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Chapter 8

Social Inequality
A condition in which members of a society have different amounts of wealth, prestige, or power is called
is used by sociologists to refer to a structured ranking of groups of people that perpetuates unequal economic rewards and power in society?
An individual's salary and wages are referred to as
the total of all a persons material assets, including savings, land, stocks, and other types of property.
A well-known Hollywood actress owns a home in Beverly Hills and another one on the French Riviera. She owns her own movie production company along with a large portfolio of stocks. The total of the different things she owns minus what she owes is considered her
ascribed status
a social position that a person attains largely through his or her own efforts
ascribed status
An 83-year-old woman is placed at a small table in a dark corner of a trendy nightclub and is ignored by the staff. Her shoddy treatment is probably due to her age, which is a(an)
Achieved status
a social position that a person attains largely through his or her own efforts
A system of enforced servitude in which people are legally owned by others is known as
What term is used to refer the hereditary systems of rank that are relatively fixed, immobile, and generally religiously dictated?
Some sociologists have suggested that in the southern U.S. in the pre-civil rights era, an African-American individual was born into a status that would always be subordinate to the status of all of the White members of the community. This would be an example of
estate system
A system of stratification under which peasants were required to work land leased to them by nobles in exchange for military protection was known as
economic position
A class system employs a social ranking based primarily on
Class system
A woman is born into a homeless, single-parent family. She is very talented and as an adult, becomes a wealthy, world-acclaimed pianist. This scenario most closely represents which type of stratification system?
Upper class
In sociologist Daniel Rossides's model of the class system of the U.S., which social class contains the smallest portion of the population?
lower class
A single mother who works in a factory sewing large sheets of canvas would be considered to be a member of which social class?
African Americans and Latinos
A disproportional percentage of which ethnic group falls in the upper class?
class differentiation
Karl Marx argued that social, economic, and political inequalities are dependent on
Which term is used by Karl Marx to refer to the capitalist class that owns the means of production?
Revolutionary leaders
In Karl Marx's view of class conscious workers in revolt, who will guide the working class in its struggle?
the working class
Karl Marx used the term "proletariat" to refer to
the primary mode of economic production
In Karl Marx's view, social relations during any period of history depend on who controls
class consciousness
a subjective awareness held by members of a class regarding their common vested interests and the need for collective political action bring about social change
false consciousness
to refer to an attitude held by members of a class that does not accurately reflect the class's objective position.
false consciousness
In Karl Marx's view, a worker who identifies with the wealthy and believes that she can achieve great wealth through hard work is likely to have developed a
false consciousness
One shortcoming of Karl Marx's work is that he failed to anticipate the extent to which political liberties and relative prosperity could contribute to
wealth and income
Max Weber uses the term "class" to refer to people who share a similar level of
Class, status, and party
. What three concepts did Max Weber suggest were analytically distinct components of stratification?
status group
people who have the same prestige or lifestyle
status group
Every evening at a neighborhood bar, the clientele, which consists of construction workers, police officers, plumbers, and factory workers, watches sports events on the big screen television set and plays pool. The people who hang out in this bar are an example of a
the ability to exercise one's will over others.
The owner of a major league baseball team can fire employees for not winning a pennant, have the city build him a new ballpark, and prevent companies that compete against his own team from airing advertisements during the team's televised games. In Max Weber's view, this owner would most likely be considered to have
conflict perspective.
Thorstein Veblen suggested persons at the top of the social hierarchy convert wealth into conspicuous consumption while the behavior of the lower classes is often subjected to ridicule. Veblen's views are from the
Functionalist perspective
Which sociological perspective would be most likely to argue that most talented people would not go to school for many years to become biochemists if they could make as much money and gain as much respect working as elevator operators?
Conspicuous leisure
What term did Thorstein Veblen use to describe the behavior of those at the top of the social hierarchy when they engage in such activities as jetting off to a remote destination for dinner?
is necessary so that people will be motivated to fill functionally important positions
Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore argue that stratification is universal and that social inequality
Conflict perspective
Which sociological perspective argues that competition for scarce resources results in significant political, economic, and social inequality?
Ralf Dahrendorf
Sociologist ________________suggests that managers of industry, heads of the government bureaucracy, and legislators are among bourgeoisie, industrial managers, legislators, the judiciary, heads of the government bureaucracy, and others.
class conflict
Sociologist Ralf Dahrendorf has merged Marx's emphasis on __________ with Weber's recognition that power is an important element of stratification.
Functionalist Perspective
Gerhard Lenski argues that social inequality may have once served the overall purposes of society, but the degree of social and economic inequality that now exists far exceeds the need to provide for goods and services. This facet of Lenski's analysis is consistent with which perspective
Gerhard Lenski Jr.
According to the textbook, which sociologist notes that while a system of rewards for filling highly expert professions demanding long years of education and skill may have once served the overall purposes of society, this situation no longer exists?
occupation, education, income, and place of residence
The objective method of assessing social class assigns individuals to classes on the basis of
respect and admiration that an occupation holds in a society
Feminist perspective
Which sociological perspective would be most likely to suggest that studies of social class have tended to neglect the occupations and incomes of women as determinants of social rank, thereby elevating the status of males?
the affluent
The federal tax policies of the last four decades, especially in the 1980s and in the ten years from 2001 to 2010, have favored
absolute poverty.
A homeless man in tattered clothes begs in the streets for money and food. His ;poverty is an example of
minimum wage
According to your text, one of the contributors to poverty in the U.S.A. are large numbers of people employed at
Absolute poverty
The commonly used "poverty line" measure of poverty used by the federal government is used to measure which type of poverty?
Relative poverty
What concept refers to a floating standard of deprivation by which people at the bottom of a society are judged to be disadvantaged in comparison to the nation as a whole?
The fact that an unemployed coal miner in Appalachia has a higher standard of living than a doctor in Congo, illustrates the idea that poverty is
By 2008, the number of female householders accounted for 51 percent of the poor in the U.S. This alarming trend is referred to as ________ of poverty
Conflict perspective
Which sociological perspective suggests that the higher rates of poverty among single mothers are due to the difficulty women have finding affordable child care, sexual harassment, and sex discrimination in the labor market?
the underclass
A family lives in a remote area of Appalachia, where coal mines that once employed many workers have been idle for years. There are no jobs in the area, the distant schools are poorly funded, and because of the remote location, there are no churches or medical facilities nearby. These poor, chronically unemployed people who barely survive from winter to winter are an example of
Karl Marx
Sociologist ______________ has identified a number of social, economic, and political functions that the poor perform for society (e.g., poor people do society's dirty work at low cost; poverty creates jobs for those in occupations serving the poor; the existence of poor people guarantees the higher status of the more affluent).
precarious work
Employment that is poorly paid and from the worker's perspective, insecure and unprotected is called
life chances
Max Weber referred to people's opportunities to provide themselves with material goods, positive living conditions, and favorable experiences as
the titanic
The textbook author uses the historical tragedy of _______
to illustrate the impact of social class on life chances.
Conflict perspective
Which sociological perspective would be most likely to emphasize that a person's health and educational opportunities are affected by his or her class position in important ways?
Social mobility
What concept is used to refer to the movement of individuals or groups from one position of society's stratification system to another?
open stratification system
A stratification system that implies that the position of each individual is influenced by the person's achieved status is referred to as
closed system
Some analysts suggest that inner-city riots have frequently occurred when poor people realize that their chances of climbing out of poverty are unlikely, because of the structure of our social system. Their frustration is based on their perception that they are living in
vertical mobility.
An inner-city youth spends many hours in the neighborhood playground shooting baskets on the basketball court and engaging in every game that he can play. His skills become outstanding, and he receives a college scholarship and then signs a lucrative contract to play in the National Basketball Association. This is an example of
intergenerational mobility.
A woman who was born and raised in a poor family becomes a regional supervisor for the U.S. Postal Service. She has experienced upward
Pitrim Sorokin
Which sociologist first made the distinction between vertical and horizontal mobility?
Conflict perspective
Which sociological perspective would most likely urge policy makers and the general public to look closely at corporate tax breaks, rather than focusing on the allowances given to welfare mothers and their children?
corporate welfare
The recent bail out of the automobile industry is an example of