58 terms

Chapter 10

Racial Group
What term is used by sociologists to describe a group that is set apart from others because of physical differences that have taken on social significance?
ethnic group
a group that is set apart from others because of its national orgin or distinctive cultural patterns.
majority group
A minority group is a group whose members have significantly less control over their own lives than the members of a
Minority Groups
Sociologists have identified five basic properties—unequal treatment, physical or cultural traits, ascribed status, solidarity, and in-group marriage—to describe
William Graham Sumner
Minority group members have a strong sense of group solidarity. Which sociologist noted that individuals make distinctions between members of their own group, or the in-group, and everyone else, or the out-group?
What percentage of the United States is projected to be Hispanic according to Census estimates by the year 2100?
In 1940, white non-Hispanics made up 87% of the United States. What percentage did they represent as of 2007?
In 2100, white non-Hispanics will make up what percentage of the population following the Census estimates?
William I. Thomas
Which sociologist observed that people respond not only to the objective features of a situation or person but also to the meaning that situation or person has for them?
Interactionist perspective
William I. Thomas observed that people respond not only to the objective features of a situation or person, but also to the meaning that situation or person has for them. This observation reflects which sociological perspective?
unreliable generalizations about all members of a group that do not recognize individual differences within the group
refers to a negative attitude toward an entire category of people
the tendency to assume that one's own culture and way of life represent the norm or is superior to all others is called
Joe grew up in an Italian household in an Italian community in New Jersey. He believes the traditional Italian celebration of Easter, which includes a large number of family members and mountains of food consumed during a long dinner, is the best way to celebrate this holiday. Joe's belief is an illustration of
a belief that one race is superior and that all others are innately inferior.
color blind racism
The use of the principle of race neutrality to defend a racially unequal status quo is referred to as
The process of denying opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups because of prejudice or for other arbitrary reasons is known as
Prejudice is to discrimination as attitude is to
Hispanic Women
What group (ethnicity and gender) has the lowest income level?
Asian American men
What group (ethnicity and gender) has the highest income level?
a glass ceiling
An invisible barrier that blocks the promotion of a qualified individual in a work environment because of the individual's gender, race, or ethnicity is known as
Discrimination against racial and ethnic minorities
Which aspect of discrimination is the focus of feminist scholar Peggy McIntosh's research?
Institutional discrimination
denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals or groups that results from the normal operations of society is called
Institutional discrimination
At one time, many Puerto Ricans were effectively barred from serving in the Chicago Police Department because they failed to meet the height requirement. This was an example of
Institutional discrimination
Passage of the recent Aviation and Transportation Security Act, which stipulated that all airport screeners must be U.S. citizens, has been noted by many observers to be a form of
Conflict perspective
Which sociological perspective views race from the macrolevel and purports the economic structure as a central factor in the exploitation of minority groups?
Manning Nash
Which sociologist has identified three functions that racially prejudiced beliefs have for the dominant group—one being that they provide a moral justification for maintaining an unequal society that routinely deprives a minority group of its rights and privileges
Oliver Cox, Robert Blauner, and Herbert M. Hunter
Which sociologist has used the exploitation theory to explain the basis of racial subordination in the U.S.?
Exploitation theory
a Marxist theory that views racial subordination in the united states as a manifestation of the class system inherent in capitalism
Karl Marx
An approach to racism which emphasizes that racism keeps minorities in low-paying jobs, thereby supplying the capitalist ruling class with a pool of cheap labor, is based on the work of which classical theorist?
exploitation theory
A sociologist argues that the capitalist ruling class is willing to tolerate high rates of illegal immigration because these immigrants serve as a cheap labor pool. This sociologist is most likely to draw upon
exploitation theory
Recent Chinese immigrants to the U.S. often find jobs working in sweatshops in New York City's Chinatown, where they work 16 or more hours a day in the garment industry, earning less than minimum wage. The big businesses that hire these illegal and often uninformed immigrants illustrate
Racial profiling
The practice of assuming that people who fit certain descriptions are likely to be engaged in illegal activities is referred to as
Intergroup relations
Interactionists would be concerned about the impact of racial profiling on
contact hypothesis.
A Colombian woman and an Italian man, working together as members of a construction crew, overcome their initial prejudices and come to appreciate each other's talents and strengths. This example is a prediction of the
Interactionist perspective
A farmer is called to help sandbag a levy that is about to flood his town. The farmer is stationed between two correctional center inmates who are required to assist in the flood- control efforts. As a result of this experience, the farmer has developed a newfound respect for inmates. This example would be consistent with which perspective?
Karl Marx
Which sociologist suggested that interracial coalitions would most likely reduce racial and ethnic stereotyping and prejudice?
deliberately and systematically killing an entire people or the members of a nation
process of expelling a group of people from a territory
combining a majority group and a minority group through intermarriage to form a new group
The belief that the U.S. was a "melting pot," which became very compelling in the first part of the twentieth century, suggested that the nation had an almost divine mission to produce
In Australia, when Aborigines become part of the dominant society but then refuse to acknowledge their darker-skinned grandparents on the street, they are practicing the process of
The Mexican people of today are the result of a gradual merging of generations of Spaniards and Indians. This is an example of
Vladimir, a Russian immigrant to the U.S., insists that everyone call him "Joe," and he refuses to speak Russian, even in casual conversation with Russian-speaking neighbors. This is an example of
physical separation of two groups of people in terms of residence, workplace, and social events
The former policy of the South African government that was designed to maintain the separation of Blacks and other non-Whites from the dominant Whites was known as
Which modern country best exemplifies the pluralistic state?
New England
According to the 2010 census, which geographic area of the U.S. contains the highest percentage of minority groups by county?
Ralph Ellison
Which Black author wrote: "I am a man of substance, of flesh and bone, fiber and liquids— and I might even be said to possess a mind. I am invisible, understand, simply because people refuse to see me?"
W. E. B. DuBois
Which sociologist noted over 90 years ago that enslaved Blacks were in an even more oppressive situation than other subordinate groups because, by law, they could not own property and they could not pass on the benefits of their labor to their children?
civil disobedience.Black power
Which term refers to a political philosophy, promoted by many younger Blacks in the 1960s, which supported the creation of Black-controlled political and economic institutions?
institutionalized discrimination
The civil rights movement of the 1960s had little impact on
Which group makes up the largest percentage of the Asians and Pacific Islanders group?
What term refers to first-generation Japanese immigrants?
A young Japanese man migrated to the U.S. in 1893 and was able to get a menial job. This man was an example of a(an)
Children born in the U.S. to first-generation Japanese immigrants are known as
language, Islam, and Country of orgin
The single most unifying force among Arabs is
African Americans
Which population group represents the largest minority in the U.S.?