120 terms

US History I Final

Most of the growth of the Catholic Church in America in the mid-nineteenth century can be attributed to immigration from Ireland.
By the 1840s, a communications revolution had been triggered by the development of the:
Chinese immigrants to the United States often did the heavy work of construction.
The American party was based on nativism.
By the 1830s, most western products reached New Orleans by:
The Erie Canal did all of the following EXCEPT:
bankrupt New York State with its huge cost
By the 1850s, railroads had begun to receive encouragement from the federal government in the form of:
Land Grants
All of the following encouraged migration to the West EXCEPT:
construction of numerous frontier forts
Samuel Slater's contribution to the economy was that he:
opened a successful textile mill in Rhode Island
The first American factories produced:
cotton textiles
One striking aspect of the Lowell factories was:
their employment of young single women
The most popular form of indoor entertainment in the first half of the nineteenth century was:
Minstrel shows:
employed familiar stereotypes of African Americans
The major impetus for the huge Irish immigration to the United States after 1845 was:
a deadly potato famine
Anti-Irish prejudice was especially based upon:
fear of growing Catholic influence
The German migration to the United States:
often ended in St. Louis, San Antonio, or Milwaukee
The Germans who came to the United States:
settled mainly in rural areas
In the case of Commonwealth v. Hunt, the Massachusetts Supreme Court ruled that:
forming a trade union was not illegal
The Know-Nothings campaigned primarily to:
limit immigrant influence
Physicians in the early 1800s:
Included very few women
Jacksonians believed in equality of opportunity rather than equality of result.
In the midst of the nullification crisis, John C. Calhoun resigned as vice president.
Most Whigs were states' rights advocates.
Jackson's opponents called themselves Whigs to:
denounce what they saw as Jackson's tyrannical qualities
President Jackson's policy toward Indians could best be described as one of:
As a result of the Eaton affair:
both John Eaton and Martin Van Buren left the cabinet
The Indian Removal Act of 1830:
proposed moving Indian tribes to areas west of the Mississippi River
In response to South Carolina's tariff nullification, Jackson:
privately threatened to hang Calhoun
Jackson viewed the Bank of the United States as:
a "monster" that served the interests of a wealthy few
When Congress rechartered the Bank of the United States in 1832:
Jackson vetoed the recharter
Least likely to become Whigs would be:
German and Irish Catholics
Pet banks were:
state banks that received federal government deposits
Martin Van Buren was known as the "Little Magician" due to his:
skill as a professional politician
All of the following factors contributed to the panic of 1837 EXCEPT the:
tariff of 1835, which had lowered duties to dangerous levels
After the panic of 1837, working-class Americans could expect all of the following EXCEPT:
Government Assistance
The Independent Treasury Act provoked opposition from:
Whigs and conservative Democrats
According to "progressive" historians, Jackson:
led a vast democratic movement against the abuses of the "Monster" bank
In the 1840 campaign, the Whigs:
depended on a catchy campaign slogan
William Henry Harrison:
had defeated the Shawnees at Tippecanoe
Harriet Beecher Stowe's book, Uncle Tom's Cabin:
exposed the dark side of southern culture
Agricultural diversity in the Old South was practically nonexistent.
By the antebellum period, all of the following remained significant staple crops in the South EXCEPT:
Denmark Vesey plotted a slave insurrection in Charleston, South Carolina.
Free blacks were usually wealthy and highly educated.
As southerners moved farther west and south between 1812 and 1860:
cotton production soared
By 1860, slavery was most concentrated:
In the Lower South
By 1860, the significance of Britain to the southern economy was based on the fact that:
Britain was a major importer of southern cotton
The focus on cotton and other cash crops has obscured the degree to which:
the antebellum South fed itself from its own fields
The most numerous white southerners were the:
yeoman farmers
Approximately how many slaves lived in the South in 1860?
4 million
Free blacks in the South:
sometimes owned slaves
All of the following statements about southern free blacks are true EXCEPT:
no women were among them
A large number of free blacks in the South were:
people of mixed ancestry called mulattoes
Slaves living in southern cities had a much different experience than those on farms because:
they were able to interact with an extended interracial community
Why were slave women valued by slave owners?
Their ability to reproduce increased the number of slaves owned.
Slave religion:
mixed African and Christian elements
By 1840, ______ accounted for 40 percent of the population in the Old Southwest:
enslaved blacks
The outbreak of the Mexican-American War was caused by the dispute over Oregon.
Which leader is described as a president without a party?
John Tyler
By the late 1820s, American ships had begun to arrive in California seeking especially to acquire:
cow hides and tallow
John Tyler broke with the Democrats and joined with the Whigs because he:
disagreed with Andrew Jackson's position on nullification
As president, James Polk's top priority was to
secure geographic expansion of the U.S., especially through the acquisition of Texas, California, and New Mexico
The main reason that the Donner Party became stranded on the Oregon Trail was:
the consequences of a succession of their own mistakes and poor decisions
What was the purpose of the Convention of 1818 signed by Britain and the United States?
to establish a "joint occupation" of the Oregon Country
The majority of Spanish-speaking people in the Southwest lived in:
New Mexico
When Mexico gained its independence from Spain in 1821, Texas was:
a part of Mexico
Who was the first president of the Republic of Texas?
Sam Houston
At the Battle of the Alamo:
the Mexicans won a costly victory
Polk's order that Zachary Taylor move his troops to the Rio Grande:
provoked a Mexican attack
Polk's nickname of "Young Hickory" most reflected his:
association with Jackson and support for Jacksonian policies
As president, Polk supported all of the following EXCEPT:
internal improvements
Congress voted to annex the Republic of Texas:
between Polk's election and his inauguration
Among the vocal opponents of the Mexican War was:
Abraham Lincoln
Who coined the term "manifest destiny"?
Newspaper editor John O'Sullivan
California's Bear Flag Republic:
lasted only a month until American rule was established
Which of the following statements about the Mexican War is NOT true?
In terms of the percentage of combatants killed, it had the lowest death rate of any war in American history.
The decisive victory in the war came with Winfield Scott's capture of:
Mexico City
In the mining frontier of the Far West, women often enjoyed greater opportunities than back East.
The states of the Deep South did not secede from the Union until Lincoln took office.
During the great congressional debate over the Compromise of 1850:
Henry Clay pushed for the compromise and national harmony
James Buchanan's great experience in public service helped him become one of the most successful presidents.
John C. Calhoun believed that the Wilmot Proviso:
violated property rights guaranteed in the Fifth Amendment
The idea of popular sovereignty:
would allow people in the territories to decide whether or not to permit slavery
The Free-Soil party stance on slavery:
infuriated John C. Calhoun
President Zachary Taylor wanted to admit California as a state immediately because he:
wished to bypass the divisive issue of slavery in the territories
What was the impact of President Taylor's death?
It strengthened the chance for compromise over slavery in 1850.
Passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act was a victory for:
the concept of popular sovereignty
Stephen Douglas's proposed Kansas-Nebraska Act:
might allow slavery in Kansas and Nebraska
What position did both the Democrats and Whigs support in the 1852 presidential election?
support of the Compromise of 1850
How did the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act impact the settlement of Kansas?
Popular sovereignty encouraged violence-prone supporters and opponents of slavery to flood Kansas.
Why did the Whig party collapse?
The strain of the Kansas-Nebraska Act pushed northern and southern members toward joining different parties.
In the 1856 election, the Democrats supported all of the following EXCEPT:
the reinstitution of the Missouri Compromise
All of the following about John Brown are true EXCEPT:
he was fanatically committed to fight to protect the institution of slavery
What did the Supreme Court rule in Dred Scott v. Sandford?
Blacks did not have citizenship and therefore lacked legal standing.
The Lincoln-Douglas debates:
bolstered Lincoln's presidential prospects in 1860
As the election of 1860 approached, the Democratic party:
broke up into northern and southern wings
Detail the Wilmot Proviso. What impact did it have on the debate over slavery?
Proposed to prohibit slavery in the lands aquired in the Mexican wars but the proposal was defeated by Southern Senaters.
The states of the Confederate States of America seceded after Lincoln's election because:
The southern secessionists were convinced that Lincoln would move against slavery despite his assurances otherwise.
"The Mexican War may accurately be blamed for causing the Civil War because it opened new wounds between the North and South as it spurred controversy over slavery in the territories acquired from Mexico." Do you agree or disagree? Explain.
I agree, because it opened up a whole new can of worms based on territorial expansion based on slavery.
Four states joined the Confederacy after President Lincoln called on the loyal states to supply an army to put down the southern rebellion.
Opposition to the draft provoked a weeklong riot in New York City.
Lincoln responded to the fall of Fort Sumter in all of the following ways EXCEPT:
making one last offer to the South to avoid war in exchange for protecting slavery in perpetuity
All of the following were advantages the North held over the South EXCEPT:
more experienced military leaders
In his first inaugural address, President Lincoln said: "I am loath to close. We are not enemies, but friends. We must not be enemies. Though passion may have strained, it must not break our bonds of affection."
Due to its superior resources, the North's victory in the Civil War was guaranteed.
The Confederates were inspired to bombard Fort Sumter as a result of:
Lincoln's decision to resupply it
All of the following slave states remained in the Union EXCEPT:
The paper money known as greenbacks issued by the U.S. Treasury during the war was not backed by gold or silver.
Copperheads were members of the extreme fringe of the peace wing of the Democratic party.
Lincoln's first cabinet:
was filled with strong leaders of better-than-average ability, several of whom had been Lincoln's rivals for the presidency
After the fall of Fort Sumter, what common hope did partisans on both sides hold?
The war would be quick, ending with one sudden bold stroke, like the capture of the enemy's capital.
All of the following were strategies used to build the armies of the Civil War EXCEPT:
kidnapping recent immigrants
Why is the battle at Fort Donelson significant?
It was the site of the first major Union victory.
All of the following battles resulted in Confederate victories EXCEPT:
After a succession of devastating defeats in 1863, why did Confederate leaders still believe they could achieve a favorable negotiated peace settlement?
They hoped that by fighting a war of attrition, war-weary northerners would eventually agree to negotiate peace.
Congress did all of the following during the war EXCEPT:
ban foreign immigration
By late in the war, food in the Confederacy:
was outrageously expensive
To deal with disloyalty, Lincoln sometimes:
suspended habeas corpus
Lincoln's second inaugural address:
was a plea for reconciliation
At Appomattox Court House:
most Confederate resistance ended