Terms in this set (47)
A wealthy Pennsylvania merchant and banker who personally loaned large amounts of money to the war effort. Additionally, he gained loans from foreign nations for the American cause and he encouraged the creation of a Bank of North America to fund the military.
An untraditional style of fighting in which soldiers hid behind trees and walls and ambushed British troops and supply wagons.
Fighting on home ground. Generals made good decisions. Fighting for their rights and freedoms. French alliance provided loans, naval support, and troops. The longer the war dragged on, the more likely the British would give up.
Untrained soldiers. Food and ammunition shortages. Lack of money. Weak and divided central government.
Well-trained, well-supplied army and navy. Wealthy nation with substantial resources. Strong central government.
Fighting in unfamiliar, hostile territory. Fighting far from Britain. Many troops were mercenaries and indifferent to the cause. Half-hearted support at home.
Commander of all British troops at the beginning of the war. Successful in many early battles, capturing New York and Philadelphia, he failed to destroy Washington's Continental Army and resigned in 1778.
Commander in Chief of the Continental Army.
An American spy, caught by the British and hanged without trial. "I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country."
Washington's Delaware Crossing
British troops heading towards Philadelphia, were dispersed into winter camps in New Jersey. December 25, 1776, Washington plans a winter attack leading 2,400 men across the icy Delaware River. Washington's men capture nearly 1000 Hessian (German) soldiers with their surprise attack at Trenton. Several days later, Washington's troops are successful again near Princeton.
Battle of Brandywine Creek
(September 1, 1777) General Washington's troops are defeated by the British army led by General Howe allowing the British to take over Philadelphia. The Continental Congress leaders did escape capture.
(Pennsylvania) Winter of 1777-78 headquarters for the Continental Army - the bitter cold and food shortages killed nearly 2,500 men of the Continental Army. Washington stayed with his men and earning their loyalty and respect.
Marquis de Lafayette
A French military officer that was like a son to Washington. This young man came from France and volunteered to fight with the Americans. Strong supporter of Washington and served honorably in the war. Visitors to Mount Vernon might be surprised to see the key to the Bastille, the notorious French prison, on display in the central hall. In 1790, Marquis de Lafayette—sent the key to George Washington on behalf of the people of France.
A turning point in the American Revolution, this American victory convinced the French to join the war to help America. (New York) On October 17, 1777, 5,700 British soldiers were taken prisoner by forces led by General Horatio Gates.
John Paul Jones
Continental Navy officer. During a battle at sea, the British Navy called on this man to surrender his fleet. This man responded, "I have not yet begun to fight." The battle lasted more than three hours until the British surrendered.
Sir Henry Clinton
Became the commander of British forces after General Howe resigned. He was in charge during the British victory at Charleston, South Carolina.
Charles Town (Charleston)
May 12, 1780, the greatest American defeat of the war. Nearly 5,500 Americans were taken prisoner as the British capture an important Southern port city in South Carolina.
British General that took over operations in the South after the capture of Charleston, South Carolina. Cornwallis was in charge at Yorktown and formally surrendered to Washington. He actually claimed he was sick and sent his second in command to surrender to Washington.
The American General in charge of the great victory at Saratoga.
Battle of Kings Mountain
October 7, 1780. The militia of "over mountain men" furious with the brutal tactics of the combined Loyalists and British forces, destroyed the Loyalist troops led by Patrick Ferguson. Inspired by their success, other Southern farmers furious with British treatment began to organize militia.
Marksman (really good shot) and British officer. Designer of the Ferguson rifle. Wrote letters talking of burning civilian crops and starving the people until they begged for bread. But, he never actually did those things when given a chance. But, he and his troops came across sleeping American troops and killed all of them rather than take prisoners at a place called Little Egg Harbor. Killed at the battle of Kings Mountain.
American commander of the Southern region. Devised a plan to wear down the British in battle while militia destroyed British supplies.
Called the "Swamp Fox," he led the most famous of the colonial militias which helped the Americans maintain control of most of the South, except for Savannah, Charleston, and Wilmington.
Hero of the American victory at Saratoga. Former American general that committed treason by selling military information to the British. He then led British troops fighting in Virginia.
He led a large American force in Virginia that forced General Cornwallis and the British troops to retreat to Yorktown in June of 1781.
Battle of Yorktown
September 28, 1781 - October 17, 1781. Combined American and French forces led by George Washington and the French Navy surround the British led by General Cornwallis. Cornwallis and the British surrender at this battle and it becomes the last major battle of the war.
Treaty of Paris
Signed September 3, 1783. Great Britain recognized the United States of America as a new nation, with the Mississippi River as its western border.
(June 17, 1775) The Americans were on Breed's Hill with a strong position from which they could bombard the British in Boston. So, the British used a frontal attack to take the position from the Americans. The British were turned back twice before finally taking the hill, only because the Americans ran out of ammunition. Over 1,000 British soldiers were killed or wounded in what was the bloodiest battle of the war. The British gained little and still remained surrounded in Boston.
(March 1776) General Washington placed large cannons overlooking Boston forcing the British to evacuate the city. The British troops sailed to Nova Scotia, waited for reinforcements, and then landed in New York.
Battle of Long Island
(August 27, 1776) Washington and his troops are defeated in New York and narrowly escape complete destruction of the Continental Army/
Battle of Washington Heights
After another defeat in New York, this time on Manhattan, Washington and his troops have to retreat to New Jersey. (August 29 - 30, 1776)
Devised the plan to cut off New England from the rest of the colonies. The plan failed and he surrendered after losing at the Battle of Saratoga.
British World War
The French openly joined the Americans after the American victory at Saratoga. The Spanish in 1779 and the Dutch 1780 also joined the American side against the British.
Battle of Cowpens
Nathaniel Green's brilliant strategy leads to a major victory for American troops in South Carolina. (January 17, 1781)
Battle of Guilford Court House
(March 15, 1781) Though this battle was a tactical victory for the British and General Cornwallis, Nathaniel Green's American forces caused a heavy loss of British troops. After the battle, Cornwallis gave up on capturing the Carolinas and moved to Virginia, where he will surrender 7 months later in the last major battle of the war.
On (May 10, 1775) Benedict Arnold of Massachusetts joined Ethan Allen and the Green Mountain Boys of Vermont in a dawn attack on the fort, surprising and capturing the sleeping British garrison. The Battle of Fort Ticonderoga was the first American victory of the Revolutionary War, and gave the Continental Army much-needed artillery to be used in future battles. Cannons captured at Fort Ticonderoga would be used during the successful Siege of Boston the following spring. The fort was recaptured by the British, in July 1777 then abandoned in November after the British defeat at Saratoga.
Battle of Quebec
On December 31, 1775, Patriot forces under Colonel Benedict Arnold (1741-1801) and General Richard Montgomery (1738-75) attempted to capture the British-occupied city of Quebec and with it win support for the American cause in Canada. The attack failed, and the effort cost Montgomery his life. The Battle of Quebec was the first major defeat of the Revolutionary War for the Americans.
General Frederich Baron von Steuben
Trained Washington's soldiers, developed a military training guide still used today. Gave the American military discipline, raised moral, and made the men into an army.
Troops on horseback, a very important military weapon during the Revolution.
Partner during wartime.
Soldier who works for profit, not country. The British hired Hessian (GERMAN) mercenaries to fight the Americans.
Colonist who supported the Revolution and sought independence from Britain.
Colonist that stayed loyal to Britain and did not support the Revolution.
Patriot Army (USA) that took on British forces.
German soldiers paid to fight for the British.
Second Continental Congress
The Revolutionary government
Representatives from all 13 colonies
Declared independence from Britain
Lexington & Concord
First shots of Revolutionary War - Colonial farmers vs. British Army. April 19, 1775.