Aeneid Core Vocabulary AP LATIN
Terms in this set (995)
added in a direct question as a question mark to the first or principal word of the clause
and (affixed to a word and joining it with a preceding word)
or, or if you will, or as you please
ā, ab, abs
from, away from, out of, by (with abl.)
abeō, -īre, iī, itum
to go from, go away, go off, go forth, go, depart
absum, abesse, āfuī
to be away from, be absent
accēdō (adc-), -ere, -cessī, -cessum
to go to, come to, come near, draw near, approach, enter
accidō, -ere, -cidī
to fall upon, fall to, reach by falling
accipiō (adc-), -ere, -cēpī, -ceptum
to take without effort, receive, get, accept
ācer, ācris, ācre
sharp, piercing, penetrating, cutting, irritating, pungent
aciēs, -ēī, f.
sharp edge, point, cutting part; the front of an army, line of battle
to, toward (with acc.)
addō, -ere, -didī, -ditum
to put to, place upon, lay on, join, attach
addūcō, -ere, -dūxī, -ductum
to lead to, bring to, bring along
so, so much, so very
adeō, -īre, -iī, -itum
to go to, come to, come up to, approach, draw near
adferō, adferre, attulī, adlātum
to bring, fetch, carry, convey, take, deliver
adficiō, -ere, -fēcī, -fectum
to do to, treat, use, manage, handle
adhibeō, -ēre, -uī, -itum
to hold toward, turn to, apply, add to
until now, heretofore, hitherto, as yet, to this point, to this place
adsum (assum), adesse, adfuī
to be at, be present, be at hand
adveniō, -īre, -vēnī, -ventum
to come to, reach, arrive at
adversus, -a, -um
turned to, opposite, before, in front of
advertō (advortō), -ere, -tī, -sum
to turn to, turn towards, direct
aedēs and aedis, -is, f.
a dwelling of the gods, a sanctuary, a temple
aeger, -gra, -grum
unwell, ill, sick, diseased, suffering, feeble
equally, in like manner, just as, in an equal degree, to the same extent
aequor, -oris, n.
an even surface, level; the sea, ocean
aequus, -a, -um
even, level, flat; equal, like
āēr, āeris, m.
the air, atmosphere, sky, especially the lower air
aes, aeris, n.
crude metal, base metal, copper, bronze
aetās, -ātis, f.
the life of man, age, lifetime, years
aeternus, -a, -um
of an age, lasting, enduring, permanent, endless
aethēr, -eris, m.
the upper air, sky, firmament
aevum or (older) aeuom, -ī, n.
neverending time, eternity; especially, period of life, lifetime, life, age
ager, agrī, m.
productive land, a field, farm, estate, arable land, pasture
agitō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum
to set in violent motion, drive onward, move, impel, urge
āgmen, -inis, n.
that which is driven; a multitude, throng, host, troop, crowd, number, band
agō, -ere, ēgī, āctum
to put in motion, move, lead, drive, tend, conduct
āiō (defective verb)
to assert, affirm, aver, say, tell, relate
albus, -a, -um
white (without lustre, opp. ater; cf. candidus, opp. niger)
aliēnus, -a, -um
of another, belonging to another, not one's own, foreign, alien, strange
at some time or other, once; at any time, ever
some one, any one, anybody, one or another; neut., something, anything
in another manner, otherwise, in any other way, differently
alius, -a, -ud
another, other, different
alō, -ere, aluī, altum or alitum
to feed, nourish, support, sustain, maintain
alter, -tera, -terum
one, another, the one, the other (of two)
altus, -a, -um
high, lofty, elevated, great; deep, profound
amīcitia, -ae, f.
amīcus, -a, -um
loving, friendly, kind, favorable
āmittō, -ere, -īsī, -issum
to send away, dismiss, part with, let go, lose
amnis, -is, m.
amō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum
amor, -ōris, m.
love, affection, strong friendly feeling
amplus, -a, -um
of large extent, great, ample, spacious, roomy, abundant, full
or, or whether
anima, -ae, f.
air, a current of air, breeze, wind; breath, life, soul
animal, -ālis, n.
a living being, animal
animus, -ī, m.
the soul, intelligence, reason, intellect, mind
annus, -ī, m.
(of space) before, in front, forwards; (of time) before, previously (with acc.)
antequam or ante quam
sooner than, before
antīquus, -a, -um
ancient, former, of old times
aperiō, -īre, -eruī, -ertum
to uncover, lay bare; to unclose, open
appāreō (adp-), -ēre, -uī, -itum
to appear, come in sight, make an appearance
appellō (adp-), -āre, -āvī, -ātum
to address, speak to, apply to, accost
aptus, -a, -um
fastened, joined, fitted, bound, attached
with, at, by, near, at the house of (with acc.)
aqua, -ae, f.
āra, -ae, f.
a structure for sacrifice, altar
arbitror, -ārī, -ātus
to make a decision; to be of the opinion, believe; to think, suppose
arbōr (arbōs), -oris, f.
ārdeō, -ēre, -sī, -sum
to be on fire, burn, blaze, be burned, glow
argentum, -ī, n.
arma, -ōrum, n.
implements, outfit, instruments, tools; implements of war, arms, weapons
ars, artis, f.
practical skill, art
arvum, -ī, n.
an arable field, cultivated land, field, ploughed land
arx, arcis, f.
a castle, citadel, fortress, stronghold
ascendō, -ere, -scendī, -scēnsum
to mount, climb, ascend, scale, go up
aspiciō (ads-), -ere, -ēxī, -ectum
to look at, look upon, behold, look
astrum, -ī, n.
a heavenly body, star, constellation
but (introducing a contrast to what precedes)
and (like -que, it connects words or thoughts which form a whole, but unlike -que gives prominence rather to what follows, and is rarely repeated)
auctor, -ōris, f.
a promoter, producer, father, progenitor
auctōritās, -ātis, f.
a view, opinion, judgment, advice, authority, power, dignity
daring, bold, courageously, spirited
audeō, -ēre, ausus sum
to venture, dare, be bold, dare to do, risk
audiō, -īre, -īvī or -iī, -ītum
auferō, auferre, abstulī, ablātum
to take away, bear off, carry off, withdraw, remove
augeō, -ēre, auxī
to increase, augment, enlarge, spread, extend
aura, -ae, f.
the air (in motion), a breeze, breath of air, wind, blast
aureus, -a, -um
of gold, golden
auris, -is, f.
aurum, -ī, n.
or (introducing an antithesis to what precedes)
but, on the other hand, on the contrary, however
auxilium, -ī, n.
help, aid, assistance, support, succor
avis, -is, f.
barbarus, -a, -um
of strange speech, barbaric, foreign, savage
beātus, -a, -um
happy, prosperous, blessed, fortunate
bellum, -ī, n.
beneficium, -ī, n.
a favor, benefit, service, kindness
bonus, -a, -um
bōs, bovis, f.
an ox, bull, cow
short, little, small
shortly; briefly, in brief, in few words
cadō, -ere, cecidī, casūm
to fall, fall down, descend
caecus, -a, -um
not seeing, blind; invisible, concealed, hidden, secret, obscure, dark
caedēs, -is, f.
a cutting-down, killing, slaughter, carnage, massacre
caedō, -ere, cecīdī, caesum
to cut, hew, cut down, fell, cut off, cut to pieces
of heaven, from heaven, of the heavens, heavenly, celestial
caelum, -ī, n.
the sky, heaven, heavens, vault of heaven
campus, -ī, m.
a plain, field, open country, level place
candidus, -a, -um
shining white, clear, bright
canis, -is, m./f.
canō, -ere, cecinī, cantum
to utter melodious notes, make music, sing, sound, play
capiō, -ere, cēpī, captum
to take in hand, take hold of, lay hold of, take, seize, grasp
caput, -itis, n.
careō, -ēre, -uī, -itum
to be without, be free from, be destitute of, lack
carmen, -inis, n.
a song, poem, verse, oracular response, prophecy, form of incantation, tune, air, lay, strain, note, sound (vocal or instrumental)
cārus, -a, -um
dear, precious, valued, esteemed, beloved
castra, -ōrum, n.
a military camp, an encampment, a fort
castus, -a, -um
morally pure, unpolluted, spotless, guiltless, virtuous
causa, -ae, f.
a cause, reason, motive, inducement, occasion, opportunity
caveō, -ēre, cāvī, cautum
to be on one's guard, take care, take heed, beware, guard against, avoid
cēdō, -ere, cessī, cessum
to go from, give place, withdraw, go away, depart, yield
celebrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum
to frequent, throng, crowd, fill
celer, -eris, -ere
swift, fleet, quick, speedy
quickly, swiftly, speedily, in haste, immediately, promptly
cēnseō, -ēre, cēnsuī, cēnsum
to tax, assess, rate, estimate
cernō, -ere, crēvī, crētum
to separate, part, sift; to distinguish, discern, make out, perceive, see
really, surely, assuredly, actually, certainly, as a fact
certō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum
to match, vie with, fight, contend, struggle, combat, do battle
certus, -a, -um
determined, resolved, fixed, settled, purposed, certain
for the rest, in other respects, else, otherwise
cēterus, -a, -um
the other, remainder, rest
cibus, -ī, m.
food, victuals, nutriment
cingō, -ere, -xī, -īnctum
to go around, surround, encompass, environ, gird, wreathe, crown
cinis, -eris, m.
around, round about, all around, near
citus, -a, -um
quick, swift, rapid
cīvis, -is, f.
cīvitās, -ātis, f.
city, state; citizenship
clāmor, -ōris, m.
a loud call, shout, cry
clārus, -a, -um
clear, bright, shining, brilliant
classis, -is, f.
a class, great division; (fig.) an army, a fleet
claudō, -ere, -sī, -sum
to shut, close, shut up
coepiō, -ere, coepī, coeptum
to begin, commence
cōgitō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum
to consider thoroughly, ponder, weigh, reflect upon, think
cōgnōscō, -ere, cognōvī, cognitum
to become acquainted with, acquire knowledge of, ascertain, learn, perceive, understand
cōgō, -ere, coēgī, coāctum
to drive together, collect, crowd, bring together, summon, congregate, convene
cohors, -rtis, f.
crowd, multitude, company, throng, train; (in the army) a company, division, cohort
colō, -ere, coluī, cultum
to till, tend, care for, cultivate
color, -ōris, m.
color, hue, tint
coma, -ae, f.
the hair of the head, hair
comes, -itis, f.
a companion, associate, comrade, partaker, sharer, partner
committō, -ere, -mīsī, -missum
to bring together, join, combine, put together, connect, unite
common, general, universal, public
comparō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum
to prepare, make ready, set in order, furnish, provide
compōnō, -ere, -posuī, -positum
to bring together, place together, collect, unite, join, connect, aggregate
concēdō, -ere, cessī, cessum
to go away, pass, depart, retire, remove; to grant, allow
condiciō, -ōnis, f.
an agreement, stipulation, condition, compact, proposition, terms, demand
condō, -ere, -didī, -ditum
to put together, make by joining, found, establish, build, settle
cōnferō, cōnferre, contulī, conlātum
to bring together, collect, gather, unite, join
cōnficiō, -ere, -fēcī, -fectum
to make ready, make, prepare, execute, fulfil; to diminish, lessen, destroy, kill, wear out, exhaust
cōnfiteor, -ērī, -fessus
to acknowledge, confess, own, avow, concede, allow, grant
coniūnx, -iugis, m./f.
a married person, consort, spouse, husband, wife
conligō or colligō, -ere, -lēgī, -lēctum
to gather, collect, assemble, bring together
cōnor, -ārī, -ātus
to undertake, endeavor, attempt, try, venture, seek, aim, make an effort, begin, make trial of
cōnsequor, -ī, secūtus
to follow, follow up, press upon, go after, attend, accompany, pursue
cōnsilium, -ī, n.
a council, body of counsellors; a plan, purpose, intention
cōnsistō, -ere, -stitī, -stitum
to stand still, stand, halt, stop, take a stand, post oneself
cōnstō, -āre, -stitī, -statum
to agree, accord, be consistent, correspond, fit
cōnsuētūdō, -inis, f.
a custom, habit, use, usage, way, practice
cōnsul, -ulis, m.
a consul; the highest magistracy of the Roman republic was vested in two consuls, chosen annually
cōnsulō, -ere, -luī, -ltum
to meet and consider, reflect, deliberate, take counsel, consult, take care, have regard, look out, be mindful
cōnsūmō, -ere, -sūmpsī, -sūmptum
to use up, eat; devour, consume, waste, squander, annihilate, destroy
contemnō, -ere, -tempsī, -temptum
to value little, esteem lightly, contemn, despise, disdain, disregard, defy
contineō, -ēre, -tinuī, -tentum
to hold together, bound, limit, comprise, enclose, surround
contingō, -ere, -tigī, -tāctum
to touch, reach, take hold of, seize
in opposition, opposite, face to face, in front, on the other side; in turn, in return, back, on the other hand, likewise (with acc.)
conveniō, -īre, -vēnī, -ventum
to come together, meet, assemble, gather, come in a body
convertō, -ere, -tī, -sum
to turn round, cause to turn, turn back, reverse, direct
convīvium, -ī, n.
a meal in company, social feast, entertainment, banquet
cōpia, -ae, f.
an abundance, ample supply, plenty
cor, cordis, n.
cornū, -ūs, m.
a horn, antler
corpus, -oris, n.
a body (living or lifeless)
corrumpō, -ere, -rūpī, -ruptum
to destroy, ruin, waste
crēdō, -ere, -didī, -ditum
to commit, consign, intrust; to confide in, have confidence in; to believe, give credence, trust
creō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum
to bring forth, produce, make, create, beget, give origin to
crēscō, -ere, crēvī, crētum
to come into being, spring up, arise, be born,
crīmen, -inis, n.
a judgment, charge, accusation, reproach
culpa, -ae, f.
a fault, error, blame, guilt, failure, defect
when, while, since, although (as a conjunction); with, together, along with (with abl.)
cūnctus, -a, -um
all in a body, all together, the whole, all, entire
cupīdō, -inis, m.
a desire, wish, longing, eagerness, passion
cupiō, -ere, -īvī, -ītum
to long for, desire, wish
why? wherefore? for what reason?
cūra, -ae, f.
trouble, care, attention, pains, industry, diligence, exertion
cūrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum
to care for, take pains with, be solicitous for, look to, attend to, regard
currō, -ere, cucurrī, cursum
to run, move quickly, hasten
currus, -ūs, m.
a chariot, car, wain, wagon
cursus, -ūs, m.
a running, course, way, march, passage, voyage, journey
custōs, -ōdis, f.
a guard, watch, preserver, keeper, overseer, protector, defender, attendant
damnō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum
to adjudge guilty, condemn, convict
damnum, -ī, n.
hurt, harm, damage, injury, loss
from, away from, down from, out of, about (with abl.)
dea, -ae, f.
dēbeo, -ēre, -uī, -itum
to owe, be in debt; ought, must, should
deceō, -ēre, -cuī
to be seemly, be comely, become, beseem, behoove, be fitting, be suitable, be proper
dēcernō, -ere, -crēvī, -crētum
decide, determine, pronounce a decision, judge, decree, resolve, vote
decus, -oris, n.
grace, glory, honor, dignity, splendor, beauty
dēdūcō, -ere, -dūxī, -ductum
to lead away, draw out, turn aside, divert, bring out, remove, drive off, draw down
dēfendō, -ere, -dī, -sum
to ward off, repel, avert, keep off
dēferō, -ferre, -tulī, -lātum
to bring away, carry off, take down, carry, take, remove
dēficiō, -ere, -fēcī, -fectum
to withdraw, revolt, desert, fall off, fail
deinde or dein
then, next, thereafter, afterwards
and thenceforward, and thereafter, at last, at length, finally, lastly, only, not until
dēserō, -ere, -ruī, -rtum
to leave, forsake, abandon, desert, give up
dēsīderō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum
to long for, ask, demand, call for, wish for, desire
dēsinō, -ere, -siī, -situm
to leave off, give over, cease, desist, forbear
dēsum, -esse, -fuī
to be away, be absent, fail, be wanting, be missing
deus, -ī, m.
a god, deity
dexter, -tera, -terum, and -tra, -trum
to the right, on the right side, right
dīcō, -ere, dīxī, dictum
to say, speak, utter, tell, mention, relate, affirm, declare, state, assert
diēs, -ēī, m.
differō, -ferre, distulī, dīlātum
to carry apart, spread abroad, scatter, disperse, separate
hard, difficult, troublesome, impracticable, laborious, perilous
dīgnitās, -ātis, f.
worth, merit, desert, character
dīgnus, -a, -um
worthy, deserving, meritorious, deserved, suitable, fitting, becoming, proper
dīligō, -ere, -lēxī, -lēctum
to single out, value, esteem, prize, love
dīmittō, -ere, -mīsī, -missum
to send different ways, send out, send forth, send about, scatter, distribute
discēdō, -ere, -cessī, -cessum
to go apart, part asunder, divide, separate, disperse, scatter
disciplīna, -ae, f.
instruction, tuition, teaching, training, education
discō, -ere, didicī
to learn, learn to know, acquire, become acquainted with
by day, all day, a long time, long while, long, for a long time
dīversus, -a, -um
turned different ways, opposite, contrary
rich, wealthy, opulent
dō, dare, dedī, datum
to hand over, deliver, give up, render, furnish, pay, surrender, grant
doceō, -ēre, -uī, -ctum
to cause to know, make aware, teach, instruct, inform, show, prove, convince, tell
doleō, -ēre, -uī, -itum
to feel pain, suffer, be in pain, ache
dolor, -ōris, m.
pain, smart, ache, suffering, anguish
dolus, -ī, m.
a device, artifice, trick
domina, -ae, f.
a mistress, dame, lady, she who rules
dominus, -ī, m.
a master, possessor, ruler, lord, proprietor, owner
domus, -ūs or -ī, f.
a house, home, dwelling-house, building, mansion, palace
as long as, while; until, till at length
dōnō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum
to give as a present, present, bestow, grant, vouchsafe, confer
dōnum, -ī, n.
a gift, present
dormiō, -īre, -īvī, -ītum
dubitō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum
to waver in opinion, be uncertain, be in doubt, be perplexed, doubt, question
dubius, -a, -um
moving two ways, fluctuating, wavering in opinion, doubting, doubtful, dubious, uncertain
dūcō, -ere, -xī, -ctum
to lead, conduct, guide, direct, draw, bring, fetch, escort
while, a while, now, yet; so long as, provided that, if only; until, until that
duo, -ae, -o
dūrus, -a, -um
hard (to the touch); harsh, rough, stern, unyielding, unfeeling
dux, ducis, f.
a leader, conductor, guide
lo! see! behold! there! look!
ēdīcō, -ere, -dīxī, -dictum
to declare, publish, make known, proclaim, order, establish, decree, ordain
ēdō, -ere, -didī, -ditum
to give out, put forth, bring forth, raise, set up
ēdūcō, -ere, -dūxī, -ductum
to lead forth, draw out, bring off, take away
efficiō (ecficiō), -ere, -fēcī, -fectum
to make out, work out, bring to pass, bring about, effect, cause, produce, make, form, execute, finish, complete, accomplish
effundō, -ere, -fūdī, -fūsum
to pour out, pour forth, shed, spread abroad
ego, meī, mihi, mē, mē
ēgredior, -ī, -gressus
to go out, come forth, march out, go away
ēgregius, -a, -um
select, extraordinary, distinguished, surpassing, excellent, eminent
ēligō, -ere, -lēgī, -lēctum
to pluck out, root out
for, for instance, namely, that is to say, I mean, in fact
there, in that place
eō, īre, īvī or iī, itum
to go, walk, ride, sail, fly, move, pass
epistula, -ae, f.
a written communication, letter
eques, -itis, m.
a horseman, rider; cavalryman, horse-soldier, trooper
equus, -ī, m.
a horse, steed, charger
consequently; therefore, then, so then; because of (with gen.)
ēripiō, -ere, -ipuī, -eptum
to tear out, snatch away, wrest, pluck, tear, take away
errō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum
to wander, stray, rove, roam; to be in error, err, mistake, go wrong, go astray
error, -ōris, m.
a wandering, straying; a going astray, error, mistake
and (as the simplest connective of words or clauses); also, too, besides, moreover, likewise, as well, even
now too, yet, as yet, even yet, still, even now
out of, from (with abl.)
excipiō, -ere, -cēpī, -ceptum
to take out, withdraw; to except, make an exception, stipulate, reserve
exemplum, -ī, n.
a sample, specimen; an imitation, image, portrait, draught, transcript, copy
exeō, -īre, iī (rarely -īvī), -itum
to go out, go forth, go away, depart, withdraw, retire
exerceō, -ēre, -uī, -itum
to drive, keep busy, keep at work, oversee, work, agitate
exercitus, -ūs, m.
a disciplined body of men, army
exigō, -ere, -ēgī, -āctum
to drive out, push forth, thrust out, take out, expel
exīstimō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum
to value, estimate, reckon
experior, -īrī, -pertus
to try, prove, test, experience, endure
exsilium or exilium, -ī, n.
exspectō or expectō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum
to look out for, await, wait for
extrēmus, -a, -um
outermost, utmost, extreme, farthest, last
fābula, -ae, f.
a narration, narrative , account, story, tale
faciēs, -ēī, f.
appearance, form, figure, shape, build
easy to do, easy, without difficulty
facinus, -oris, n.
a deed, act, action, achievement
faciō, -ere, fēcī, factum
to make, construct, fashion, frame, build, erect, produce, compose; to do, perform, make, carry on, execute
factum, -ī, n.
that which is done, a deed, act
fallō, -ere, fefellī, falsum
to trip, cause to fall; to deceive, trick, dupe, cheat, elude, fail, disappoint
falsus, -a, -um
deceptive, pretended, feigned, deceitful, false
fāma, -ae, f.
a report, rumor, saying, talk, tradition, reputation
famēs, -is, f.
familia, -ae, f.
a family, household (including slaves)
fateor, -ērī, fassus
to confess, own, grant, acknowledge
fātum, -ī, n.
an utterance, prophetic declaration, oracle, prediction; that which is ordained, destiny, fate
fax, facis, f.
a torch, firebrand
fortunately, favorably, luckily, happily, successfully
fruitful, productive; bringing good-luck, favorable, fortunate, prosperous; lucky, happy, fortunate
fēmina, -ae, f.
a female, woman
closely, quite, entirely, fully, altogether, just, in general, usually, commonly, mostly
ferō, ferre, tulī, lātum
to bear, carry, support, lift, hold, take up
ferrum, -ī, n.
ferus, -a, -um
wild, untamed, uncultivated
ferus, -ī, m.
a wild animal, wild beast
fessus, -a, -um
wearied, tired, fatigued, exhausted, worn out, weak
trusty, trustworthy, faithful, sincere, true
fidēs, -ēī, f.
trust, faith, confidence, reliance, credence, belief
fīlia, -ae, f.
fīlius, -ī, m.
fingō, -ere, finxī, fictum
to touch, form, shape, fashion, make
fīnis, -is, f.
that which divides, a boundary, limit, border, end
fīō, fierī, factus sum
to happen, be done; become
flamma, -ae, f.
a blazing fire, blaze, flame
fleō, -ēre, flēvī, flētum
to weep, cry, shed tears, lament, wail
flōs, -ōris, m.
a blossom, flower
fluctus, -ūs, m.
a flood, flow, tide, wave, billow, surge
flūmen, -inis, n.
a flowing, flood, stream, running water, river
fluō, -ere, fluxī, fluxum
to flow, stream, overflow
foedus, -a, -um
foul, filthy, loathsome, repulsive, ugly, unseemly, detestable, abominable, horrible
fōns, fontis, m.
spring, fountain, well, source
for, fārī, fātus
to speak, say
fōrma, -ae, f.
a form, contour, figure, shape, appearance, looks
fors, fortis, f.
chance, hap, luck, hazard, accident
perhaps, perchance, peradventure
perhaps, peradventure, probably, possibly
by chance, by accident
Strong, vigorous, firm, steadfast, stout, courageous, brave, manly, valiant, bold, fearless
Fortūna, -ae, f.
the goddess of Fate, Luck, Fortune
fortūna, -ae, f.
chance, hap, luck, fate, fortune
forum, -ī, n.
an open space, public place, court, marketplace
frangō, -ere, frēgi, frāctum
to break in pieces, dash to pieces, shiver, shatter, fracture
frāter, -tris, m.
constant, repeated, often, frequent; in great numbers, full, crowded
frōns, -ontis, f.
the forehead, brow, front
frūctus, -ūs, m.
an enjoying, enjoyment, delight, satisfaction
frūmentum, -ī, n.
corn, grain, harvested grain
fruor, -ī, frūctus
to derive enjoyment from, enjoy, delight in
in deception, in error; without effect, to no purpose, uselessly, in vain, for nothing
fuga, -ae, f.
a fleeing, flight, running away
fugiō, -ere, fūgī, fugitum
to flee, fly, take flight, run away, make off
fugō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum
to cause to flee, put to flight, drive off, chase away, rout
fundō, -ere, fūdī, fūsum
to pour, pour out, shed
fūnus, -eris, n.
a funeral procession, funeral rites, burial, funeral; death, violent death
furor, -ōris, m.
a raving, rage, madness, fury, passion
gaudeō, -ēre, gāvīsus sum
to rejoice, be glad, be joyful, take pleasure, be pleased, delight
gaudium, -ī, n.
inward joy, joy, gladness, delight
gēns, gentis, f.
a race, clan, house
genus, -eris, n.
a race, stock, family, birth, descent, origin, sort, kind
gerō, -ere, gessī, gestum
to bear about, bear, carry, wear, have, hold, sustain
gīgnō, -ere, genuī, genitum
to produce, give birth to, beget, bear, bring forth
gladius, -ī, m.
glōria, -ae, f.
glory, fame, renown, praise, honor
grātus, -a, -um
beloved, dear, acceptable, pleasing, agreeable
heavy, weighty, ponderous, burdensome, loaded, laden, burdened
habeō, -ēre, -uī, -itum
to have, hold, support, carry, wear
haud or haut
not, not at all, by no means
here, in this place
hic, haec, hoc, n.
hiems (hiemps), -emis, f.
the winter, winter time, rainy season
today, at the present day, at this time, now, in these times
homō, -inis, f.
a human being, man, person
honestus, -a, -um
regarded with honor, respected, honored, of high birth, distinguished, honorable, respectable, noble
honōs or honor, -ōris, m.
honor, repute, esteem, reputation, praise, distinction
hōra, -ae, f.
an hour (one twelfth of the day between sunrise and sunset)
hortor, -ārī, -ātus
to urge, press, incite, instigate, encourage
hospes, -itis, f.
an entertainer, host (as a friend); a visitor, guest
hostis, -is, f.
a stranger, foreigner; an enemy, foe, public enemy
to this place, hither
hūmānus, -a, -um
of man, human
humus, -ī, f.
the earth, ground, soil
iaceō, -ēre, -cuī, -citum
to lie, be recumbent, be prostrate, lie at rest
iaciō, -ere, iēcī, iactum
to throw, cast, fling, hurl
at the moment, at the present moment, now, at this time, just now, at present
ibī or ibi
in that place, there; on the spot, then, thereupon
īctus, -ūs, m.
a blow, stroke, stab, cut, thrust, bite, sting, wound
īdem, eadem, idem
for that reason, on that account, therefore
then, therefore, thereupon, accordingly, consequently
īgnis, -is, m.
ille, illa, illud
in that place, yonder, there
to that place, thither
imāgō, -inis, f.
an imitation, copy, image, representation, likeness, statue, bust, picture
imperātor, -ōris, m.
a commander, leader, chief, director, ruler, general
imperium, -ī, n.
a command, order, direction, injunction; supreme power, sovereignty, sway, dominion, empire, supremacy, authority
imperō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum
to command, order, enjoin, bid, give an order
impetus, -ūs, m.
an attack, assault, onset; violence, fury, rush, force
impleō, -ēre, -ēvī, -ētum
to fill up, fill full, make full, fill
impōnō, -ere, -posuī, -positum
to place upon, set on, impose, establish, introduce, set, place
in, on (with abl.); into, to, onto (with acc.)
incidō, -ere, -cidī
to fall in, fall, light, strike, reach, find the way
incipiō, -ere, -cēpī, -ceptum
to take hold, take in hand, begin
from that place, from there, thence
indicō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum
to point out, indicate, inform, show, declare, disclose, make known, reveal, betray
īnferō, -ferre, intulī, inlātum
to bring in, introduce, bring to, carry in
īnferus, -a, -um
below, beneath, underneath, lower, of the lower world
ingenium, -ī, n.
innate quality, nature, temperament, constitution, character
not natural, immoderate, vast, huge, prodigious, enormous, great, remarkable
ingrātus, -a, -um
unpleasant, disagreeable, unacceptable
ingredior, -ī, -gressus
to advance, go forward, march, proceed
inimīcus, -a, -um
unfriendly, hostile, inimical
initium, -ī, n.
a going in, entrance
iniūria, -ae, f.
an injustice, wrong, outrage, injury, insult
inquam, inquis, inquit, inquimus, inquiunt
to say (after one or more words of a quotation)
īnstituō, -ere, -uī, -ūtum
to put in place, plant, fix, set
īnsula, -ae, f.
an island, isle
integer, -tegra, -tegrum
untouched, unhurt, entire, whole, complete
intellegō, -ere, -exī, -ectum
to come to know, see into, perceive, understand, discern, comprehend, gather
intendō, -ere, -dī, -tum
to stretch out, reach forth, extend
between, among (with acc.)
interficiō, -ere, -fēcī, -fectum
to destroy, kill, slay, murder
meanwhile, in the meantime
interrogō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum
to ask, question, inquire, interrogate
intersum, -esse, -fuī
to be between, lie between
within (with acc.)
intrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum
to go into, enter
inveniō, -īre, -vēnī, -ventum
to come upon, find, meet with, light upon
invidia, -ae, f.
envy, grudge, jealousy, ill-will, prejudice
ipse, -a, -um
self, in person, himself, herself, itself, etc.
īra, -ae, f.
anger, wrath, rage, ire, passion, indignation
īrāscor, -ī, īrātus
to be angry, be in a rage
is, ea, id
he, she, it; this, that, the
iste, -a, -ud
that, this, that of yours
and so, and thus, and accordingly
likewise, besides, also, further, moreover, too, as well
iter, itineris, n.
a going, walk, way, journey, passage, march, voyage
again, a second time, once more, anew
iubeō, -ēre, iussī, iūssum
to order, give an order, bid, tell, command
iūdex, -icis, f.
a judge, juror
iūdicium, -ī, n.
a judgment, judicial investigation, trial, legal process, sentence
iūdicō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum
to examine judicially, judge, be a judge, pass judgment, decide
iugum, -ī, n.
a yoke, collar; a height, summit, ridge, chain of mountains
iungō, -ere, -ūnxī, -ūnctum
to join together, unite, connect, attach, fasten, yoke, harness
iūrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum
to swear, take an oath
iūs, iūris, n.
that which is binding, right, justice, duty, law
iūstus, -a, -um
just, upright, righteous, right
a young person, youth
iuvō, -āre, iūvī, iūtum
to help, aid, assist, further, serve, support, benefit
labor, -ōris, m.
labor, toil, exertion
labōrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum
to labor, take pains, endeavor, exert oneself, strive
lacrima (lacruma), -ae, f.
laedō, -ere, -sī, -sum
to hurt, wound, injure, damage
laetus, -a, -um
joyful, cheerful, glad, rejoicing, happy, delighted, full of joy
lapis, -idis, m.
lateō, -ēre, -uī
to lurk, lie hid, be concealed, escape notice, skulk
lātus, -a, -um
broad, wide, extensive
latus, -eris, n.
the side, flank
laudō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum
to praise, laud, commend, honor, extol, eulogize, approve
laus, laudis, f.
praise, commendation, glory, fame, renown, esteem
lēgātus, -ī, m.
an ambassador, legate
legiō, -ōnis, f.
a body of soldiers, legion
legō, -ere, lēgī, lēctum
to bring together, gather, choose; to read
light, not heavy
lēx, lēgis, f.
a law, bill, regulation, principle, rule
liber, -brī, m.
the bark of a tree; paper, book
līber, -era, -erum
free, unrestricted, unrestrained, unimpeded, unembarrassed, unshackled
lībertās, -ātis, f.
freedom, liberty, absence of restraint, permission
libet or lubet, -ēre, libuit or libitum est
it pleases, is pleasing, is agreeable
libīdō, -inis, f.
pleasure, desire, eagerness, longing, fancy, inclination
even though, even if, although, notwithstanding
licet, -ēre, licuit and licitum est
it is lawful, is allowed, is permitted; even if, although, notwithstanding
līmen, -inis, n.
a cross-piece, threshold, head-piece, lintel, sill
lingua, -ae, f.
the tongue, utterance, speech, language
littera, -ae, f.
a letter, alphabetical sign; (in plural) a letter, epistle
lītus, -ōris, n.
the sea-shore, sea-side, beach
locus, -ī, n.
a place, spot
a long way off, far, far off, at a distance
longus, -a, -um
loquor, -ī, locūtus
to speak, talk, say, tell, mention, utter
lūmen, -inis, n.
light, light of day, light of life, light of the eye
lūna, -ae, f.
lūx, lūcis, f.
maestus, -a, -um
full of sadness, sad, sorrowful, dejected, melancholy, gloomy, despondent
more, in a higher degree, more completely
magister, -trī, m.
a master, chief, head, superior, director, president, leader, commander, conductor
māgnitūdō, -inis, f.
greatness, size, bulk, magnitude; a great number, abundance
māgnus, -a, -um
greater, larger (comparative of magnus)
badly, wrongly, unfortunately, improperly
mālō, mālle, māluī
to choose rather, prefer
malus, -a, -um
bad, not good
maneō, -ēre, mānsī, mānsum
to stay, remain, abide, tarry
manus, -ūs, f.
a hand; a band (of soldiers)
mare, -is, n.
a married man, husband
māter, -tris, f.
māteria, -ae and māteriēs, -ēī, f.
stuff, matter, material, timber, substance
medius, -a, -um
in the middle, in the midst, mid, mean, middle
membrum, -ī, n.
of the body, a limb, member
(a defective verb) to remember, recollect, think of, is mindful of
memoria, -ae, f.
mēns, mentis, f.
the mind, disposition, feeling, character, heart, soul
mēnsa, -ae, f.
mereō, -ēre, -uī, -itum
to deserve, merit, be entitled to, be worthy of
metuō, -ere, -uī
to fear, be afraid, stand in fear, be apprehensive
metus, -ūs, m.
fear, dread, apprehension, anxiety
meus, -a, -um
of me, my, mine, belonging to me, my own
mīles, -itis, f.
mīlle (pl. mīlia or mīllia)
a thousand, ten hundred
mīror, -ārī, -ātus
to wonder, marvel, be astonished, be amazed, admire
misceō, -ēre, miscuī, mīxtum
to mix, mingle, intermingle, blend
miser, -era, -erum
wretched, unfortunate, miserable, pitiable, lamentable, in distress
mittō, -ere, mīsī, missum
to cause to go, let go, send, send off, despatch
only, merely, solely, simply, but, no more than
modus, -ī, m.
a measure, extent, quantity; a manner, way, mode
moenia, -ium, n.
defensive walls, ramparts, bulwarks, city walls
yielding, pliant, flexible, supple, soft, tender, delicate, gentle, mild, pleasant
moneō, -ēre, -uī, -itum
to remind, put in mind of, admonish, advise, warn, instruct, teach
mōns, montis, m.
a mountain, mount, range of mountains
mora, -ae, f.
a delay, procrastination
morbus, -ī, m.
a sickness, disease, disorder, distemper, ailment, illness
morior, -īrī, mortuus
to die, expire
moror, -ārī, -ātus
to delay, tarry, stay, wait, remain, linger, loiter
mors, -tis, f.
subject to death, destined to die, mortal
mōs, mōris, m.
a will, way, habit, manner, fashion, custom, practice
moveō, -ēre, mōvī, mōtum
to move, stir, set in motion, shake, disturb, remove
soon, directly, presently, then
mulier, -eris, f.
a woman, female
multitūdō, -inis, f.
a great number, multitude, crowd, throng
multus, -a, -um
much, great, many
mundus, -a, -um
clean, cleanly, nice, neat, elegant
mundus, -ī, m.
the universe, world, heavens, earth
mūnus, -eris, n.
a service, office, post, employment, function, duty
mūrus, -ī, m.
a wall, city wall
mūtō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum
to move, move away, remove, change
nam or namque
nārrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum
to make known, tell, relate, narrate, report, recount, set forth
nāscor, -ī, nātus
to be born, begin life, be produced, proceed, be begotten
nātūra, -ae, f.
nature, natural constitution, property, quality
nātus (gnātus), -ī, m.
nāvis, -is, f.
no, not, that not, lest, so that not
nec or neque
and not, also not, nor
unavoidable, inevitable, indispensable, necessary
necessitās, -ātis, f.
unavoidableness, inevitableness, necessity, compulsion, force
something contrary to divine law, an impious deed, sin, crime
negō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum
to say no, deny, refuse
negōtium, -ī, n.
a business, employment, occupation
no man, no one, nobody
nemus, -oris, n.
a tract of woodland, wood, forest, grove
nēsciō, -īre, -īvī
not to know, to be ignorant
not; if not, unless
niger, -gra, -grum
black, sable, dark
nihil or nil, n.
too much, overmuch, excessively, too
too much, too
nimius, -a, -um
beyond measure, excessive, too great, too much
if not, unless
that is known, well-known, famous, noted, celebrated, renowned
noceō, -ēre, -cuī, -citum
to do harm, inflict injury, hurt
nōlō, nōlle, nōluī
to wish ... not, not to wish, to be unwilling
nōmen, -inis, n.
a means of knowing, name
not, by no means, not at all
nōs, nostrum/nostrī, nōbīs, nōs, nōbīs
nōscō, -ere, nōvī, nōtum
to get knowledge of, become acquainted with, come to know, learn, discern
noster, -stra, -strum
our, our own, ours, of us
nōtus, -a, -um
known, well known
novus, -a, -um
new, not old, young, fresh, recent
Nox, Noctis, f.
nox, noctis, f.
nūdus, -a, -um
naked, bare, unclothed, stripped, uncovered, exposed
nūllus, -a, -um
not any, none, no
(in a direct question) an interrogative particle implying a negative answer; (in an indirect question) whether
nūmen, -inis, n.
a nod; hence, a command, will, authority, divine will; divinity, deity
numerus, -ī, m.
at no time, never
now, at present, at this time
nūntius, -ī, m.
a bearer of tidings, news-carrier, reporter, messenger, courier
on account of, for, because of, by reason of, for the sake of (with acc.)
occīdō, -ere, -cīdī, -cīsum
to strike down, knock down
occupō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum
to take into possession, seize, occupy, master, win
occurrō, -ere, -currī, -cursum
to run up, run to meet, go to meet, meet, fall in with
oculus, -ī, m.
(a defective verb) to hate
odium, -ī, n.
hatred, grudge, ill-will, animosity, enmity, aversion
offerō, -ferre, obtulī, oblātum
to bring before, present, offer, show, exhibit
officium, -ī, n.
service, favor; duty, obligation, office
at that time, some time ago, once upon a time, once, formerly, of old
onus, -eris, n.
a load, burden
opera, -ae, f.
service, pains, exertion, effort, work, labor
oportet, -ēre, -uit
it is necessary, is proper, is becoming, behooves
oppidum, -ī, n.
a town, city, collection of dwellings
ops, opis, f.
power, might; aid, help; property, substance, wealth
optō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum
to choose, select, prefer, wish, wish for, desire
opus, -eris, n.
work, labor, toil
ōrātiō, -ōnis, f.
a speaking, speech, discourse
orbis, -is, m.
a ring, circle, re-entering way, circular path, hoop, orbit
ōrdō, -inis, m.
a row, line, series, order, rank
orior, -īrī, ortus
to arise, rise, stir, get up
ōrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum
to speak, argue, plead, pray, beg, implore
ōs, ōris, n.
the mouth; (in general) the face
os, ossis, n.
ostendō, -ere, -dī, -tum
to stretch out, spread before, expose to view, show, point out, exhibit, display
ōtium, -ī, n.
leisure, vacant time, freedom from business
parcō, -ere, pepercī, parsum
to act sparingly, be sparing, spare, refrain from, use moderately
parēns, -entis, f.
a procreator, father, mother, parent
pāreō, -ēre, -uī
to appear; to obey, be obedient, submit, comply
pariō, -ere, peperī, partum
to bring forth, bear, give birth, drop, lay, spawn, produce
parō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum
to make ready, prepare, furnish, provide, arrange, order, contrive, design
pars, partis, f.
a part, piece, portion, share, division, section
too little, not enough, insufficiently
parvus, -a, -um
little, small, petty, puny, inconsiderable
pateō, -ēre, -uī
to stand open, lie open, be open
pater, -tris, m.
patior, -ī, passus
to bear, support, undergo, suffer, endure
patria, -ae, f.
a fatherland, native land, own country, native place
paucus, -a, -um
by a little, a little, somewhat
a little, a trifle
poor, not wealthy, of small means
pāx, pācis, f.
a compact, agreement, treaty, peace, treaty of peace, reconciliation
peccō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum
to miss, mistake, do amiss, transgress, commit a fault, offend, sin
pectus, -oris, n.
a breast, chest
pecūnia, -ae, f.
property, riches, wealth, money
pecus, pecoris, n.
pellō, -ere, pepulī, pulsum
to beat, strike, knock, push, drive, hurl, impel, propel
pendō, -ere, pependī, pēnsum
to suspend, weigh, weigh out
through, across, along, among (with acc.)
perdō, -ere, -didī, -ditum
to make away with, destroy, ruin, squander, dissipate, throw away, waste, lose
pereō, -īre, -iī or -īvī, -itum
to pass away, come to nothing, vanish, disappear, perish, die
pergō, -ere, perrēxī, perrēctum
to go on, proceed, press on, hasten, continue, go forward, march, make haste
perīculum or perīclum, -ī, n.
a trial, experiment, attempt, test; risk, hazard, danger, peril
permittō, -ere, -mīsī, -missum
to let pass, let go, let loose, hurl
perpetuus, -a, -um
continuous, unbroken, uninterrupted, constant, entire, whole, perpetual
pertineō, -ēre, -uī
to stretch out, reach, extend; to belong, relate, pertain, concern
perveniō, -īre, -vēnī, -ventum
to come up, arrive, reach
pēs, pedis, m.
petō, -ere, -īvī and iī, -itum
to strive for, seek, aim at, repair to, make for, travel to
pietās, -ātis, f.
dutiful conduct, sense of duty, religiousness, devotion, piety
pius, -a, -um
dutiful, pious, devout, conscientious, religious
placeō, -ēre, -cuī or placitus sum, -citum
to please, give pleasure, be approved, be pleasing, be agreeable, be acceptable, suit, satisfy
plēbs, plēbis or plēbēs, -ēī, f.
the common people, commons, commonalty, plebeians, folk
plēnus, -a, -um
for the most part, mostly, commonly, generally
plērusque, -raque, -rumque
a very great part, the majority, most
poena, -ae, f.
compensation, retribution, punishment, penalty, price
poēta, -ae, m.
pondus, -eris, n.
pōnō, -ere, posuī, positum
to put down, set down, put, place, set, fix, lay, deposit
pontus, -ī, m.
populus, -ī, m.
a people, nation
porta, -ae, f.
a city-gate, gate
portō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum
to bear, carry, convey, take
pōscō, -ere, popōscī
to ask urgently, beg, demand, request, desire
possum, posse, potuī
to be able, have power, can
behind, after (with acc.); behind, afterwards, after, later
after this, after that, hereafter, thereafter, afterwards, later
posterus, -a, -um
coming after, following, next, ensuing, future
postquam or post quam
after that, after, as soon as, when
able, mighty, strong, powerful, potent
potestās, -ātis, f.
ability, power, capacity, force
praebeō, -ēre, -uī, -itum
to hold forth, reach out, proffer, offer
praeceptum, -ī, n.
a maxim, rule, precept, order, direction, command, injunction
praecipiō, -ere, -cēpī, -ceptum
to take beforehand, get in advance
praeda, -ae, f.
property taken in war, booty, spoil, plunder, pillage
praemium, -ī, n.
an advantage, favor, privilege, reward
at hand, in sight, present, in person
praesidium, -ī, n.
defence, protection, guardianship, help, aid; guard, escort, garrison
praestō, -āre, -itī, -ātum or -itum
to stand out, be superior, be better
except, besides, unless; before, beyond, besides (with acc.)
in addition, beyond this, further, besides, moreover
praetor, -ōris, m.
a leader, head, chief; in Rome, a praetor, magistrate, judge
precor, -ārī, -ātus
to ask, beg, entreat, pray, supplicate, request, call upon, beseech
premō, -ere, -essī, -essum
pretium, -ī, n.
a price, money value, value in exchange
prex, precis, f.
a prayer, request, entreaty
at first, first, in the first place, in the beginning
prīmus, -a, -um
the first, first
first in order, foremost, chief
prīncipium, -ī, n.
a beginning, commencement, origin
former, previous, prior, first
sooner, first, previously
priusquam or prius quam
before that, before; sooner, rather
prīvātus, -a, -um
peculiar, personal, individual, private
before, in front of, for (with abl.)
probō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum
to make good, esteem good, approve, esteem, commend
prōcēdō, -ere, -cessī, -cessum
to go before, go forward, advance, proceed, march on, move forward, go forth
in the distance, at a distance, away, apart, far, afar off, from afar
prōdō, -ere, -didī, -ditum
to put forth, exhibit, reveal; to produce, bring forth; to proclaim, put forth, relate
proelium, -ī, n.
a battle, combat
proficīscor, -ī, -fectus
to set out, start, go, march, depart
prohibeō, -ēre, -uī, -itum
to hold before, hold back, keep away, check, restrain, hinder, prevent, avert, keep off
prōmittō, -ere, -mīsī, -missum
to let go, put forth; to say before, foretell, predict, promise
near, near to (with acc.)
properō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum
to make haste, hasten, be quick, be in haste, go quickly
prōpōnō, -ere, -posuī, -positum
to put forth, set forth, lay out, place before, expose to view, display
proprius, -a, -um
not common with others, own special, several, individual, peculiar, particular, proper
near, hard by, close to (with acc.)
prōsum, prōdesse, prōfuī
to be useful, be of use, do good, benefit, profit, serve
right onward, forward, farther on, onward, right on, continuously, directly
prōvincia, -ae, f.
a province, the government of a territory, or the territory itself, outside of Italy by a former magistrate
pūblicus, -a, -um
of the people, of the state, done for the state, public, common
pudor, -ōris, m.
a shrinking from blame, desire of approval, shame, modesty, decency, propriety
puella, -ae, f.
a female child, girl, maiden, lass
puer, -erī, m.
a male child, boy, lad, young man
pūgna, -ae, f.
a hand-to-hand fight, fight at close quarters, battle, combat, action, engagement
pūgnō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum
to fight, combat, give battle, engage, contend
pulcher, -chra, -chrum
beautiful, beauteous, fair, handsome
putō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum
to believe, think, suppose; to clean, cleanse, trim, prune
on which side, at which place, in what direction, where, by what way
quaerō, -ere, -sīvī, -sītum
to seek, look for
of what sort, of what nature, what kind of a; of such a sort, kind, or nature, such as, as
in what manner, how greatly, how, how much; as, than
though, although, albeit, notwithstanding that
as you will, as much as you will, however much, as much as possible, very much, extremely, exceedingly
when, at the time that; since, because, as, seeing that
as much as, so much as; how much, how far
quantus, -a, -um
of what size, how much, how great; as (correl. with tantus)
how, why; because of which thing, therefore
as if, just as if, as though
quemadmodum or quem ad modum
in what manner, how
queror, -ī, questus
to express grief, complain, lament, bewail
quī, quae, quod
who, which, that
quīcumque, quaecumque, quodcumque
whoever, whatever, whosoever, whatsoever, every one who, everything that, all that
quīdam, quaedam, quoddam and quiddam
a certain, a certain one, somebody, one, something
quiēscō, -ere, -ēvī, -ētum
to rest, repose, keep quiet, be inactive, be at peace
why not; but, indeed, really, in fact
of course, as you see, obviously, as one might expect, naturally, by all means
quisquam, quaequam, quicquam or quidquam , n.
any, any one
quisque, quaeque, quidque or quodque
whoever it be, whatever, each, each one, every, everybody, every one
quisquis, quaeque, quodquod or quidquid, n.
whoever, whosoever, whatever, whatsoever, every one who, each, every, all
to where, in where, where; for which reason, to what end, why, in order that, so that
in what manner, in what way, how
at some time, at one time, once, formerly
since now, since then, since, seeing that, as, because, whereas
quotiēns or quotiēs
how often, how many times; as often as, as many times as, as
rapiō, -ere, -puī, -ptum
to seize and carry off, snatch, tear, pluck, drag, hurry away
rārus, -a, -um
of loose texture, thin, rare, not thick; far apart, scattered, dispersed, straggling
ratiō, -ōnis, f.
a reckoning, numbering, casting up, account, calculation, computation
recēdō, -ere, -cessī, -cessum
to go back, fall back, give ground, retire, withdraw, recede
lately arisen, not long in existence, fresh, young, recent
recipiō, -ere, -cēpī, -ceptum
to take back, bring back, retake, regain, recover; to receive, accept
rēctus, -a, -um
in a straight line, straight, upright, direct, undeviating
reddō, -ere, -didī, -ditum
to give back, return, restore; to give up, hand over, deliver
redeō, -īre, -iī, -itum
to go back, turn back, return, turn around
referō, referre, rettulī, relātum
to bear back, bring back, drive back, carry back
regiō, -ōnis, f.
a direction, line; a boundary, territory, region
rēgius, -a, -um
of a king, kingly, royal, regal
rēgnum, -ī, n.
kingly government, royal authority, kingship, royalty; a kingdom
regō, -ere, rēxī, rēctum
to keep straight, guide, conduct, direct, control, rule
relinquo, -ere, -līquī, -lictum
to leave behind, not take along, not stay with, leave, move away from, quit, abandon
reliquus, -a, -um
left, left over, remaining
reor, -ērī, ratus
to reckon, calculate, believe, think, suppose, imagine, judge, deem
reperiō, -īre, repperī, repertum
to find again, find, meet with, find out, discover
repetō, -ere, -īvī, -ītum
to fall upon again, attack anew, strike again
rēs, reī, f.
a thing, object, matter, affair, business, event, fact, circumstance, occurrence, deed, condition, case
respiciō, -ere, -spēxī, -spectum
to look back, look behind, look about, see behind, look back upon, gaze at, look for
respondeō, -ēre, -spondī, -spōnsum
to answer, reply, respond, make answer
retineō, -ēre, -tinuī, -tentum
to hold back, keep back, keep, detain, retain, restrain
reus, -ī and rea, -ae
accused, arraigned, defendant, prosecuted; bound, answerable, responsible
revertor or revortor, -ī, -versus or -vorsus
to turn back, turn about, come back, return
revocō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum
to call again, call back, recall
rēx, rēgis, m.
a ruler, monarch, king
rīdeō, -ēre, -sī, -sum
to laugh, smile
rīpa, -ae, f.
a bank, margin (of a river)
rogō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum
to ask, question, interrogate
rumpō, -ere, rūpī, ruptum
to break, burst, tear, rend, rive, rupture, break asunder, burst in pieces, force open
rūrsus or rūrsum
turned back, back, backwards; back again, again, once more
rūs, rūris, n.
the country, lands, fields
sacer, -cra, -crum
dedicated, consecrated, devoted, sacred
sacerdōs, -ōtis, f.
a priest, priestess
saeculum or saeclum, -ī, n.
a race, generation, age, the people of any time
often, oft, oftentimes, many times, frequently
saevus, -a, -um
raging, mad, furious, fell, fierce, savage, ferocious, cruel, violent, harsh, severe
salūs, -ūtis, f.
soundness, health, good health, vigor, safety
sānctus, -a, -um
consecrated, sacred, inviolable
sanguis, -inis, n.
sānus, -a, -um
sound, whole, healthy, well
wise, knowing, sensible
sapientia, -ae, f.
wisdom, good sense, intelligence, forethought
satis or sat, n.
enough, sufficient, satisfactory, ample, adequate
saxum, -ī, n.
a large stone, broken rock, boulder, rock
scelus, -eris, n.
a wicked deed, heinous act, crime, sin, enormity, wickedness
scientia, -ae, f.
a knowing, knowledge, intelligence, science
you may know, you may be sure, it is certain; of course, plainly, naturally, obviously, certainly
sciō, -īre, -īvī, -ītum
to know, understand, perceive, have knowledge of, be skilled in
scrībō, -ere, scrīpsī, scrīptum
to write, write out, compose, draw up, produce
secundus, -a, -um
following, next, second; favorable, fair, fortunate
sēcūrus, -a, -um
free from care, careless, unconcerned, untroubled, fearless, quiet, easy, composed
but, on the contrary, but also, but even, but in fact
sedeō, -ēre, sēdī, sessum
to sit, remain, settle
sēdēs, -ēī, f.
a seat, bench, chair, throne; place, spot
once, a single time
ever, always, at all times, continually, perpetually, forever
senātus, -ūs, m.
the council of the elders, council of state, Senate
old, aged, advanced in years; (as a noun) an old man
sēnsus, -ūs, m.
a perceiving, observation, feeling, sensation, sense
sententia, -ae, f.
a way of thinking, opinion, judgment, sentiment, thought, notion, purpose, determination, decision, will, desire
sentiō, -īre, sēnsī, sensum
to discern by sense, feel, hear, see, perceive, be sensible of
sepulcrum, -ī, n.
a place where a corpse is buried, burial place, grave, tomb, sepulchre
sequor, -ī, secūtus
to follow, come after, follow after, attend, accompany
sermō, -ōnis, m.
continued speech, talk, conversation, discourse
serviō, -īre, -īvī and -iī, -ītum
to be a servant, be enslaved, serve, be in service
servō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum
to make safe, save, keep unharmed, preserve, guard, keep, protect, deliver, rescue
servus, -ī, m.
a slave, servant
so, thus, in this manner, in such a manner, in the same way or manner, in like manner, likewise
sīcut or sīcutī
so as, just as, as, like
sīdus, -eris, n.
a group of stars, constellation, heavenly body, star
sīgnum, -ī, n.
a mark, token, sign, indication, proof; a military standard, banner
silva, -ae, f.
a wood, forest, woodland
like, resembling, similar
at the same time, together, at once, simultaneously
without (with abl.)
singulī, -ae, -a
one at a time, single, separate, several, individual
sinō, -ere, sīvī, situm
to let, suffer, allow, permit, give leave, let be
sinus, -ūs, m.
a bent surface, curve, fold, hollow, coil; the bosom, lap; a bay, gulf
sīve or seu
socius, -a, -um
sharing, joining in, partaking, united, associated, kindred, allied, fellow, common
sōl, sōlis, m.
soleō, -ēre, -uī, -itum
to be used, be wont, be accustomed
alone, only, merely, barely
sōlus, -a, -um
alone, only, single, sole
solvō, -ere, solvī, solūtum
to loosen, unbind, unfasten, unfetter, untie, release
somnus, -ī, m.
sonō, -āre, -uī, -itum
to make a noise, sound, resound
soror, -ōris, f.
sors, sortis, f.
a lot, a decision by lot, drawing; an oracular response, prophecy
spargō, -ere, -sī, -sum
to strew, throw here and there, cast, hurl, throw about, scatter, sprinkle
speciēs, -ēī, f.
a sight, look, view, appearance, aspect
spectō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum
to look on, look at, behold, gaze at, watch, observe, inspect, attend
spērō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum
to hope, look for, trust, expect, promise oneself
spēs, spēī, f.
spīritus, -ūs, m.
a breathing, breath
forthwith, straightway, at once, immediately, instantly
statuō, -ere, -uī, -ūtum
to cause to stand, set up, set, station, fix upright, erect, plant
stella, -ae, f.
stō, -āre, stetī, statum
to stand, stand still, remain standing, be upright, be erect
studeō, -ēre, -uī
to give attention, be eager, be zealous, be diligent, be busy with, be devoted, pursue
studium, -ī, n.
application, assiduity, zeal, eagerness, fondness, inclination, desire, exertion, endeavor, study
under, below, beneath, underneath, behind (with abl.); under, below, beneath, up to, towards (with acc.)
subeō, -īre, -iī, -itum
to come under, go under, enter; to come up, advance, ascend, draw near, approach
suddenly, immediately, unexpectedly, at once
sum, esse, fuī
sūmō, -ere, sūmpsī, sūmptum
to take, take up, take in hand, lay hold of, assume
above, on top, over (with acc. and abl.)
superbus, -a, -um
haughty, proud, vain, arrogant, insolent, discourteous, supercilious, domineering
superī, -ōrum, m.
those who are above, the gods above
superō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum
to go over, rise above, overtop, surmount, transcend
supersum, -esse, -fuī
to be over and above, be left, remain, survive
superus, -a, -um
that is above, upper, higher
supplicium, -ī, n.
a kneeling, bowing down, humble entreaty, petition, supplication
on top, above; before, formerly; above, over, before (with acc.)
surgō, -ere, surrēxī, surrectum
to rise, arise, get up, stand up
suscipiō (succipiō), -ere, -cēpī, -ceptum
to take, catch, take up, lift up, receive; to undertake, assume, begin
sustineō, tinuī, tentus, ēre
to hold up, hold upright, uphold, bear up, keep up, support, sustain
suus, -a, -um
of oneself, belonging to oneself, his own, her own, his, her, its, their
taceō, -ēre, -cuī, -citum
to be silent, not speak, say nothing
such, of such a kind, such like, the like
in such a degree, as much, so, so much
notwithstanding, nevertheless, for all that, however, yet, still
tamquam or tanquam
as much as, so as, just as, like as, as if, so to speak
at length, at last, in the end, finally
tangō, -ere, tetigī, tāctum
so much, so greatly; only, merely, but
tantus, -a, -um
of such size, of such a measure, so great, such
tardus, -a, -um
slow, not swift, sluggish, tardy
tēctum, -ī, n.
a covered structure, roofed enclosure, shelter, house, dwelling, abode, roof
tegō, -ere, tēxī, tēctum
to cover, cover over
tellūs, ūris, f.
the earth, globe
tēlum, -ī, n.
a missile weapon, missile, dart, spear, shaft, javelin
tempestās, -ātis, f.
a portion of time, point of time, time, season, period; a storm, tempest
templum, -ī, n.
a temple, shrine, sanctuary
temptō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum
to handle, touch, feel; to try, prove, test, attempt
tempus, -oris, n.
a portion of time, time, period, season, interval
tendō, -ere, tetendī, tentum
to stretch, make tense, stretch out, spread out, distend, extend
tenebrae, -ārum, f.
teneō, -ēre, tenuī, tentum
to hold, keep, have, grasp, hold fast
tener, -era, -erum
soft, delicate, tender, yielding
tergum, -ī, n.
the back; the hide, skin
terra, -ae, f.
terreō, -ēre, -uī, -itum
to frighten, affright, put in fear, cause to dread, alarm, terrify, scare, dismay
tertius, -a, -um
testis, -is, m.
one who attests, a witness
timeō, -ēre, -uī
to fear, be afraid, be fearful, be apprehensive, be afraid of, dread, apprehend
timor, -ōris, m.
fear, dread, apprehension, timidity, alarm, anxiety
tollō, -ere, sustulī, sublātum
to lift, take up, raise, elevate, exalt
so many, such a number of
tōtus, -a, -um, m.
all, all the, all at once, the whole, entire, total
trādō, -ere, -didī, -ditum
to give up, hand over, deliver, transmit, surrender, consign
trahō, -ere, trāxī, tractum
to draw, drag, haul, train along, draw off, pull forth, drag away
trānseō, -īre, -iī, -itum
to go over, go across, cross over, pass over, pass by, pass
trēs (trīs), tria
tribūnus, -ī, m.
a tribune, either of the soldiers or of the people, a commander
sad, sorrowful, mournful, dejected, melancholy, gloomy, downcast, disconsolate
tū, tuī, tibi, tē, tē
then, at that time, in those times
then, at that time, just then, on that occasion
turba, -ae, f.
a turmoil, uproar, disorder, tumult, commotion, disturbance; a great number, throng, multitude, crowd
turbō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum
to make an uproar, move confusedly, be in disorder
ugly, unsightly, unseemly, repulsive, foul, filthy
tūtus, -a, -um
guarded, safe, secure, out of danger
tuus, -a, -um
your, yours, of you (singular)
ubi or ubī
in which place, in what place, where; when, whenever, as soon as, as
ūllus, -a, -um
any, any one
ūltimus, -a, -um
farthest, most distant, most remote, uttermost, extreme, last
beyond, farther, over, more, besides; on the farther side of, beyond, above, past (with acc.)
umbra, -ae, f.
a shade, shadow
at any time, ever
unda, -ae, f.
a wave, billow
from which place, from where, whence
from all parts, from every quarter, on all sides, all around, on every part, everywhere
ūnus, -a, -um
one, a single; alone, only, sole, single; a or an
urbs, urbis, f.
a walled town, city
all the way, right on, without interruption, continuously, even
ūsus, -ūs, m.
use, practice, employment, exercise, enjoyment
ut or utī
how, in what way; as, like; when; that, so that
uterque, utraque, utrumque
each, either, each one, one and the other, one as well as the other, both (of two regarded severally)
useful, serviceable, beneficial, profitable, advantageous
ūtor, ūtī, ūsus
to use, make use of, employ, profit by, take advantage of, enjoy, serve oneself with
uxor, -ōris, f.
a wife, spouse
vacō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum
to be empty, be void, be vacant, be without, not to contain
vacuus, -a, -um
empty, void, unoccupied, vacant, free, clear, devoid of, without
vagus, -a, -um
strolling, rambling, roving, roaming, wandering, unfixed
valeō, -ēre, -uī, -itum
to be strong, be vigorous, have strength, be able
validus, -a, -um
strong, stout, able, powerful, robust, vigorous
vānus, -a, -um
containing nothing, empty, void, vacant
varius, -a, -um
diverse, different, manifold, changing, varying, various
vātēs, -is, f.
foreteller, seer, soothsayer, prophet, diviner; an inspired singer, bard, poet
vehō, -ere, vexī, vectum
to bear, carry, convey, draw
velut or velutī
even as, just as, like as, like
veniō, -īre, vēnī, ventum
ventus, -ī, m.
verbum, -ī, n.
according to truth, truly, really, in fact
vereor, -ērī, -itus
to reverence, revere, respect, stand in awe
in truth, in fact, certainly, truly, to be sure, surely, assuredly
vertō or vortō, -ere, -tī, -sum
to turn, turn up, turn back, direct
vērus, -a, -um
true, real, actual, genuine
vester, -tra, -trum
your, yours, of you (plural)
vestīgium, -ī, n.
the bottom of the foot, sole; footstep, step, footprint; a trace, mark, track, vestige
vestis, -is, f.
a covering for the body, clothes, clothing, attire
vetō, -āre, -uī, -itum
not to suffer, not to permit, to oppose, forbid, prohibit
old, aged, advanced in years
via, -ae, f.
a way, highway, road, path, street
vīcīnus, -a, -um
of the neighborhood, near, neighboring, in the vicinity
vīctor, -ōris, m.
a conqueror, vanquisher, victor
vīctōria, -ae, f.
videō, -ēre, vīdī, vīsum
to see, discern, perceive
vincō, -ere, vīcī, vīctum
to conquer, overcome, get the better of, defeat, subdue, vanquish, be victorious, win, succeed
vinculum or vinclum, -ī, n.
a means of binding, fastening, band, bond, rope, cord, fetter, tie
vīnum, -ī, n.
vir, virī, m.
a male person, adult male, man
virgō, -inis, f.
a maid, maiden, virgin, young woman, girl
virtūs, -ūtis, f.
manliness, manhood, strength, vigor, bravery, courage, excellence
vīs, vis, f.
strength, force, vigor, power, energy, virtue
vīta, -ae, f.
vitium, -ī, n.
a fault, defect, blemish, imperfection, vice
vītō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum
to shun, seek to escape, avoid, evade
vīvō, -ere, vīxī, victum
to live, be alive, have life
with difficulty, with much ado, hardly, scarcely, barely
vocō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum
to call, summon, invoke, call together, convoke
volgō or vulgō
before everybody, generally, everywhere, all over, commonly, openly
volgus or vulgus, -ī, m.
the mass, multitude, people, public, crowd
volnus (vulnus), -eris, n.
volō, velle, voluī
to will, wish, want, purpose, be minded, determine
voltus (vultus), -ūs, m.
an expression of countenance, countenance, visage, features, looks, air, mien, expression, aspect
volucer, -cris, -cre
volucris, -is, f.
a bird, a flying creature
voluntās, -ātis, f.
will, free will, wish, choice, desire, inclination
voluptās, -ātis, f.
satisfaction, enjoyment, pleasure, delight
vōs, vestrum/vestrī, vōbīs, vōs, vōbīs
vōtum, -ī, n.
a promise to a god, solemn pledge, religious engagement, vow
vōx, vōcis, f.
a voice, sound, tone, utterance, cry, call
—, suī, sibi, sē, sē
himself, herself, itself, themselves