the movement of people across a specified boundary, national or international, to establish a new permanent place of residence.
Push and pull factors
push factors are negative conditions at the point of origin which encourage or force people to move. In contrast, pull factors are positive conditions at the point of destination which encourage people to migrate.
when the individual has a free choice about whether to migrate or not.
Involuntary (forced) migration
when people are made to move against their will due to human or environmental factors.
people forced to flee their homes due to human or environmental factors and who cross an international border into another country.
people forced to flee their homes due to human or environmental factors but who remain in the same country.
population decline in a rural area. It is usually the most isolated rural areas that are affected.
the difference between the level of immigration and the level of emigration
Someone who has migrated to another country in the hope of being recognized as a refugee