sex" and "gender" are sociologically and biologically interchangeable.
While the notion of gender refers to sociological characteristics, the concept of sex refers to ________ characteristics.

A. Biological
B. Anthropological
C. Philosophical
D. Psychological
A. Biological
Based on the accident that led to the sex change of a seven-month-old identical twin as well as the Vietnam veterans' study, which statement is most accurate regarding the effects of nature and nurture on behavior?

A. Nature is the dominant force in determining human behavior.
B. Nurture is the dominant force in determining human behavior.
C. Human behavior is the result of nature and nurture working together.
D. Neither nature nor nurture is responsible for determining human behavior.
C. Human behavior is the result of nature and nurture working together.
Sexual harassment was not recognized as a social problem until the 1970s.
A. True
B. False
A True
Sexual harassment and rape in the military have become isolated events due, for the most part, to extensive training and severe penalties for convicted offenders.

A. True
B. False
B. False
As described in the text, what are the two myths of race?

A. Eventually there will only be one race; all races have the same origin
B. There is only one race; intelligence is based on race
C. One race is superior to another; pure races exist
D. all races have the same origin; race is a status that cannot be changed
C. One race is superior to another; pure races exist.
While race might reflect our biological heritage, ________ reflects our cultural heritage.

A. age
B. social class
C. ethnicity
D. gender
C. Ethnicity
Which statement is most accurate regarding the meaning of race?

A. Race varies, depending upon the society in which its meaning is constructed.
B. It is entirely dependent upon fixed biological characteristics.
C.The concept of race tends to be quite similar in all cultures.
D. Race is a variable that changes, depending upon the age of people who use the term.
A. Race varies, depending upon the society in which its meaning is constructed.
What is the term used to describe an attitude that exaggerates the virtues of a group, such as all Asian Americans being brilliant or all African Americans being great athletes?

A. superior discrimination
B. positive prejudice
C. master status
D. complacent superiority
B. positive prejudice
What did Ezekiel suggest as the reason why some people are attracted to racist hate groups?

A. They developed group polarization at an early age.
B. Hate groups provide some people with a type of meaning in their lives.
C. They have too much leisure time on their hands.
D. Some people are bored and are drawn to risk-taking behavior.
B. Hate groups provide some people with a type of meaning in their lives.
The way in which race is determined is a universal cultural constant.

A. True
B. False
B. False
What does it mean when sociologists say that age is "socially constructed"?

A. Age is based on sociobiological concepts.
B. Age is based on cultural attitudes that are rooted in a society.
C. Age is related to heredity and genes.
D. Age is perceived in a similar manner all over the world.
B. Age is based on cultural attitudes that are rooted in a society.
Citizens in which of the following nations pay the lowest social security taxes?

A. Hungary
B. Poland
C. France
D. United States
D. United States
Of the following countries, in which one do the citizens have the longest life expectancy?

A. Japan
B. Germany
C. the United States
D. France
A. Japan
What sociological perspective stresses that age has no inherent meaning and that each culture shapes the way that its citizens perceive the elderly?

A.the conflict perspective
B. functionalism
C.symbolic interactionism
D.the feminist perspective
C.symbolic interactionism
LuAnn has a terminal disease and is close to death. Every other day, a person comes to her home and monitors her health signs, talks with her, and answers any questions the family has about LuAnn. The services provided LuAnn are referred to as ________.

A.hospice
B.socialized medical nursing
C. Medicare benefits
D. technological life
A.hospice
Gender age is the relative value that a culture places on men's and women's ages, such as gray hair on men interpreted as a sign of being mature and gray hair on women interpreted as a sign of being old.

A.True
B. False
A.True
Since 1900, the life expectancy of people in every industrialized country has increased.

A. True
B. False
B. False
The terms "life span" and "life expectancy" are interchangeable and virtually mean the same thing.

A. True
B. False
B. False
Napoleon Chagnon's visit to the Yanomamö tribe, where he observed tribe members appearing naked in public, using hallucinogenic drugs, and letting mucus hang from their noses, is a good example of ________.

A. the cultural relativity of deviance
B. the need for social sanctions
C. the need for absolute standards in defining deviance
D. nonconforming behavior
A. the cultural relativity of deviance
Violations of norms and rules that are written into law are officially called ________.

A. ethics
B. crimes
C. values
D. folkways
B. crimes
The concept of the relativity of deviance is best illustrated by which of the following statements?

A. It is not the act itself, but the reaction of others to the act that makes it deviant.
B. The nature of one's behavior is the most important aspect in determining deviance.
C. Deviance is most related to functionalism because it creates a dysfunction for society.
D. Deviance is analogous to mental illness.
A. It is not the act itself, but the reaction of others to the act that makes it deviant.
The relativity of deviance is most aligned with which sociological perspective?

A. the neo-conflict perspective
B. symbolic interactionism
C. the conflict perspective
D. structural functionalism
B. symbolic interactionism
Erving Goffman used the term ________ to refer to characteristics that discredit people.

A. master status
B. stigma
C. role
D. sanction
B. stigma
A group's usual and customary social arrangements, on which its members depend and on which they base their lives, is called ________.

A. social guideline
B. social order
C. social control
D. sanction
B. social order
Suicide bombers in Iraq are accorded high praise by those who oppose an American presence in the Middle East and are considered heroic warriors. Such honor and praise is an example of a ________.

A. positive sanction
B. negative sanction
C. degradation ceremony
D. Shaming
A. positive sanction
Susie is a first-year college student. Although she wants to be popular, she has refused invitations to attend underage drinking parties. Susie has a strong respect for authority, even when it conflicts with a simple matter such as attending a college party. Susie's decision in this situation demonstrates a quality of control theory called ________.

A. pulls
B. formal control
C. inner control
D. pushes
C. inner control
Matthew and Ryan are devout Christian Fundamentalists and believe that homosexuality is against God's will and that homosexuals deserve to be punished. They spend a couple evenings each week in gay bashing activities that include physical violence and verbal assaults. Based on their rationalization, which technique of neutralization is most applicable for Matthew and Ryan to maintain positive self-images?

A. condemn the condemner
B. denial of responsibility
C. denial of a victim
D. denial of injury
C. denial of a victim
Based on Merton's typologies, what do drug addicts, the homeless, nuns living in a convent, and monks living in a monastery have in common?

A. They all conformists.
B. They are all rebels.
C. They are all retreatists.
D. They are all ritualists.
C. They are all retreatists.
In every society, from the hunting and gathering society to the postindustrial society, the most common basis for social stratification has been ________.

A. gender
B. education
C. income
D. race
A. gender
The division of large numbers of people into layers according to their relative power, property, and prestige is referred to as ________.

A. social stratification
B. social networking
C. multiculturalism
D. the diversification of society
A. social stratification
In which of the following societies might slavery most likely exist?

A. the hunting and gathering society
B. the agricultural society
C. the pastoral society
D. the industrial society
B. the agricultural society
What were the three major causes of slavery prior to life in the American colonies?

A. debt, crime, and war
B. racism, religion, and gender
C. gender, politics, and ethnicity
D. gender, racism, and social class
A. debt, crime, and war
What is the basis of India's caste system?

A. education
B. ethnicity
C. religion
D. race
C. religion
The sociologist who believed that social class is made up of three components - property, power, and prestige - was ________.

A. Talcott Parsons
B. Karl Marx
C. Max Weber
D. Lewis Coser Jr.
C. Max Weber
According to Melvin Tumin, which of the following high school seniors will most likely attend college?

A. the promising student in need of financial aid
B. the C+ student from the upper class
C. the A- student from a decaying urban slum
D. the student who scored the mean on the college entrance exam
B. the C+ student from the upper class
Based on the global stratification model, nations of the former Soviet Union and its former satellites in Eastern Europe are classified as ________.

A. the Third World Nations
B. the Least Industrialized Nations
C. the Industrializing Nations
D. the Most Industrialized Nations
C. the Industrializing Nations
Great Britain was one of the first nations in which industrial capitalism developed. According to world system theory, Great Britain would be a ________ nation.

A. periphery
B. core
C. Most Industrialized
D. semiperiphery
B. core
Why do the ruling elite in the Least Industrialized Nations work so closely with the heads of multinational corporations to develop informal partnerships?

A. to develop the necessary political stability to maintain the partnership
B. to expand the middle class throughout Least Industrialized Nations
C. to increase the standard of living of people in poor nations
D. to increase humanitarian aid to the poor
A. to develop the necessary political stability to maintain the partnership
Ken belongs to a church in which the worship services are highly expressive with spontaneous "Amens" and "Praise Jesus" outbursts accompanied by loud, inspirational organ music. Ken is most likely a member of the ________ class.

A. lower
B. capitalist
C. middle
D. upper-middle
A. lower
What did Higginbotham and Weber discover about women from working-class backgrounds who now occupied professional, managerial, and administrative positions in Memphis?

A. They married into social classes higher than their own.
B. They were encouraged by their parents to get an education.
C. They were in the top five percent of their graduating class.
D. They were the eldest child in the family.
B. They were encouraged by their parents to get an education.
What region of the United States has the highest clustering of people in poverty?

A. the South
B. the Midwest
C. the West
D. the North
A. the South
The trend in the United States in which most poor families are headed by women is called ________.

A. the male supremacy
B. the culture of poverty
C. the economic genderization
D. the feminization of
D. the feminization of
Defining social class in America is an objective science because there are clear-cut, agreed-upon definitions of each class.

A. True
B. False
B. False
Wealth and income are interchangeable terms, each meaning the same in reference to social class.

A. True
B. False
B. False
Since 1970, the richest 20 percent of U.S. families has grown richer, and the poorest 20 percent of U.S. families has grown poorer.

A. True
B. False
A. True
Conflict theorists would consider voting as being more of a ritualistic process than a demonstration of people exercising power in a democracy.

A. True
B. False
A. True
Few of the U.S. presidents have come from a class of Americans who qualify as being members of the power elite.

A. True
B. False
B. False
Bill Gates, Donald Trump, and others who have made fortunes in business, the stock market, entertainment, and sports in the 20th century are classified as being "blue bloods."

A. True
B. False
B. False
Sociologically, what is a family?

A. Any couple who have been legally married.
B. A household composed of people of different sexes.
C. Two or more people related by blood, marriage, or adoption.
D. A man and a woman and their children engaged in a supportive relationship.
C. Two or more people related by blood, marriage, or adoption.
Sociologically, what is the immediate family of husband, wife, and children called who live apart from other kin?

A. the traditional family
B. the horizontal extended family
C. the nuclear family
D. the vertical extended family
C. the nuclear family
In Bongo Bongo, male members of the tribe may each legally have three wives. This is a family relationship defined as ________.

A. polyandry
B. serial marriage
C. serial monogamy
D. polygyny
D. polygyny
In some tribal societies it is highly encouraged for the son or daughter of one tribe to marry the son or daughter of a neighboring or rival tribe to build camaraderie and form an alliance. This pattern of marital behavior is called ________.

A. polyandry
B. exogamy
C. endogamy
D. polygyny
B. exogamy
In the United States and many other parts of the world, the common practice is for whites to marry whites, African Americans to marry African Americans, and members of specific social classes to marry within their class. This marital practice is called ________.

A. It prevents the transference of genetic defects.
B. The incest taboo facilitates the socialization of children and avoids role confusion.
C. Incest is universally regarded as a deviant act.
D. It reinforces patriarchal authority.
B. The incest taboo facilitates the socialization of children and avoids role confusion.
Why do functionalists argue that the incest taboo is a nearly universal norm?

A. It prevents the transference of genetic defects.
B. The incest taboo facilitates the socialization of children and avoids role confusion.
C. Incest is universally regarded as a deviant act.
D. It reinforces patriarchal authority.
B. The incest taboo facilitates the socialization of children and avoids role confusion.
What is the central sociological principle of education as it relates to a nation's needs?

A. It is a reflection of the nation's culture and economy.
B. It creates a system of labeling individuals to facilitate occupation and role.
C. It is the basis of developing a sense of national pride.
D. It is a formal system necessary for international recognition.
A. It is a reflection of the nation's culture and economy.
From a functionalist perspective, what is the teaching of knowledge and skills which reinforces positive consequences in students?

A. latent functions
B. social imperative
C. required prerequisites
D. manifest functions
D. manifest functions
When employers use diplomas and degrees to determine who is eligible for jobs, even through the diploma or degree may be irrelevant to the actual work, it becomes a ________ society.

A. fiduciary
B. bifurcated
C. bureaucratic
D. credential
D. credential
One of the functions performed by schools is to promote a sense of national identity and stabilize the political system. This function is referred to as ________.

A. gatekeeping
B. tracking
C. social integration
D. mainstreaming
C. social integration
The three functionalists who advocated gatekeeping as a means to support people on the basis of merit and advocated social placement were ________, ________, and ________.

A. Robert Merton; Talcott Parsons; Pitirim Sorokin
B. Kingsley Davis; Edwin Sutherland; Herbert Spencer
C. Wilbert Moore; Michael Burawoy; John B. Watson
D. Talcott Parsons; Kingsley Davis; Wilbert Moore
D. Talcott Parsons; Kingsley Davis; Wilbert Moore
What do conflict theorists believe is the purpose of the hidden curriculum?

A. It encourages the mainstreaming of students.
B. It promotes individual change.
C. It maintains the power of teachers.
D. It promotes social inequalities.
D. It promotes social inequalities.
The most significant predictor of whether a student will attend college is his/her ________.

A. test scores
B. motivation
C. family background
D. personality
C. family background
Why is religion classified as a universal social institution?

A. All societies have churches.
B. Without religion, there could be no salvation.
C. It meets basic human needs.
D. Religion unites all people of the world.
C. It meets basic human needs.
What is the primary reason sociologists study religion?

A. to verify or disprove the principles of specific faiths
B. to study the role that religion plays in people's lives
C. to prove which religion is superior in doctrine and practice
D. to evaluate the truth of a religious teaching
B. to study the role that religion plays in people's lives
What did Durkheim call the common elements of everyday life?

A. sanctified
B. civil
C. profane
D. sacred
C. profane
What are the three elements of religion based on the writings of Emile Durkheim?

A. a moral community, repentance, communion
B. sacrifice, obligation, repentance
C. beliefs, practices, moral community
D. practices, sacrifice, obligation
C. beliefs, practices, moral community
Which sociological perspective is aligned with the belief that religion attaches meaning to our lives, provides emotional comfort during times of sorrow, creates a sense of solidarity with others and provides guidelines with which to direct our lives?

A. the feminist perspective
B. functionalism
C. symbolic interactionism
D. the conflict perspective
B. functionalism
What does incorporating religious teachings into criminal law, such as prohibiting the sale of alcoholic beverages before noon on Sunday, illustrate about religion?

A. It provides emotional comfort.
B. It is a means of adaptation.
C. It is a means of social control.
D. It is a means of social solidarity.
C. It is a means of social control.
How would sociologists classify communism in respect to its religious qualities?

A. It is a secular religion.
B. It is a civil religion.
C. It is a functional equivalent of religion.
D. It is a dysfunction of religion.
C. It is a functional equivalent of religion.