Victoria University 2010

### research steps for secondary info? 5

problem definition

choose research design

sample and collect data

analyse data

write report

### step 3 exploratory?

>interviews, focus groups, case studies of groups or individuals

-chosing numbers depends on the problem, target audience, time and cost

### exploratory groups?

1) nominal, delphi, leaderless discussion

2) focus group discussion led by moderator with 8-12 homogenous people

### survey? 4

1) question format- structure/ disguise

2) question wording- simple,

unambiguous, length

3) question content- one of more? required?

4) sequence and layout- easy first, sensitive last, general to specific

### step 4 causal and descriptive? 3

>statistical techiniques to investigate relationship between:

2+ catagorical variables

2+ scale variables

1+ scale independent and 1+ scale dependant

### cross tab? frequency count

-combined frequency count

-calc %s in direction of the IV

-look for large %s along diagonal <50%

-observational only

>Chi Square

### correlation? linear relationship

-looks for linear relationship

-<.05 shows shows 2 variables related

-pearsons indicated strength of relationship (ignore negatives) 1=perfect linearity, 0=random

-direction (+/-)

-infer cause and effect e.g. draw causal diagram

### regression? linear of IV and DV

-looks for linear relationship

-<.05 shows relationship between IV and DV

-regression equation to predict DV's for varying IV's

-RSQ=variance in the DV explained by the IV's

-backward regression=determine optimal V's to explain varience in DV

### conjoint analyse variables?

scale dependent vairable and 1 or more independent variables that are levels (0 or 1)

### attribute dollar value?

price customers would be prepared to pay

- (price level difference/ Price B) x Attributes B

### measurement?

assigning numbers/symbols to object according to pre-specified, uniform rules that do not change

### comparative scales? constant, rank order, pairing CRO

direct comparison

-ordinal or rank properties

e.g. constant sum, rank order, paired comparison

### noncomparative scales? likert, semantic, stapel LSL

scaled independently

-interval or ratio scaled

e.g. continuous/itemized rating scale- likert, semantic, stapel

### nominal scale?

numbers serve as labels for classifying

-mutually exclusive e.g male=1 female=2

-based on frequency counts

### interval scale?

measures distance between any two points on scale

-random start and measurement

-based on additional statistical techniques

e.g likert

### reliability?

consistent measures across time and items

-internal consistency- highly correlated

-stability- same results over time

### validity and reliability?

1) V = R - no random/ systematic error

2) unR # V

3) R #/= V due to systematic error

4) R is neccessary but not sufficient condition for V

### survey design? I M Q S W SL

1) info needed- exploratory research to gain insight- who? where? how?

-consider target market

2) method

3) questions

-that overcome unwillingnes to respond

-avoid double barrelled questions

-link to research

4) structure-open vs close ended, structured

5) wording-simple, appropriate length, non leading

6) sequence and layout- gernal to specific, senstive questions later

### overcoming unwillingness to respond?

disguise e.g. phrasing in third person, using innocuous questions

### factors affecting survey method?

sampling

population type

question form & content

response rate

costs

staff

time

### open ended questions?

no reponses given- survey intros, to many possibilities, precision is important

-ad: no influence, wide range responses

-disad: time consuming, variability of depth and response, requires interpretation, recording precision difficult

### closed ended questions?

list or rating scale alternative responses provided

-ad: les potential error, comparable responses, easy answers for interviewer

-disad: meaningless results, limited self expression, reponse creation (bias/limitation)

### structure and disguise?

1) SUD: do you..oxymoronic?

2) SD: do you..alternatives?

3) UUD: do you?

4) UD: projective techniques

-associaiton, completion, construction, expressive