3.A.1 DNA and RNA
Terms in this set (87)
Devised an experiment that showed that only the DNA of T2 phages enters a bacterial cell during infection.
This person discovered transformation during an experiment that involved injecting mice with smooth S cells, rough R cells, heat-killed S cells, and heat-killed S cells with living R cells.
Discovered that DNA composition varies, but the amount of adenine is always the same as thymine and the amount of cytosine is always the same as guanine.
Avery, MacLeod, McCarty
Determined that DNA was Griffith's "Transforming Factor."
Used X-ray diffraction to discover the double-helical structure of DNA.
Watson and Crick
Developed the double helix model of DNA.
one gene-one polypeptide hypothesis
The premise that a gene is a segment of DNA that codes for one polypeptide.
A long, linear polymer found in the nucleus of a cell formed from nucleotides and shaped like a double helix.
An organic compound, either RNA or DNA, whose molecules are made up of one or two chains of nucleotides and carry genetic information.
Monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.
Nitrogenous bases that have a double ring structure.
Nitrogenous bases that have a single ring structure.
The opposite arrangement of the sugar-phosphate backbones in a DNA double helix.
Strong covalent bond linking the carbon-3 atom a deoxyribose sugar in one nucleotide to the phosphate group of another nucleotide.
The process whereby DNA makes a copy of itself prior to cell division.
Type of DNA replication in which the replicated double helix consists of one old strand, derived from the old molecule, and one newly made strand.
origins of replication (ORI)
Site where the replication of a DNA molecule begins, consisting of a specific sequence of nucleotides.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of the DNA molecule.
Synthesis of an RNA molecule from a DNA template.
A Y-shaped region on a replicating DNA molecule where new strands are growing.
A discontinuously synthesized DNA strand that elongates by means of Okazaki fragments, each synthesized in a 5' to 3' direction away from the replication fork.
The new continuous complementary DNA strand synthesized along the template strand in the mandatory 5' to 3' direction.
An enzyme that joins RNA nucleotides to make the primer using the parental DNA strand as a template.
messenger RNA (mRNA)
Carries genetic message from the DNA to he protein-synthesizing machinery of the cell.
Small fragments of DNA produced on the lagging strand during DNA replication, joined later by DNA ligase to form a complete strand.
An enzyme that untwists the double helix at the replication forks, separating the two parental strands and making them available as template strands.
A protein that functions in DNA replication, helping to relieve strain in the double helix ahead of the replication fork.
single-strand binding proteins
Bind to and stabilizes single-stranded DNA until it can be used as a template.
Repeated DNA sequences at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the lengthening of telomeres in eukaryotic germ cells.
The synthesis of a polypeptide, which occurs under the direction of mRNA.
The modification of mRNA before it leaves the nucleus that is unique to eukaryotes.
The initial mRNA transcript that is transcribed from a protein coding gene. Also called pre-mRNA.
The DNA strand that provides the template for ordering the sequence of nucleotides in an mRNA transcript.
mRNA base triplets.
Reading mRNA nucleotides in the correct groupings.
Enzyme that links together the growing chain of ribonucleotides during transcription.
A specific nucleotide sequence in DNA that binds RNA polymerase and indicates where to start transcribing mRNA.
In prokaryotes, a special sequence of nucleotides in DNA that marks the end of a gene.
Collection of proteins that mediate the binding of RNA polymerase and the initiation of transcription.
transcription initiation complex
The assembly of transcription factors and RNA polymerase.
Ccrucial promoter DNA sequence.
5 ' cap
The 5 ' end of a pre-mRNA molecule modified by the addition of a cap of guanine nucleotide.
Modified end of the 3 ' end of an mRNA molecule consisting of the addition of some 50 to 250 adenine nucleotides.
Process by which the introns are removed from RNA transcripts and the remaining exons are joined together.
Noncoding segments of nucleic acid that lie between coding sequences.
Coding segments of eukaryotic DNA.
The precusor strand of mRNA produced by gene transcription that contains both introns and exons.
Different particles that recognize splice sites are compiled in a large assembly. A complex of RNA and protein subunits. Removes introns from a transcribed pre-RNA segments.
RNA molecules that function as enzymes.
alternative RNA splicing
Genes giving rise to two or more different polypeptides depending upon which segments are treated as exons.
Proteins that bind to the enhancer region, which is very far upstream from the promoter region, to initiation transcription.
protein that can bind just upstream from the promoter, activating the transcription initiation complex.
Discrete structural and functional regions of proteins.
transfer RNA (tRNA)
Interpreter of a series of codons along a mRNA molecule.
Central Dogma of Molecular Biology
DNA to RNA to protein.
Specialized base triplet at one end of a tRNA molecule that recognizes a particular complementary codon on an mRNA molecule.
Flexibility in the base-pairing rules in which the nucleotide at the 5' end of a tRNA anticodon can form hydrogen bonds with more than one kind of base in the third position of a codon.
ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
RNA molecules that construct ribosomal subunits.
ribosomal P site
Site that holds tRNA carrying the growing polypeptide chain.
ribosomal A site
Site that holds the tRNA carrying the next amino acid to be added to the chain.
ribosomal E site
Site where discharged tRNAs leave the ribosome.
Strings of ribosomes that work together to translate a RNA message.
A change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell.
Conversion of the information encoded in a gene first into messenger RNA and then to a protein.
Small single stranded RNA molecules that bind to mRNA and can degrade mRNA or block its translation.
siRNAs (small interfering RNAs)
RNAs of similar size and functions as miRNAs that inhibit gene expression
RNA interference (RNAi)
Blocking gene expression by means of a miRNA silencing complex
A DNA molecule made in vitro with segments from different sources.
The manipulation of living organisms or their components to produce useful products.
The production of multiple copies of a gene.
A degradative enzyme that recognizes and cuts up DNA (including that of certain phages) that is foreign to a bacterium.
A specific sequence on a DNA strand that is recognized as a cut siteby a restriction enzyme.
The fragment of DNA that is produced by cleaving DNA with a restriction enzyme.
A single-stranded end of a double-stranded DNA restriction fragment.
A linking enzyme essential for DNA replication; catalyzes the covalent bonding of the 3' end of a new DNA fragment to the 5' end of a growing chain.
DNA molecules that can carry foreign DNA into a host cell and replicate there.
In proteins, a process in which a protein unravels and loses its native conformation, thereby becoming biologically inactive. In DNA, the separation of the two strands of the double helix.
polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
A technique for amplifying DNA in vitro by incubating with special primers, DNA polymerase molecules, and nucleotides.
The separation of nucleic acids or proteins, on the basis of their size and electrical charge, by measuring their rate of movement through an electrical field in a gel.
restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs)
Differences in the restriction sites on homologous chromosomes that result in different restriction fragment patterns.
Human Genome Project
An international collaborative effort to map and sequence the DNA of the entire human genome.
The direct manipulation of genes for practical purposes.
Small extra-chromosomal, double-stranded circular DNA molecules.
Short segment of RNA used to initiate synthesis of a new strand of DNA during replication.
Virus that contains RNA as its genetic information.
A polymerase that catalyzes the formation of DNA using RNA as a template.
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2.C Feedback Mechanisms
2.D Effects of Environment
3.A.2: Cell Division