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problem definiton?

problem and opportunities

decision problem?

action

research problem?

informaiton required to answer decsion problem

problems are depicted on a?

decison tree

research design depends on?

nature of problem

target market

cost and time

target market

cost and time

three types of research design?

causal

descriptive

exploratory

descriptive

exploratory

causal design?

quanititative, cause and effect

descriptive design?

quantitative, who what where when how

exploratory design?

qualitative, why-insights feelings emotions

research steps for secondary info? 5

problem definition

choose research design

sample and collect data

analyse data

write report

choose research design

sample and collect data

analyse data

write report

step 3 exploratory?

>interviews, focus groups, case studies of groups or individuals

-chosing numbers depends on the problem, target audience, time and cost

-chosing numbers depends on the problem, target audience, time and cost

exploratory groups?

1) nominal, delphi, leaderless discussion

2) focus group discussion led by moderator with 8-12 homogenous people

2) focus group discussion led by moderator with 8-12 homogenous people

exploratory individual?

indepth interviews

step 3 descriptive?

>survey, secondary data

1) format

2) wording

3) content

4) sequence and layout

1) format

2) wording

3) content

4) sequence and layout

survey? 4

1) question format- structure/ disguise

2) question wording- simple,

unambiguous, length

3) question content- one of more? required?

4) sequence and layout- easy first, sensitive last, general to specific

2) question wording- simple,

unambiguous, length

3) question content- one of more? required?

4) sequence and layout- easy first, sensitive last, general to specific

types of surveys? 5

personal

phone

mail

online

combo

phone

online

combo

influences on survey types? 4

target

cost

time

response rate

cost

time

response rate

measurement and scaling impacts on?

the survey

step 4 causal and descriptive? 3

>statistical techiniques to investigate relationship between:

2+ catagorical variables

2+ scale variables

1+ scale independent and 1+ scale dependant

2+ catagorical variables

2+ scale variables

1+ scale independent and 1+ scale dependant

scale variables?

sequential variables that follow numerical order

categorical variables?

variables with no numerical relationship

2+ categorical variables tool? 2C CT

cross tabulation

2+ scale variables tool? 2S C

correlation

1+ scale independent and 1+ scale dependent tool? 1S1C R

regression

cross tab? frequency count

-combined frequency count

-calc %s in direction of the IV

-look for large %s along diagonal <50%

-observational only

>Chi Square

-calc %s in direction of the IV

-look for large %s along diagonal <50%

-observational only

>Chi Square

chi square?

statistical test of the relationship between variables

-sig <.05 relationship exists

-sig <.05 relationship exists

correlation? linear relationship

-looks for linear relationship

-<.05 shows shows 2 variables related

-pearsons indicated strength of relationship (ignore negatives) 1=perfect linearity, 0=random

-direction (+/-)

-infer cause and effect e.g. draw causal diagram

-<.05 shows shows 2 variables related

-pearsons indicated strength of relationship (ignore negatives) 1=perfect linearity, 0=random

-direction (+/-)

-infer cause and effect e.g. draw causal diagram

regression? linear of IV and DV

-looks for linear relationship

-<.05 shows relationship between IV and DV

-regression equation to predict DV's for varying IV's

-RSQ=variance in the DV explained by the IV's

-backward regression=determine optimal V's to explain varience in DV

-<.05 shows relationship between IV and DV

-regression equation to predict DV's for varying IV's

-RSQ=variance in the DV explained by the IV's

-backward regression=determine optimal V's to explain varience in DV

cross tab relationship exists when?

significance is <.05

if a relationship exists the null hypothesis is?

rejected

conjoint analyse variables?

scale dependent vairable and 1 or more independent variables that are levels (0 or 1)

levels?

0 or 1 e.g high or low

regression equation?

y=a+bx+cx...e

market share?

total of all available options in terms their attribute levels e.g 0,1,1

attribute dollar value?

price customers would be prepared to pay

- (price level difference/ Price B) x Attributes B

- (price level difference/ Price B) x Attributes B

measurement?

assigning numbers/symbols to object according to pre-specified, uniform rules that do not change

scaling?

creating a continuum where objects are located

types of scales? NOIR

nominal

ordinal

interval

ratio

ordinal

interval

ratio

comparative scales? constant, rank order, pairing CRO

direct comparison

-ordinal or rank properties

e.g. constant sum, rank order, paired comparison

-ordinal or rank properties

e.g. constant sum, rank order, paired comparison

noncomparative scales? likert, semantic, stapel LSL

scaled independently

-interval or ratio scaled

e.g. continuous/itemized rating scale- likert, semantic, stapel

-interval or ratio scaled

e.g. continuous/itemized rating scale- likert, semantic, stapel

nominal scale?

numbers serve as labels for classifying

-mutually exclusive e.g male=1 female=2

-based on frequency counts

-mutually exclusive e.g male=1 female=2

-based on frequency counts

ordinal scale?

categorises the variables in meaningful way

-based on centile statistics

-based on centile statistics

interval scale?

measures distance between any two points on scale

-random start and measurement

-based on additional statistical techniques

e.g likert

-random start and measurement

-based on additional statistical techniques

e.g likert

ratio scale?

all properties of NOI

-has absolute zero

-all statistical techniques

-has absolute zero

-all statistical techniques

constant sum?

assigning a figure of importance to each attribute to total 100

likert?

agreement or disagreement to a statement about the stimulus

semantic differential?

oxymoronic words on a scale

stapel

intensity and direction relating to a stimuli aspect

issues with noncomparative scales?

labeling

ignorance

balance

ignorance

balance

validity?

are you measuring what you set out to measure

reliability?

consistent measures across time and items

-internal consistency- highly correlated

-stability- same results over time

-internal consistency- highly correlated

-stability- same results over time

relevance?

reliability x validity

generalisability?

generalisation over all situations

validity and reliability?

1) V = R - no random/ systematic error

2) unR # V

3) R #/= V due to systematic error

4) R is neccessary but not sufficient condition for V

2) unR # V

3) R #/= V due to systematic error

4) R is neccessary but not sufficient condition for V

survey design? I M Q S W SL

1) info needed- exploratory research to gain insight- who? where? how?

-consider target market

2) method

3) questions

-that overcome unwillingnes to respond

-avoid double barrelled questions

-link to research

4) structure-open vs close ended, structured

5) wording-simple, appropriate length, non leading

6) sequence and layout- gernal to specific, senstive questions later

-consider target market

2) method

3) questions

-that overcome unwillingnes to respond

-avoid double barrelled questions

-link to research

4) structure-open vs close ended, structured

5) wording-simple, appropriate length, non leading

6) sequence and layout- gernal to specific, senstive questions later

overcoming unwillingness to respond?

disguise e.g. phrasing in third person, using innocuous questions

factors affecting survey method?

sampling

population type

question form & content

response rate

costs

staff

time

population type

question form & content

response rate

costs

staff

time

interview methods?

personal

telephone

mail

fax

online

combos

telephone

fax

online

combos

double barrelled question?

two or more questions combined into one

-always break into two questions

-always break into two questions

inability to answer?

-uncertainty- provide alternatives

-avoid generalisations and estimates

-avoid generalisations and estimates

open ended questions?

no reponses given- survey intros, to many possibilities, precision is important

-ad: no influence, wide range responses

-disad: time consuming, variability of depth and response, requires interpretation, recording precision difficult

-ad: no influence, wide range responses

-disad: time consuming, variability of depth and response, requires interpretation, recording precision difficult

closed ended questions?

list or rating scale alternative responses provided

-ad: les potential error, comparable responses, easy answers for interviewer

-disad: meaningless results, limited self expression, reponse creation (bias/limitation)

-ad: les potential error, comparable responses, easy answers for interviewer

-disad: meaningless results, limited self expression, reponse creation (bias/limitation)

structure and disguise?

1) SUD: do you..oxymoronic?

2) SD: do you..alternatives?

3) UUD: do you?

4) UD: projective techniques

-associaiton, completion, construction, expressive

2) SD: do you..alternatives?

3) UUD: do you?

4) UD: projective techniques

-associaiton, completion, construction, expressive

pretesting questioniare?

personal tests on sample of target population