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Victoria University 2010

problem definiton?

problem and opportunities

decision problem?


research problem?

informaiton required to answer decsion problem

problems are depicted on a?

decison tree

research design depends on?

nature of problem
target market
cost and time

three types of research design?


causal design?

quanititative, cause and effect

descriptive design?

quantitative, who what where when how

exploratory design?

qualitative, why-insights feelings emotions

research steps for secondary info? 5

problem definition
choose research design
sample and collect data
analyse data
write report

step 3 exploratory?

>interviews, focus groups, case studies of groups or individuals
-chosing numbers depends on the problem, target audience, time and cost

exploratory groups?

1) nominal, delphi, leaderless discussion
2) focus group discussion led by moderator with 8-12 homogenous people

exploratory individual?

indepth interviews

step 3 descriptive?

>survey, secondary data
1) format
2) wording
3) content
4) sequence and layout

survey? 4

1) question format- structure/ disguise
2) question wording- simple,
unambiguous, length
3) question content- one of more? required?
4) sequence and layout- easy first, sensitive last, general to specific

types of surveys? 5


influences on survey types? 4

response rate

measurement and scaling impacts on?

the survey

step 4 causal and descriptive? 3

>statistical techiniques to investigate relationship between:
2+ catagorical variables
2+ scale variables
1+ scale independent and 1+ scale dependant

scale variables?

sequential variables that follow numerical order

categorical variables?

variables with no numerical relationship

2+ categorical variables tool? 2C CT

cross tabulation

2+ scale variables tool? 2S C


1+ scale independent and 1+ scale dependent tool? 1S1C R


cross tab? frequency count

-combined frequency count
-calc %s in direction of the IV
-look for large %s along diagonal <50%
-observational only
>Chi Square

chi square?

statistical test of the relationship between variables
-sig <.05 relationship exists

correlation? linear relationship

-looks for linear relationship
-<.05 shows shows 2 variables related
-pearsons indicated strength of relationship (ignore negatives) 1=perfect linearity, 0=random
-direction (+/-)
-infer cause and effect e.g. draw causal diagram

regression? linear of IV and DV

-looks for linear relationship
-<.05 shows relationship between IV and DV
-regression equation to predict DV's for varying IV's
-RSQ=variance in the DV explained by the IV's
-backward regression=determine optimal V's to explain varience in DV

cross tab relationship exists when?

significance is <.05

if a relationship exists the null hypothesis is?


conjoint analyse variables?

scale dependent vairable and 1 or more independent variables that are levels (0 or 1)


0 or 1 e.g high or low

regression equation?


market share?

total of all available options in terms their attribute levels e.g 0,1,1

attribute dollar value?

price customers would be prepared to pay
- (price level difference/ Price B) x Attributes B


assigning numbers/symbols to object according to pre-specified, uniform rules that do not change


creating a continuum where objects are located

types of scales? NOIR


comparative scales? constant, rank order, pairing CRO

direct comparison
-ordinal or rank properties
e.g. constant sum, rank order, paired comparison

noncomparative scales? likert, semantic, stapel LSL

scaled independently
-interval or ratio scaled
e.g. continuous/itemized rating scale- likert, semantic, stapel

nominal scale?

numbers serve as labels for classifying
-mutually exclusive e.g male=1 female=2
-based on frequency counts

ordinal scale?

categorises the variables in meaningful way
-based on centile statistics

interval scale?

measures distance between any two points on scale
-random start and measurement
-based on additional statistical techniques
e.g likert

ratio scale?

all properties of NOI
-has absolute zero
-all statistical techniques

constant sum?

assigning a figure of importance to each attribute to total 100


agreement or disagreement to a statement about the stimulus

semantic differential?

oxymoronic words on a scale


intensity and direction relating to a stimuli aspect

issues with noncomparative scales?



are you measuring what you set out to measure


consistent measures across time and items
-internal consistency- highly correlated
-stability- same results over time


reliability x validity


generalisation over all situations

validity and reliability?

1) V = R - no random/ systematic error
2) unR # V
3) R #/= V due to systematic error
4) R is neccessary but not sufficient condition for V

survey design? I M Q S W SL

1) info needed- exploratory research to gain insight- who? where? how?
-consider target market
2) method
3) questions
-that overcome unwillingnes to respond
-avoid double barrelled questions
-link to research
4) structure-open vs close ended, structured
5) wording-simple, appropriate length, non leading
6) sequence and layout- gernal to specific, senstive questions later

overcoming unwillingness to respond?

disguise e.g. phrasing in third person, using innocuous questions

factors affecting survey method?

population type
question form & content
response rate

interview methods?


double barrelled question?

two or more questions combined into one
-always break into two questions

inability to answer?

-uncertainty- provide alternatives
-avoid generalisations and estimates

open ended questions?

no reponses given- survey intros, to many possibilities, precision is important
-ad: no influence, wide range responses
-disad: time consuming, variability of depth and response, requires interpretation, recording precision difficult

closed ended questions?

list or rating scale alternative responses provided
-ad: les potential error, comparable responses, easy answers for interviewer
-disad: meaningless results, limited self expression, reponse creation (bias/limitation)

structure and disguise?

1) SUD: do you..oxymoronic?
2) SD: do you..alternatives?
3) UUD: do you?
4) UD: projective techniques
-associaiton, completion, construction, expressive

pretesting questioniare?

personal tests on sample of target population

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