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Terms in this set (33)

The Budget and Accounting Act of 1921 gave the president the responsibility to prepare and submit to Congress a single executive branch budget. It also created the Bureau of the Budget (now the Office of Management and Budget). This is perhaps the single most important development in increasing the power of the presidency. The Reorganization Act of 1939 allowed Roosevelt to create the Executive Office of the President (EOP). Several agencies were grouped under the president's direct control, including the Bureau of the Budget, to assist him in coordinating the work of the executive departments. This enhanced his capacity to manage expanding activities of the executive branch. The act also created the White House Office (WHO), which is an extensive personal staff that aids the president (and is part of EOP). The act began centralization of the president's control over expanding executive responsibilities. It also gave the presidency a bureaucratic quality, enabling it to be studied as we would study any large organization. Like any large organization, the presidency has size, complexity, and a central authority. The Employment Act of 1946 requires the president to submit an annual economic report and policy recommendations regarding employment. It also created the Council of Economic Advisers (CEA) to advise the president on macroeconomic policy and to prepare reports on the economy. The CEA has twenty-five to forty staff members. The National Security Act of 1947 gave the president the responsibility to coordinate national defense and foreign policy. It created the Department of Defense and the CIA. It also created the National Security Council (NSC) to advise the president on foreign policy and military matters.
Presidential Program: The scope of the president's agenda can be important. One strategy is grand simplification, which is defined by a focus on a few key programs. Another strategy is the modest strides approach in which the president puts forth multiple priorities that are not necessarily integrated or overly dramatic. A third approach is the encyclopedic design, which is a comprehensive program to deal with an entire range of problems.
Political Style: This refers to how the president relates to lawmakers, and it can affect the president's legislative success. One approach is the president as nice guy. The nice-guy president performs favors, such as fund-raising, making appearances, giving invitations to the White House, and patronage. Another approach is the president as hardball player. The hardball president uses threats and intimidation to keep members of Congress in line. Such tactics may amount to dirty tricks. In using this approach, the president may also attack Congress via the news media and speeches. A third approach is the president as detached player. The detached president may distance him or herself from congressional politics and let Congress go its own way, especially if a measure is of marginal interest to the president. This tactic is useful in maintaining a nonpolitical image, like Eisenhower did.
Timing: It is conventional wisdom that new presidents need to "hit the ground running" and pursue an aggressive agenda when they enter office. One way to hit the ground running is the "shotgun" approach, which means proposing many programs to Congress at once.
Public Relations: The president uses television, other media, public approval, speeches, and sound bites to try to influence Congress.