Settlement and Urbanisation

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Terms in this set (...)

Dispersed settlement
a settlement pattern in which most of the houses are scattered in the countryside rather than being concentrated in towns and villages
Nucleated settlement
a settlement in which houses and other buildings are tightly clustered around a central feature such as a church, village green or crossroads
Hamlet
a small rural settlement that is more than just an isolated dwelling but not large enough to be a village
Village
a small assemblage of houses, smaller than a town or city and larger than a hamlet
Function
a classification of settlements based on their socio-economic functions, for example market towns, commuter towns and ports.
Form
the shape of a settlement, mainly influenced by its physical geography and topography.
Linear settlement
housing that has grown up along a route such as a road. Many settlements show this pattern, since roads offer improved access to employment centres.
Site
the immediate location in which a settlement is located.
Situation
the relative location in which a settlement is located.
Hierarchy
the organisation and structure of settlement based on size and the number of functions that a settlement has. At the top of the hierarchy are cities and conurbations. At the base are individual farmsteads and hamlets.
Low-order goods/services/functions
items or services that are purchased/ required frequently (convenience goods), such as milk or bread. People are not prepared to travel far to buy such items and there is no real saving in shopping around.
High order goods/services/functions
expensive services and goods (comparison goods) such as electrical goods and furniture, that the shopper will buy only after making a comparison between various models and different shops.
Range
the distance that people are prepared to travel to obtain a good or service.
Threshold
the minimum number of people necessary before a particular good or service will be provided in an area.
Sphere of influence
every settlement serves a specific area for a variety of functions such as education, healthcare, shopping and recreation.
Accessibility
the ease with which a place may be reached. An area with high accessibility will generally have a well-developed transport network and be centrally located.
Urban land use
a simplified model of the land use (such as industry, housing, and commercial activity) that may be found in towns and cities.
Bid rent theory
a model which states that land value and rent decrease as distance from the central business district increases.
Concentric model (Burgess)
a model of urban land where different activities occur at different distances from the urban centre. The result is a sequence of concentric circles or rings.
Central business district (CBD)
the CBD of a town or city is where most of the commercial activity is found.
Sector model (Hoyt)
a model of urban land use in which the various land use zones are shaped like wedges radiating from the central business district.
Urban sprawl
outward spread of built-up areas caused by their expansion. Unchecked urban sprawl may join cities into conurbations.
Urbanisation
the process by which the proportion of a population living in or around towns and cities increases through migration and natural increase.
Slum
an area of poor-quality housing. Slums are typically found in parts of the inner city in developed countries and in older parts of cities in developing countries. Slum housing is usually densely populated, in a poor state of repair, and has inadequate services.

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