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Social Psychology Chapter 6
Terms in this set (63)
A drive or feeling of discomfort originally defined as being caused by holding two or more inconsistent cognitions and subsequently defined as being caused by performing an action that is discrepant from one's customary, typically positive self-conception.
The tendency to overestimate the intensity and duration of our emotional reactions to future or negative events.
post decision dissonance
Dissonance aroused after making a decision, typically reduced by enhancing the attractiveness of the chosen alternative and devaluing the rejected alternatives.
An unscrupulous strategy whereby a sales person induces a customer to agree to purchase a product at a very low cost, subsequently claims it was an error, and then raises the price; frequently, the customer will agree to make the purchase at the inflated price.
justification of effort
The tendency for individuals to increase their liking for something they worked hard to attain.
A reason or an explanation for dissonant personal behavior that resides outside the individual (e.g., in order to receive a large reward or avoid a severe punishment).
The reduction of dissonance by changing something about oneself (e.g., one's attitude or behavior).
Stating an opinion or attitude that runs counter to one's private belief or attitude.
The arousal of dissonance by having individuals make statements that run counter to their behaviors and then reminding them of the inconsistency between what they advocated and their behavior. The purpose is to lead individuals to more responsible behavior.
The dissonance aroused when individuals lack sufficient external justification for having resisted a desired activity or object, usually resulting in individuals' devaluing the forbidden activity or object.
A long-lasting form of attitude change that results from attempts at self-justification.
Marketing technique that relies on post-decision dissonance
Doing something counter-attitudinal or attitude-discrepant with little pressure
Source of dissonance resulting from Going through an unpleasant procedure to attain something of value
Marketing technique based on inducing a person to agree upon on a good deal; then, after they've committed to the deal, an "error" is found, and the dealer raises the price.
Theory that is an addition to dissonance theory, which says that dissonance is brought about by threats to your self-concept, self-worth, and that people cope with these threats by reaffirming other aspects of themselves, even if unrelated to the threat.
Term for any experience that has the effect of restoring the integrity of the self.
focusing on an important personal value
Two examples of experiences that result in self affirmation: 1) __________ 2) receiving positive feedback in a valued domain.
receiving positive feedback
Two examples of experiences that result in self affirmation: 1) focusing on an important personal value 2) __________ .
If people experience ______ following an attitude-discrepant behavior, they often do NOT exhibit the typical attitude change that follows from cognitive dissonance.
Attitude discrepant behavior, often leads to _______
Which theory says that people have a need to seek confirmation of their self-concept, even if it is negative.
Which theory says that we have a desire to have others see us as we truly see ourselves.
Choose the correct option: Self verification theory says that if you believe you are a poor student, having a teacher constantly [praise/criticize] you might lead to discomfort and embarrassment.
actual self, ideal self, ought self
What are the three "selves" of self-discrepancy theory?
How we resolve moral dilemmas will often change our ______ toward the dilemma, change our ______
Change behavior, Change thoughts, Add new cognition, lower importance of dissonance.
The 4 basic ways to reduce dissonance?
People with the _________ self-esteem experience the most dissonance when they behave in ways that are contrary to their high opinion of themselves, and they will work harder to reduce it than will those with average levels of self-esteem.
Who will work harder to reduce dissonance, a person with high or low self esteem?
Dissonance aroused after making a decision, typically reduced by enhancing the attractiveness of the chosen alternative and devaluating the rejected alternatives.
The more permanent and less revocable the decision, the
__________ is the need to reduce dissonance.
The arousal of dissonance by having individuals make statements that run counter to their behaviors and then reminding them of the inconsistency between what they advocated and their behavior. The purpose is to lead individuals to more responsible behavior
Having mixed feelings or contradictory ideas about something or someone.
The more ___________ thoughts you have the more dissonance you will feel.
The more ___________ thoughts you have the less dissonance you will feel.
Self awareness theory
When people focus their attention on themselves, they evaluate and compare their behavior to their internal standards and values.
Self Discrepancy theory
Two classes of things you compare yourself to, the things you ideal yourself to have aspire hope and dream to have, the ideal attributes, and the oughts or the traits you ought to have.
Unconscious thought theory
When we consciously think about something, we are more likely to give unequal weight to different attributes. For instance in the apartment choice study, people who were given time to think about the options were more likely to choose the worse apartment, that those who didn't think about it.
Strength model of self control
An initial act of self control makes immediate subsequent acts more difficult. And easier to self control. The more you regulate your behavior, the more you self control, the easier is it to self control. Self control is like a muscle.
Evaluation of people, objects, or ideas. Important because they often determine what we do, whether we eat skittles or chocolate.
Cognitive, affective, behavioral
Three components of attitudes?
The thoughts and beliefs that people form about the attitude object.
People's emotional reactions toward the attitude object.
how people act toward the attitude object.
Cognitively Based Attitude
Purpose of this is to classify the pluses and minuses of an object so that we can quickly tell whether we want to have anything to do with it.
Affectively Based Attitude
An attitude based more on people's feelings and values than on their beliefs about the nature of an attitude object. Things include politics, sex, and religion. These result from people value system. Can also result from conditioning.
Affectively Based attitude
These (1) do not result from a rational examination of the issues, (2) are not governed by logic (e.g., persuasive arguments about the issues seldom change an affectively based attitude), and (3) are often linked to people's values, so that trying to change them challenges those values.
Behaviorally Based Attitude
Stems from people's observations of how they behave toward an object. "Well I guess I like going to the gym since I always seem to be going there." Only happens when there are no other plausible explanations for this behavior.
Attitudes we consciously endorse and can easily report.
Attitudes that are involuntary, uncontrollable, and at times unconscious evaluations.
Elaboration Likelihood Model
A model explaining two ways in which persuasive communications can cause attitude change: centrally, when people are motivated and have the ability to pay attention to the arguments in the communication, and peripherally, when people do not pay attention to the arguments but are instead swayed by surface characteristics (e.g., who gave the speech)
The case in which people elaborate on a persuasive communication, listening carefully to and thinking about the arguments, which occurs when people have both the ability and the motivation to listen carefully to a communication
The case in which people do not elaborate on the arguments in a persuasive communication but are instead swayed by peripheral cues.
Motivation and ability
What determines whether people take the central versus the peripheral route to persuasion?
What determines if someone is motivated to pay attention to a communication?
Need for cognition
People high in the _____________________ are more likely to form their attitudes by paying close attention to relevant arguments.
When people are unable to pay close attention to arguments, they are swayed more by ______________ cues.
People who base their attitudes on a careful analysis of the arguments will be more likely to maintain this attitude over time, more likely to behave consistently with this attitude, and more resistant to counterpersuasion than people who base their attitudes on peripheral cues.
Refers to the strength of the association between an object and an evaluation of it, which is typically measured by the speed with which people can report how they feel about the object or issue.
Theory of planned behavior
When people have time to contemplate how they are going to behave, the best predictor of their behavior is their intention, which is determined by three things: their attitudes toward the specific behavior, their subjective norms, and their perceived behavioral control.
Only __________________ toward the behavior in question can be expect to predict that behavior. You opinion towards recycling plastic bottles is a better determinator of you view towards environmentalism than your view of environmentalism as a whole.
Their beliefs about how people they care about will view the behavior. The social pressure to perform or not perform a behavior.
Perceived Behavioral control
People's intentions are influenced by the ease with which they believe they can perform the behavior.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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