59 terms

Milady Chapter 12 Basics of Chemistry

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chemistry
Science that deals with the composition, structures, and properties of matter, and how matter changes under different conditions.
combustion
Rapid oxidation of a substance, accompanied by the production of heat and light
compound molecules
(aka compounds) a chemical combination of two or more atoms of different elements in definite (fixed) proportions.
element
The simplest form of chemical matter; an element cannot be broken down into a simpler substance without loss of identity.
elemental molecule
Molecule containing two or more atoms of the same element in definite (fixed) proportions.
emulsifier
An ingredient that brings two normally incompatible materials together and binds them into a uniform and fairly stable blend.
emulsion
An unstable physical mixture of two or more immiscible substances (substances that normally will not stay blended) plus a special ingredient called an emulsifier.
exothermic reactions
Chemical reactions that release a significant amount of heat.
glycerin
Sweet, colorless, oily substance used as a solvent and as a moisturizer in skin and body creams.
immiscible
Liquids that are not capable of being mixed together to form stable solutions.
inorganic chemistry
The study of substances that do not contain the element carbon, but may contain the element hydrogen.
ion
An atom or molecule that carries an electrical charge.
ionization
The separation of an atom or molecule into positive and negative ions.
lipophilic
Having an affinity for or an attraction to fat and oils (oil-loving).
logarithm
Multiples of ten.
matter
Any substance that occupies space and has mass (weight).
miscible
Liquids that are mutually soluble, meaning that they can be mixed togehter to form stable solutions.
molecule
A chemical combination of two or more atoms in definite (fixed) proportions.
oil-in-water emulsion
Abbreviated O/W emulsion; oil droplets emulsified in water.
organic chemistry
The study of substances that contain the element carbon.
oxidation
A chemical reaction that combines a substance with oxygen to produce an oxide.
oxidation-reduction
(aka redox) a chemical reaction in which the oxidizing agent is reduced (by losing oxygen) and the reducing agent is oxidized (by gaining oxygen).
oxidizing agent
Substance that releases oxygen.
pH
The abbreviation used for potential hydrogen. pH represents the quantity of hydrogen ions.
pH scale
A measure of the acidity and alkalinity of a substance; the pH scale has a range of 0-14, with 7 being neutral. A pH below 7 is an acidic solution; a pH above 7 is an alkaline solution.
physical mixture
A physical combination of matter in any proportions.
physical properties
Characteristics that can be determined without a chemical reaction and that do not cause a chemical change in the substance.
pure substance
A chemical combination of matter in definite (fixed) proportions.
reducing agent
A substance that adds hydrogen to a chemical compound or subtracts oxygen from the compound.
reduction
The process through which oxygen is subtracted from or hydrogen is added to a substance through a chemical reaction.
reduction reaction
A chemical reaction in which oxygen is subtracted from or hydrogen is added to a substance.
silicones
Special type of oil used in hair conditioners, water-resistant lubricants for the skin, and nail polish dryers.
solute
The substance that is dissolved in a solution.
solution
A stable physical mixture of two or more substances.
solvent
A stable physical mixture of two or more substances.
states of matter
The three different physical forms of matter - solid, liquid, and gas.
surfactants
A contraction of surface active agents; substances that allow oil and water to mix, or emulsify.
suspensions
Unstable physical mixtures of undissolved particles in a liquid.
thioglycolic acid
A colorless liquid or white crystals with a strong unpleasant odor that is used in permanent waving solutions.
volatile alcohols
Alcohols that evaporate easily.
volatile organic compounds
Abbreviated VOCs; compounds that contain carbon (organic) and evaporate very easily (volatile).
water-in-oil emulsion
Abbreviated W/O emulsion; water droplets are emulsified in oil.
to understand products used on clients
Why we need to study chemistry?
organic contains carbon, inorganic doesn't
What is the difference between organic and inorganic?
acidic solution
A solution that has a pH below 7.0 (neutral).
alkaline solution
A solution that has a pH above 7.0 (neutral).
alkalis
(aka bases)compounds that react with acids to form salts.
alkanolamines
Alkaline substances used to neutralize acids or raise the pH of many hair products.
alpha hydroxy acids
Abbreviated AHAs; acids derived from plants (mostly fruit) that are often used to exfoliate the skin.
ammonia
Colorless gas with a pungent odor that is composed of hydrogen and nitrogen.
anion
An ion with a negative electrical charge.
atoms
The smallest chemical components (often called particles) of an element; structures that make up the element and have the same properties of the element.
cation
An ion with positive electrical charge.
chemical change
A change in the chemical composition or make-up of a substance.
chemical properties
Characteristics that can only be determined by a chemical reaction and a chemical change in the substance.
O2 = Oxygen, O3 = Ozone
examples of elemental molecules (2 or more atoms of the same element)
H2O = Water, CO2 = Carbon Dioxide
examples of compound molecules (2 or more atoms of different elements)
color, size, weight, hardness, glossiness
examples of physical properties
iron to rust, wood to burn, hair to change color from haircolor or hydrogen peroxide
examples of chemical properties