49 terms

Milady Cosmetology Chapter 20

Structure of Hair Perm Waves Chem Relaxers Soft Curl Perms
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acid-balanced waves
Permanent waves that have a 7.0 or neutral pH; because of their higher pH, they process at room temperature, do not require added heat of a hair dryer, process more quickly and produce firmer curls than true acid waves.
alkaline waves
aka "cold waves"; have a pH between 9.0 and 9.6, use ammonium thioglycolate (ATG) as the reducing agent, and process at room temperature without the addition of heat.
amino acids
Compounds made up of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur.
ammonium thioglycolate
Active-ingredient or reducing agent in alkaline permanents.
base control
Position of the tool in relation to its base section, determined by the angle at which the hair is wrapped.
base cream
aka "protective cream"; oily cream used to protect the skin and scalp during hair relaxing.
base direction
Angle at which the rod is positioned on the head (horizontally, vertically, or diagonally); also the directional pattern in which the hair is wrapped.
base placement
Refers to the position of the rod in relation to its base section; base placement is determined by the angle at which the hair is wrapped.
base relaxers
Relaxers that require the application of protective base cream to the entire scalp prior to the application of the relaxer.
base sections
Subsections of panels into which hair is divided for perm wrapping; one rod is normally placed on each base section.
basic permanent wrap
aka "straight set wrap"; perm wrapping pattern in which all the rods within a panel move in the same direction and are positioned on equal-sized bases; all the base sections are horizontal, and are the same length and width as the perm rod.
basic permanent wrap
aka "straight set wrap"; perm wrapping pattern in which all the rods within a panel move in the same direction and are positioned on equal-sized bases; all the base sections are horizontal, and are the same length and width as the perm rod.
bookend wrap
Perm wrap in which one end paper is folded in half over the hair ends like an envelope.
bricklay permanent wrap
Perm wrap similar to actual technique of bricklaying; base sections are offset from each other row by row, to prevent noticeable splits and to blend the flow of the hair.
chemical hair relaxing
A process or service that rearranges the structure of curly hair into a straighter or smoother form.
chemical texture services
Hair services that cause a chemical change that alters the natural wave pattern of the hair.
concave rods
Perm rods that have a smaller diameter in the center that increases to a larger diameter on the ends.
croquignole perm wrap
Perms in which the hair strands are wrapped from the ends to the scalp in overlapping concentric layers.
curvature permanent wrap
Perm wrap in which partings and bases radiate throughout the panels to follow the curvature of the head.
double flat wrap
Perm wrap in which one end paper is placed under and another is placed over the strand of hair being wrapped.
double-rod wrap
aka "piggyback wrap"; a wrap technique whereby extra-long hair is wrapped on one rod from the scalp to midway down the hair shaft, and another rod is used to wrap the remaining hair strand in the same direction.
end papers
aka "end wraps"; absorbent papers used to control the ends of the hair when wrapping and winding hair on perm rods.
endothermic waves
Perm activated by an outside heat source, usually a conventional hood-type hair dryer.
exothermic waves
Create an exothermic chemical reaction that heats up the waving solution and speeds up processing.
glyceryl monothioglycolate (GMTG)
Main active ingredient in true acid and acid-balanced waving lotions.
half-off-base placement
Base control in which the hair is wrapped at an angle of 90 degrees or perpendicular to its base section, and the rod is positioned half off its base section.
hydroxide neutralization
An acid-alkali neutralization reaction that neutralizes (deactivates) the alkaline residues left in the hair by a hydroxide relaxer and lowers the pH of the hair and scalp; hydroxide relaxer neutralization does not involve oxidation or rebuild disulfide bonds.
keratin proteins
Long, coiled polypeptide chains.
lanthionization
Process by which hydroxide relaxers permanently straighten hair; they remove a sulfur atom from from a disulfide bond and convert it into a lanthionine bond.
loop rod
aka "circle rod"; tool that is usually about 12 inches long with a uniform diameter along the entire length of the rod.
low-pH waves
Perms that use sulfates, sulfites, and bisulfites as an alternative to ammonium thioglycolate; they have a low pH.
metal hydroxide relaxers
Ionic compounds formed by a metal (sodium, potassium, or lithium) which is combined with oxygen and hydrogen.
no-base relaxers
Relaxers that do not require application of a protective base cream.
normalizing lotions
Conditioners with an active pH that restore the hair's natural pH after a hydroxide relaxer and prior to shampooing.
off-base placement
Base control in which the hair is wrapped at 45 degrees below the center of the base section, so the rod is positioned completely off its base.
on-base placement
Base control in which the hair is wrapped at a 45-degree angle beyond perpendicular to its base section, and the rod is positioned on its base.
peptide bonds
aka "end bonds"; chemical bonds that join amino acids together, end to end in long chains, to form polypeptide chains.
permanent waving
A two-step process whereby the hair undergoes a physical change caused by wrapping the hair on perm rods, and then the hair undergoes a chemical change caused by the application of permanent waving solution and neutralizer.
polypeptide chains
Long chains of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds.
single flat wrap
Perm wrap that is similar to double flat wrap but uses only one end paper, placed over the top of the strand of hair being wrapped.
soft bender rods
Tool about 12 inches long with a uniform diameter along the entire length. These soft foam rods have a stiff wire inside that permits them to be bent into almost any shape.
soft curl permanent
Combination of a thio relaxer and a thio permanent that is wrapped on large rods to make existing curl larger and looser.
spiral perm wrap
Hair is wrapped at an angle other than perpendicular to the length of the rod, which causes the hair to spiral along the length of the rod, similar to the stripes on a candy cane.
straight rods
Perm rods that are equal in diameter along their entire length or curling area.
thio neutralization
Stops the action of a permanent wave solution and rebuilds the hair in its new curly form.
thio relaxers
Use the same ammonium thioglycolate (ATG) that is used in permanent waving, but at a higher concentration and a higher pH (above 10).
true acid waves
Have a pH between 4.5 and 7.0 and require heat to process; they process more slowly than alkaline waves, and do not usually produce as firm a curl as alkaline waves.
viscosity
The measurement of the thickness or thinness of a liquid that affects how the fluid flows.
weave technique
Wrapping technique that uses zigzag partings to divide base areas.